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TRANSACTIONS = 


OF   THE 


CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND 

ANTIQUARIAN  &  ARCHilOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 


VOLUME   XIII. 


EDITOR : 

WORSHIPFUL  CHANCELLOR  FERGUSON,  F.S.A.,  LLM.,  M.A., 

PRESIDENT   OF   THE    SOCIETY. 


1895. 

PRINTED  BY  T.  WILSON,  HIGHGATE,  KENDAL. 


V.  13 


The  Council  of  the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian 
AND  ARCHiEOLOGiCAL  SOCIETY,  and  the  Editor  of  their  Transactions, 
desire  that  it  should  be  understood  that  they  are  not  responsible  for 
any  statements  or  opinions  expressed  in  their  Transactions  :  the 
Authors  of  the  several  papers  being  alone  responsible  for  the  same. 


(InmbtvlBnh  anb  Watmnlanb  Jlntiiittarian  anh 


LIST  OF  OFFICERS  FOR  THE  YEAR  1894-5. 


Patrons : 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Muncastbr,  F.S.A.,  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Cumber- 
land. 
The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Hothfikld,  I^ord  Lieutenant  of  Westmorland. 

President  S^  Editor: 
The  Worshipful  Chancellor  Ferguson,  m.a.,  ll.m.,  f.s.a. 

Vice-Presidents  : 


W.  B.  Arnison,  Esq. 

E.  B.  W.  Balme,  Esq. 

The   Right  Rev.  the  Bishop  of 

Barrow-i  n-Furness. 
The  Right  Rbv.  the  Lord  Bishop 

of  Carlisle. 
The  Very  Rev.  the  Dean  of 

Carlisle. 
The  Earl  of  Carlisle. 


i' 


AMES  Cropper,  Esq. 

F.  Crosthwaitb,  Esq.,  F.S.A. 
__.  F.  CuRWEN,  Esq. 
Robt.  Ferguson,  Esq.  F.S.A. 
C.J.  Ferguson,  Esq.,  F.S.A. 
G.  J.  Johnson,  Esq. 

HON.W.  LOWTHBR. 

W.  O.  Roper,  Esq. 
H.  P.  Senhousb,  Esq. 


Elected  Members  of  Council : 


Rer.  R.  Bower,  M.A.,  Carlisle. 
H.  Barnes,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Carlisle. 
Rev.  W.  S.  Calverlev,  F.S.A.,  Aspatria 
H.  S.  Cowper,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Hawks- 
head. 
J.  F.Haswell,  Esq.,M.D.,  Penrith. 
T.  H.  Hodgson,  Esq.,  Newby  Grange 


Rev.Canon  Mathews,  M.A.,  Appleby 
E.  T.  Tyson,  Esq.,  Maryport. 
George  Watson,  Esq.,  Penrith. 
Rev.  H.  Whitehead,  M.A.,  Lanercost. 
Robert  J.  Whitwell,  Esq.,  Kendal. 
Rev.  James  Wilson,  M.A.,  Dalston. 


Auditors: 
James  G.  Gandy,  Esq.,  Heaves.  |         Frank  Wilson,  Esq.,  Kendal. 

Treasurer : 
W.  D.  Crewdson,  Esq.,  Helme  Lodge,  Kendal. 

Secretary : 
T.  Wilson,  Esq.,  Aynam  Lodge,  Kendal. 


66S291 


iMEETINGS   HELD    BY   THE   SOCIETY, 

1893-4. 

FOR    READING   PAPERS    AND  MAKING    EXCURSIONS. 


I.  Bowes:  Two  days'  Excursion  along  the 
Roman  Road,  Re-Cross,  Maiden  Castle, 
Brough  Castle  and  Camp  -  -  July  4,  1893. 

Appleby,  Camps  at  Redland,  and  Kirkby 
Thore,  St.  Ninian's  Church,  Brougham 
Castle  and  Camp,  Plumpton      -  -  July   5,  1893. 


2.  Arnside:  Blease  Hall,  Castlesteads,  Preston 

Hall,  Heversham  Church  -  -  Sep.  25, 1893. 

Burton   Church,  Borwick    Hall,   Warton 
Church,  Beetham  Hall  and  Church       -  Sep.  26, 1893. 


3.  Lake  Side  Hotel:  Cark  Hall,  Cartmel 
Church,  Hampsfell  Hall,  Cartmell  Fell 
Church    -  -  -  -  -  June  13, 1894. 

Colton  Church,  Knapperthaw,  British 
Settlements  on  Heathwaite  Fell,  Kirkby 
Hall  and  Church  -  -  -  June  14, 1894. 


4.  Douglas:  Sail  from  Ramsden  Dock,  Barrow  Sep.  24, 1894. 
Castletown,  Rushen  Abbey,  Malew,  Arbory  Sep.  25, 1894. 
Kirk  Braddan,  Tynwald  Hill,  Peel  Castle, 

Kirk  Michael       -  .  -  .  Sep.  26,  1864. 

Kirk  Onchan,  Sulby  Glen,  Ramsey,  Kirk 

Maughold  ....  Sep.  27,  1894. 

Leave  Douglas  Pier  for  Ramsden  Dock    -  Sep.  28, 1894. 


CONTENTS. 


PAGE. 

In  Memoriam.    The  Rev,  Thomas   Lees,   M.A., 

F.S.A.,  Vicar  of  Wrcay  .  .  .        i 

I.    The  Common  Seal  of   the  Borough  of  Appleby. 

By  W.  H.  St.  John  Hope,  M.A.  5 

II.    Queen  Katherine  Parr  and  Sudeley  Castle.     By 

Fred.  Brooksbank  Garnett,  C.B.        -  -        9 

III.  Benefactors  to  the  Library,  Appleby  Grammar 
School.  By  R.  E.  Leach,  M.A.,  F.G.S., 
Headmaster  -      20 

IV.    Gleaston  Castle.     By  H.  S.  Cowper,  F.S.A.  •      37 

Excursions  and  Proceedings.         •  -      50 

V.     Notes  on  John  Penny,  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  1505-20. 
Part  I.— -By  the   Rev.  James   Wilson,  M.A. 
Part  XL— By  J.  Holme  Nicholson,  M.A.      -      59 
VI.     Burton  Church.    By  J.  Chalmers  64 

VII.  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  under  the  Tudors, 
being  Extracts  from  the  Register  of  the  Privy 
Council  in  the  reigns  of  Hcnr>'  Vltl.  and 
Edward  VI.     By  T.  H.  Hodgson      -  69 

VIII.    On  some  Obsolete  and  Semi-Obsolete  Appliances. 

By  H.  Swainson  Cowper,  F.S.A.         -  -      86 

IX.    The  Early  Registers  of  the  Parish  of  Westward. 

By  the  Rev.  James  Wilson,  M.A.  •     103 

X.     Pre-Norman  Cross-Shaft  at  Heversham.     By  the 

Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley,  F.S.A.  -  -     118 

XI.     Westmorland   Parish   Registers.       By  the    Rev. 

Henry  Whitehead,  M.A.,  Vicar  of  Lanercost     125 
XII.     Brasses  in  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle.     By  the  Rev. 
R.   Bower,   M.A.,  Vicar   of   St.   Cuthbert's, 
Carlisle  ---.-.     i^^ 

XIII.  Some   Signatures  of  Carlisle  Notaries.     By  the 

Rev.  James  Wilson,  M.A.       •  -       .     -     152 

XIV.  On   a  Bronze  Vessel  of  Roman  Date  found  at 

Clifton,  near  Penrith.     By  the  President     -     164 


VI 


CONTENTS. 


XV.    A  Fourth  Century  Tombstone  from  Carlisle.     By 

F.  Haverfield,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  -  -165 

XVI.  A  Survey  of  the  City  of  Carlisle  in  1684-5,  from 
the  Collection  of  Lord  Dartmouth.  By  the 
President  -  -     172 

XVII.    Church  Bells  in  Leath  Ward,  No.  III.     By  the 

Rev.  H.  Whitehead     ■  -  -  -     194 

XVIII.    The  Denton  Manuscripts.    By  the  President        -    218 
XIX.    On  Two   Roman  Inscriptions  recently  found  at 

Carlisle.    By  F.  Haverfield,  F.S.A.  -  -    224 

XX.     Extracts  from  the  Records  of  the  Privy  Council 
relating  to  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  in 
the  Reign  of  Queen  Mary.  By  T.  H.  Hodgson     227 
XXI.     A   Grave  Cover  of  Tiles   at   Carlisle.      By   the 

President  -  •  -  -  -     251 

XXII.     A  Grasmere  Farmer's  Sale  Schedule  in  1710.    By 

H.  S.  Cowper,  F.S.A.  -  -  -  -253 

XXIII.  The  Homes  of  the  Kirkbys  of  Kirkby  Ireleth.    By 

H.  S.  Cowper,  F.S.A.       •  -  -        -    269 

XXIV.  Wall  Paintings  at  Kirkby  Hall.    By  H.  S.  Cowper, 

F.S.A.   .  -  ■  -  -  -    287 

Excursions  and  Proceedings  -  -  -    291 

XXV.    Church    Bells  in  Leath  Ward,  No.  4.      By  the 

Rev.  H.  Whitehead    -  -  -  -     310 

XXVI.     On  Touching  for  the   King's  Evil.      By  Henry 

Barnes,  M.D.,  F.R.S.E.  -  -  -343 

XXVII.  The  Victims  of  the  Tudor  Disestablishment  in 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  during  the 
reigns  of  Edward  VI.  and  Mary.  By  the 
Rev.  James  Wilson,  M.A.       -  -    364 

XXVIII.     On  a  Tumulus  at  Old  Parks,  Kirkoswald:  with 
some  Remarks  on  One  at  Aspatria,  and  also 
on  Cup,  Ring,  and  other  Rock  Markings  in 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland.     By  the  Pre- 
sident, Chancellor  Ferguson,  F.S.A.   -  -    389 
XXIX.     On  some  additional  Seals  of  the  Bishops  of  Car- 
lisle.    By  Mrs.  Henry  Ware   -            -            -    400 
XXX.     Bone  Spear  or  Harpoon   Head  from  Terra  del 
Fuego,  found  on  peat  near  Crosby-on-Eden. 
By  T.  H.  Hodgson     -            .            -            -    402 
XXXI,    Some  Manx  Names  in  Cumbria.     By  W,  G.  Col- 
lingwood,  M.A.,  with   Notes  by  Mr.  Eirikr 
Magniisson       .....    ^03 


CONTENTS. 


VII 


XXXIV. 

XXXV. 
XXXVI. 


XXXII.    Toast  Dogs,  Piying  Pans,  and  Peats.    By  J.  H. 

Martindale        .... 
XXXIII.    The  Button  Effigies,  now  in  Great  Salkeld  Church 

yard,  formerly  in  Penrith  Church.   By  George 

Watson,  Penrith 
Note  on  the  Inscribed  Door  Head  at  Crakeplace 

Hall,  in  the  County  of  Cumberland.     By  J 

Holme  Nicholson,  M.A. 
Colton  Church.     By  the   Rev.  A.  A.  Williams, 

the  Vicar         .... 
On  a  Milestone  of  Carausius  and  other  recent 

Roman   Finds.      By  the   President  and   F 

Haverfield,  F.S.A. 
XXXVII.    A  Pedigree  of  the  descendants  of  John  Waugh 

D.D.,  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  showing  their  con 

nection  with  the  family  of  Tullie  of  Carlisle 

By  Henry  Wagner,  F.S.A.,  with  an  Introduc 

tion  by  the  President   - 
The  Roman  Fort  on  Hardknott  known  as  Hard 

knott  Castle.     By  the  Rev.  W.  S.  Calveriey 

F.S.A. 

Report  of  the  Cumberland  Excavation  Committee 

1894.     By  F.  Haverfield,  F.S.A. 
List  of  Members 


XXXVIII. 


XXXIX. 


415 


420 


431 


433 


437 


440 

449 

453 
470 


REV.  THOMAS  LEES,  M.A.,  F.S.A., 
Vicar  of  Wrf.ay. 


3n  ^emotfam. 


T>Y  the  sudden  death  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Lees, 
^  M.A.,  FJS.A,,  vicar  of  Wreay,  near  Carlisle,  the 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and  Arch- 
aeological Society  has  again  not  only  been  deprived  of 
one  of  its  most  esteemed  Vice-Presidents,  but  has 
again  also  lost  the  services  of  one  of  the  most  valued 
contributors  to  the  pages  of  its  Transactions. 

Thomas  Lees  was  bom  at  Almondbury,  near  Hud- 
dersfield,  in  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire,  in  the 
year  1829 :  on  the  mother's  side  he  was  descended 
from  Dr.  Nowell,  dean  of  St.  Paul's  and  the  reputed 
author  of  the  Church  Catechism.  He  was  educated 
at  the  Grammar  School  of  Almondbury,  and  at 
Emmanuel,  Cambridge,  where  he  graduated  as  i8th 
senior  optime  in  1852 ;  he  took  the  degree  of  B.A. 
in  that  year,  proceeding  to  M.A.  in  1855.  He  was 
admitted  to  the  diaconate  in  1854,  ^^^  ^^^  ordained 
priest  in  the  following  year  by  the  Bishop  of  Carlisle 
[Dr.  Percy] .  In  the  former  year  he  became  curate 
of  Kirkbythore  in  Westmorland,  which  charge  he 
held  for  a  year,  when  he  was  appointed  curate  to 
Canon  Percy  at  the  important  parish  of  Greystoke  in 
Cumberland :  there  he  remained  until  1865,  when, 
on  the  nomination  of  Canon  Percy,  he  accepted  the 
Dean  and  Chapter  living  of  Wreay,  where  he  spent 
the  rest  of  his  life.  By  his  death  the  Church  has  lost 
a  faithful  servant,  and  a  large  circle  of  friends  one  of 


■    11    ■  ,■■    I   III  I     .    ,    ■■■ 

•!"''•••.   c '    •       •    "• 
2  In  memoriam. 

the  most  beloved  of  men.  Being  of  a  retiring  dis- 
position, humble  minded,  and  sensitive  in  the  extreme, 
he  naturally  shunned  the  bustle  and  worry  of  public 
life,  confining  his  attention  mainly  to  the  duties  of 
his  own  parish.  But  Thomas  Lees  was  known  to  the 
outside  world  more  as  a  scholar  and  man  of  letters 
than  a  man  of  affairs.  He  was  an  early  member  of 
the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and 
Archaeological  Society,  having  been  elected,  in  company 
with  his  old  friend  the  late  W.  Jackson,  F.S.A.,  at  its 
second  meeting  in  1866,  the  year  in  which  the  Society 
was  founded.  In  i873,he,Mr.Jackson,and  the  present 
President  of  the  Society,  were  elected  on  its  Council, 
and  from  that  time  the  waning  fortunes  of  the  Society 
took  a  new  turn,  fresh  vitality  was  infused  into  it, 
the  regular  publication  of  Transactions  commenced. 
Mr.  Lees  was  a  warm  supporter  of  the  Society  and 
always  a  prominent  figure  at  its  meetings.  To  its 
Transactions  he  contributed  the  following  papers  : — 
Extracts  from  the  Registers  of  Greystoke  Church 
during  the  reigns  of  Elizabeth  and  the  Stuart  Kings  : 
An  attempt  to  trace  the  Translation  of  St.  Cuthbert 
through  Cumberland  and  Westmorland :  Ancient 
glass  and  woodwork  at  St.  Anthony's  Chapel,  Cart- 
mell  Fell :  Bolton  Church  :  Probable  Use  of  certain 
Stones  found  in  the  Ruins  of  Furness  and  Calder : 
A  Monk  of  Furness:  St.  Ninian's  Church,  Brougham  : 
An  attempt  to  explain  the  Sculptures  over  the  South 
and  West  Doors  of  Long  Marton  Church  :  S.  Kenti- 
gern  and  his  Dedications  in  Cumberland:  S.  Herbert 
of  Derwentwater :  Cresset  Stone  at  Furness  Abbey, 
a  Correction  :  Shears  combined  with  clerical  emblems 
on  grave  stones :  The  Rey  Cross  on  Stainmore  :  S. 
Catherine's  Chapel,  Eskdale:  and  The  Parish  Church 
of  S.  Andrew's,  Greystoke  (also  published  separately). 


IN   MBMORIAM.  3 

Mr.  Liees  was  elected  a  Vice-President  of  the  Society 
in  1892.  In  1885  he  was  elected  a  Fellow  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London.  He  was  also  a 
member  of  the  Royal  Archaeological  Institute,  to 
whose  Journal  he  was  a  contributor,  of  the  Surtees 
Society,  and  of  the  English  Dialect  Society,  for 
which  he  edited  '  A  Glossary  of  the  Dialect  of  Al- 
mondbury  and  Huddersiield.'  He  was  an  able 
ecclesiastical  antiquary,  his  knowledge  of  the  arrange- 
ment, ritual,  and  custom  of  the  Church  being  wide, 
varied,  and  accurate.  Always  a  voracious  reader, 
and  endowed  with  a  tenacious  memory,  he  accumu- 
lated vast  stores  of  information  on  all  sorts  of  subjects 
connected  with  history,  dialect,  folk-lore,  and  geneal- 
ogy, which  he  was  ever  ready  to  communicate  to  his 
friends  and  brother  antiquaries.  But  his  dislike  of 
of  writing,  combined  with  his  rare  modesty,  restricted 
his  contributions  to  literature. 

Mr.  Lees  had  been  a  widower  for  upwards  of  two 
years.  He  is  survived  by  a  son  and  daughter,  the 
former  being  settled  in  America.  Another  son  met 
his  death  on  his  seventeenth  birthday  by  falling  over 
the  rocks  at  St.  Bees,  about  twelve  years  since. 


* 


(5) 


Art,   L — The  Common  Seal  of  the  Borough  of  Appleby. 

By  W.  H.  St.  John  Hope,  M.A, 
Read  at  Appleby,  July  4/A,  1893. 

QO  little  is  known  about  medieval  seals,  chiefly  in  con- 
sequence of  the  difficulty  of  access  to  any  collection 
or  series  of  examples  available  for  systematic  study,  that 
it  is  often  a  matter  of  surprise,  even  to  antiquaries,  to  find 
in  some  out-of-the-way  place  an  exceptionally  fine  example 
of  the  skill  and  ingenuity  of  our  forefathers  in  the  art  of 
designing  and  engraving  seals. 

To  a  Londoner  the  town  of  Appleby  may  be  regarded 
as  a  somewhat  out-of-the-way-place,  but  to  the  members 
of  the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and 
Archaeological  Society  it  is  an  important  centre  of  many 
noteworthy  antiquarian  remains. 

It  may  however  be  news  even  to  the  members  of  the 
Society  that  among  the  civic  insignia  of  the  borough  of 
Appleby  there  is  an  exceptionally  fine  and  interesting 
common  seal,  entitled  to  a  high  place  among  the  note- 
worthy municipal  seals  of  this  country. 

Following  the  almost  universal  custom  of  municipal 
seals,  the  Appleby  seal  is  circular  in  form.  It  is  also,  as 
is  not  unusual  in  early  examples,  formed  of  two  matrices, 
a  seal  and  a  counterseal,  both  of  the  same  size.  The 
principal  use  of  a  counterseal  was  to  make  more  difficult 
the  fraudulent  removal  of  a  seal  to  another  document ;  a 
process  not  so  easy,  if  not  almost  impossible,  to  effect 
when  the  cords  or  parchment  tags  by  which  the  seal  was 
appended  passed  between  a  double  impression.  Whereas 
it  was  not  very  hard  in  a  singly  impressed  seal  to  tamper 
with  the  wax  at  the  back  and  liberate  the  cords  or  tags. 

The  Appleby  matrices  are  of  latten  and  measure  2^ 
inches  in  diameter. 

Each 


6  COMMON  SBAL  OP  THB  BOROUGH  OP  APPLBBY. 


SEAL  AND  COUNTBRSEAL  OF  THE  BOROUGH  OF  APPLEBY. 
(FULL  SIZE.) 


COMMON  SEAL  OF  THE  BOROUGH  OF  APPLEBY.  ^ 

Each  has  been  furnished  with  four  loops  round  the 
circumference  to  ensure  the  two  halves  of  the  seal  fitting 
accurately  one  over  the  other,  but  two  of  those  on  the 
upper  matrix  have  been  broken  oCF. 

The  seal  or  obverse  bears  for  device  a  heater-shaped 
shield  of  the  royal  arms  of  England,  guU%  three  **  leopards  " 
(or  lions  passant  gardant)  in  pale  or,  suspended  from  a 
seven-branched  apple  tree. 

The  marginal  legend  is 

*  SIGILLVM:    COMMVNITATIS:  BVRGII 
DE:  APPILLBI 

and  terminates  with  an  apple,  in  allusion  to  the  name  of 
town. 

The  counterseal  or  reverse  has  a  representation  of  the 
martyrdom  of  St.  Lawrence,  the  patron  saint  of  Appleby, 
who  is  shewn  stripped  to  the  waist  and  bound  on  a  long 
gridiron  with  fire  under.  Two  tormentors  in  loose  tunics, 
one  wearing  a  conical  hat,  stand  at  either  end,  and  are 
armed  with  short  forks.  Above  the  saint*s  feet  is  an 
angel  issuing  from  the  clouds  and  apparently  holding  a 
censer,  receiving  the  soul  in  a  napkin.  In  the  background 
is  also  a  large  banner  with  the  lions  of  England,  beside 
which  hangs  an  apple.  Under  the  banner  are  three  stars 
in  a  row.     The  legend  is  : 

«  HIC  JACET  LAVRENCIVS  IN  CRATICVLA  POSITVS. 
i.e.  Here  lies  Laurence  placed  upon  the  gridiron. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  engraver  has  taken  care  to 
fill  up  all  the  unavoidable  blank  spaces  on  both  halves  of 
the  seal,  and  for  this  reason  the  apple  and  stars  are 
introduced  upon  the  obverse. 

It  is  popularly  supposed  that  both  the  shield  and  the 
banner  bear  the  town's  arms,  gules,  three  lions  passant 

gardant 


8  COMMON  SEAL  OF  THE  BOROUGH  OF  APPLEBY. 

gardani  crowned  or,  but  on  the  seal  the  lions  are  not 
crowned  and  are  unquestionably  those  of  the  royal  arms 
as  borne  from  about  1197  to  1340. 

This  very  fine  and  interesting  seal  is  of  the  early  part 
of  the  13th  century,  and  is  probably  contemporary  with 
the  charter  of  John  or  Henry  III. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  now  that  the  seal  is  no  longer  used 
that  it  will  nevertheless  continue  to  be  carefully  preserved. 


(9) 


Art.    II. — Queen  Katherifte  Parr  and  Sudeley  Castle^  by 

Fred.  Brooksbank  Gaknett,  C.B. 
Read  at  Appleby,  \th  July,  1893. 

HAVING  recently  had  the  privilege  of  visiting  Sudeley 
Castle,  through  the  kind  courtesy  of  Mrs.  Dent,  to 
whom  this  ancient  historical  residence  now  belongs,  it 
has  occurred  to  me,  that  some  particulars  of  the  connection 
of  Queen  Katherine  Parr  with  Sudeley,  from  the  time  of 
her  marriage  to  Sir  Thomas  Seymour,  Knt.,  Lord 
Seymour  of  Sudeley,  and  High  Admiral  of  England, 
until  her  death  in  1548,  might  be  an  acceptable  contri- 
bution to  the  Transactions  of  this  Society,  and  serve  as  a 
supplement  to  the  paper  on  "The  Parrs  of  Kendal 
Castle,"  by  Sir  George  Duckett,  Bart.,  which  is  printed 
in  the  second  volume  of  these  Transactions,  p.  186. 

It  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  paper  to  furnish  a  biography 
of  Queen  Katherine  Parr,  for  whose  memoirs,  reference 
may  be  made  to  Nicholson's  Annals  of  Kendal,  Atkinson's 
Worthies  of  Westmorland,  Strickland's  Lives  of  the 
Queens  of  England,  and  the  article  on  Katherine  Parr  by 
James  Gairdner,  in  Vol.  IX  of  the  Dictionary  of  National 
Biography.  My  intention  rather  is  to  place  on  record  the 
circumstances  of  the  closing  days  of  the  Queen's  life,  and 
of  her  interment  and  the  discovery  of  her  remains  at 
Sudeley. 

The  Castle  of  Kendal  where  Katherine  Parr  was  born 
in  1513,  was  dismantled  and  in  great  part  destroyed 
within  the  short  period  of  60  years  from  that  date,  and 
has  now  remained  in  ruins  for  more  than  three  centuries. 
So  far  as  I  am  aware  there  is  no  monument  of  Queen 
Katherine  Parr,  either  in  the  '  Parr '  Chapel  at  Kendal 
Parish  Church,  or  elsewhere  in  Westmorland  :  but  it  may 
be  interesting  to  note  that  there  are  still  to  be  seen  in  the 

windows 


10      QUBBN   KATHBRINE   PARR  AND   SUDBLBY  CASTLE. 

windows  of  the  house  in  Wildman  Street,  Kendal,  known 
as  the  Castle  Dairy,"  several  quarrels  of  stained  glass, 
two  of  which  bear  the  date  1567,  with  the  mottoes 
"  Omnia  Vanitas "  and  "  Viendra  le  jour "  above  and 
below  the  monogram,  A.G.; — two  more  with  the 'Stanley' 
cognizance  of  the  eagle  and  bantling,  in  the  branches  of 
an  oak  tree ;  and  one  with  a  fleur  de  lys  surmounted  by 
a  crown.  In  an  upper  apartment  of  the  same  house, 
having  an  arched  ceiling  with  carved  oak  groins,  there  is 
a  massive  corbel  with  heads  of  gryphons,  and  on  bosses 
there  are  various  shields  with  the  Arms  of  Parr,  Fitzhugh, 
De  Ros,  Deincourt,  and  Strickland,  and  one  which  has 
been  described  as  ''  apparently  three  rabbits,  two  and 
one,"  but  which  I  venture  to  suggest  may  rather  repre- 
sent three  gryphons,  two  and  one,  being  the  arms  of  the 
"  Garnet  "  family,  from  whom  the  property  has  descended 
to  its  present  owner,  Mr.  Garnett  Braithwaite,  through 
a  double  connection,  arising  from  the  marriages  of  two 
great  grand  daughters  of  Anthony  Garnet,  "the  Ro3'alist," 
of  Kendal,  to  ancestors  of  Mr.  Garnett  Braithwaite ; — 
viz.,  Sarah  Garnet  mar.  to  John  Braithwaite,  at  Hugill, 
1755,  and  Susanna  Garnet  married  to  George  Braithwaite, 
at  Burneside,  1742.  The  same  arms  are  still  borne  by 
representatives  of  the  family  of  Anthony  Garnet,  whose 
initials  appear  in  the  windows  as  above  stated,  and  also 
on  a  fine  old  oak  bedstead,  ^nd  an  aumbry,  yet  remain- 
ing in  the  chamber  referred  to.*  This  ancient  property 
therefore,  with  its  heirlooms,  to  which  may  be  added  the 
illuminated  missal  found  therein,  which  was  undoubtedly 
the  property  of  Anthony  Garnet,  whose  name  is  inscribed 
on  several  of  its  leaves  and  which  is  now  deposited  in 
the  Museum  at  Kendal,  affords  a  direct  and  unbroken 
link  with  the  period  when  Kendal  Castle  stood  in  all  its 


*  These  arms  are  used  by  the  writer  of  this  paper  as  being  descendedlfrom  the 
same  femily. 

glory 


QUEEN    KATHERINE   PARR   AND   SUDELB7  CASTLE.      II 

glory,  and  when  it  is  not  too  much  to  assume  that  "  The 
Dairy  "  was  frequently  visited  by  Katherine  Parr. 

After  the  death  of  the  King  it  appears  that  Katherine 
resided  sometimes  at  Chelsea,  and  sometimes  at  Hans- 
worth  near  Hounslow,  having  under  her  charge  the 
Princess,  afterwards  Queen,  Elizabeth  and  the  Lady  Jane 
Grey ;  but  she  was  married  to  Seymour  soon  after  the 
late  King's  death  in  1547,  about  the  time  when  Seymour 
received  from  the  King,  his  nephew,  a  grant  of  Sudeley 
Castle.  The  Queen's  letter  accepting  Seymour's  offer  of 
marriage,  once  in  the  Strawberry  Hill  Collection,  was 
purchased  by  the  late  John  C.  Dent,  Esq.,  and  is  now 
amongst  the  relics  at  Sudeley.  Seymour  soon  set  to  work 
repairing  the  castle,  which  had  previously  been  going  to 
ruin,  and  he  completed  a  suite  of  apartments  especially 
for  the  private  use  of  the  Queen,  in  which  she  resided  in 
conrtly  state  attended  by  a  large  retinue  of  ladies  and  a 
numerous  household. 

On  the  30th  August,  1548,  Katherine  Parr  gave  birth  to 
a  daughter  at  Sudeley,  and  expired  from  puerperal  fever 
on  the  seventh  day  after.  Her  remains  were  deposited 
with  great  ceremony,  and  according  to  Protestant  rites, 
in  the  chapel  of  the  Castle.  The  description  of  her 
obsequies,  extracted  from  a  MS.  at  Herald's  College, 
entitled  "  a  Boke  of  Buryalls  of  truly  noble  persons,"  is 
given  in  Sir  George  Duckett's  Paper.  The  Latin  Epitaph 
written  by  the  Queen's  chaplain.  Dr.  Parkhurst,  after- 
wards Bishop  of  Norwich,  believed  to  have  been  inscribed 
on  her  tomb,  is  published  with  an  English  translation  in 
Atkinson's  worthies  of  Westmorland,  and  Dent's  Annals 
of  Sudeley  and  Winchcombe.  The  original  monument 
appears  to  have  perished,  with  the  exception  of  a  small 
fragment  found  in  the  wall  near  the  Queen's  grave  of 
which  a  sketch  is  subjoined. 

The  Lord  of  Sudeley  did  not  long  survive  his  wife,  for 
in  January,  1549,  he  was  committed  to  the  Tower,  and  a 

Bill 


14      QUEEN    KATHERINE   PARR  AND  SUDELEY  CASTLE. 

the  first  to  open  the  tomb  of  Katherine  Parr,  and  of  whose 
proceedings  the  following  account  was  supplied  to  Notes 
and  Queries  by  Mrs.  Julia  R.  Bockett,  daughter  to  Mr. 
Brooks  of  Reading,  who  was  present  at  the  opening,  and 
of  which  an  extract  is  given  in  Nicholson's  *'  Annals  of 
Kendal." 

•*  In  the  summer  of  the  year  1782,  the  earth  in  which  Qu.  K.  P. 
lay  inter*d,  was  removed  and  at  the  depth  of  about  two  feet  (or  very 
little  more)  her  leaden  coffin  or  chest  was  found  quite  whole,  and  on 
the  lid  of  it,  when  well  cleaned,  there  appeared  a  very  bad  though 
legible  inscription  of  which  the  underwritten  is  a  close  copy  :  * 

«•  Vlt^  and  last  wife  of  King  Henry  the  VIII*  1548 '» 
'*  Mr.  John  Lucas  (who  occupied  the  land  of  Lord  Rivers,  whereon 
the  ruins  of  the  chapel  stand)  had  the  curiosity  to  rip  up  the  top  of 
the  coffin,  expecting  to  discover  within  it  only  the  bones  of  the 
decked,  but  to  his  great  surprize  found  the  whole  body  wrapped  in  6 
or  7  seer  cloths  of  linen,  entire  and  uncorrupted,  although  it  had  lain 
there  upwards  of  230  years.  His  unwarrantable  curiosity  led  him 
also  to  make  an  incision  through  the  seer  cloths  which  covered  one 
of  the  arms  of  the  corps,  the  flesh  of  which  at  that  time  was  white 
and  moist.  I  was  very  much  displeased  at  the  forwardness  of  Lucas, 
who  of  his  own  head  opened  the  coffin.  It  would  have  been  quite 
sufficient  to  have  found  it ;  and  then  to  have  made  a  report  of  it  to 
Lord  Rivers  or  myself.  In  the  summer  of  the  year  following  1783, 
his  Lordship*s  business  made  it  necessary  for  me  and  my  son  to  be 
at  Sudeley  Castle,  and  on  being  told  what  had  been  done  the  year 
before  by  Lucas,  I  directed  the  earth  to  be  once  more  remov*d  to 
satisfy  my  own  curiosity ;  and  I  found  Lucas's  account  of  the  coffin 
and  corps  to  be  just  as  he  had  represented  them ;  with  this 
difference,  that  the  body  was  then  grown  quite  fetid,  and  the  flesh 
where  the  incision  had  been  made  was  brown,  and  in  a  state  of 
putrefaction  ;  in  consequence  of  the  air  having  been  let  in  upon  it. 
The  stench  of  the  corps  made  my  son  quite  sick,  whilst  he  copied 
the  inscription  which  is  on  the  lead  of  the  coffin  ;  he  went  thro'  it, 
however,  with  great  exactness.  I  afterwards  decided  that  a  stone 
slab  should  be  placed  over  the  grave  to  prevent  any  future  and 
improper  inspection,  &c.'* 


*  Note  this  was  afterwards  proved  to  be  anything  but  a  dose  copy.   See  page  18. 

If 


QUEEN   KATHERINE   PARR  AND   SUDELEY  CASTLE.      I5 

If  the  directions  for  placing  a  stone  slab  over  the  grave 
at  this  time  were  carried  out,  such  slab  had  disappeared 
when  the  grave  was  sought  for  in  late  years.  From  the 
further  examination  made  in  1817,  upon  the  last  occasion 
of  the  coffin  being  looked  at,  it  became  apparent  that  the 
inscription  as  given  in  the  foregoing  letter  and  quoted  in 
Nicholson's  Annals  of  Kendal  was  not  accurate. 

The  coffin  was  opened  in  1784  and  1786  (as  described 
by  Mr.  Nash  to  the  Soc.  of  Antiq.,  June  14th,  1787)  and 
again  in  1792,  on  which  occasion  it  is  said  the  tenant 
occupying  the  castle  permitted  a  party  of  drunken  men  to 
dig  a  fresh  grave  for  the  coffin.  {Town  and  Country 
Magazine^  September  1792,  and  Hall's  "  Graves  of  our 
Fathers  "). 


Lead  CoF/jM   op  Qi/EEN  KaTHERINE  PaRJU    ^T  Sirt>CLY 

The  last  occasion  of  opening  the  tomb  was  in  1817 
when  the  then  rector  of  Sudeley,  the  Revd.  John  Lates, 
who  had  undertaken  the  repair  of  the  chapel,  determined 
to^search  for  the  remains  of  Queen  Catherine  Parr,  jn 
which  he  was  assisted  by  Mr.  Edmund  T.  Browne,  the 
Winchcombe  antiquary,  who  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Hogg  gives 
the  following  account  of  its  discovery  on  18  July,  1817. 

He  says  "  after  considerable  search,  and  aided  by  the 
recollection  of  Mrs.  Cox,  the  coffin  was  found  bottom 
upwards  in  a  walled  grave,  where  it  had  been  deposited 

by 


l6      QUEEN   KATHERINE   PARR  AND   SUDELEY  CASTLE. 

by  the  order  of  Mr.  Lucas.  It  was  then  removed  to  the 
Chandos  vault,  and  after  being  cleaned  we  anxiously 
looked  for  the  inscription.  To  our  great  disappointment 
none  however  could  be  discovered,  and  we  proceeded  to 
examine  the  body;  but  the  coffin  having  been  so  frequently 
opened,  we  found  nothing  but  the  bare  skeleton,  except  a 
few  pieces  of  sere  cloth,  which  were  still  under  the  skull, 
and  a  dark-coloured  mass,  which  proved  to  contain,  when 
washed,  a  small  quantity  of  hair  which  exactly  corres- 
ponded with  some  I  already  had.  The  roots  of  the  ivy 
which  you  may  remember  grew  in  such  profusion  on  the 
walls  of  the  chapel,  had  penetrated  into  the  coffin,  and 
completely  filled  the  greater  part  of  it. 

"  I  then  suggested  to  Mr.  Lates  that  as  the  inscription 
could  not  be  found,  for  the  benefit  of  future  antiquarians, 
it  would  be  well  before  the  vault  should  be  again  closed, 
to  engrave  upon  it  another  inscription  from  that  given  by 
Dr.  Nash.  Mr.  Lates  then  entrusted  the  work  to  me, 
and  placed  in  my  hands  the  piece  of  lead  which  had 
covered  the  breast.  As  it  was  of  a  very  uneven  surface, 
I  was  about  to  hammer  it  even,  to  facilitate  the  engraving, 
when  to  my  great  delight  and  surprize,  I  discovered  the 
words  '  Thomas  Lord  *  and  *  Sewdley,*  with  some  others, 
which  left  no  doubt  that  we  had  discovered  the  original 
inscription,  and  which  in  the  course  of  a  few  hours'  clean- 
ing, was  so  free  from  incrustation,  that  the  inscription 
was  perfectly  visible — from  it  I  took  a  number  of  im- 
pressions in  soft  thin  paper,  one  of  which  I  have  now  the 
pleasure  of  begging  you  to  accept.  By  it,  the  inaccuracy 
of  the  one  given  by  Dr.  Nash  will  be  self  evident. 

"  We  then  had  the  diflFerent  pieces  of  lead,  which  from 
time  to  time  had  been  cut  from  the  coffin,  firmly  nailed 
together,  so  as  to  present  the  original  form  of  the  coffin, 
and  it  was  placed  on  two  large  flat  stones  by  the  side  of 
that  of  Lord  Chandos.  Dr.  Nash  said  "  the  Queen  must 
have  been  low  of  stature,  as  the  lead  which  enclosed  her 

corpse 


J   ,  ,*    "  • 


TOMli    OF    OUhEN    KATHERINE    PARR 
In  the  Chapel  of  SuDRLEy  Castle. 


QUEEN  KATHERTNE  PARR  AND  SUDELEY  CASTLE.        If 

corpse  but  five  feet  four  inches  in  length."  I  measured  the 
coffin  accurately,  and  found  the  dimensions  as  follows : — 
Length  5ft.  loin.,  width  in  broadest  part  ift.  4in.,  depth 
at  the  head  and  ditto  in  the  middle  sHn." 

The  castle  with  60  acres  of  land  was  purchased  at 
auction  in  1810  from  George,  Lord  Rivers,  by  Richard 
Granville,  Marquis  of  Buckingham,  who  took  the  surname 
of  Brydges  Chandos,  in  addition  to  Temple  Nugent 
Granville,  by  royal  license  in  1799,  and  was  advanced  to 
the  dignity  of  Duke  of  Buckingham  and  Chandos  and 
Marquis  of  Chandos  in  1822. 

When  John  and  William  Dent  purchased  the  castle 
from  the  Duke  of  Buckingham  in  1837,  it  had  then 
recently  been  occupied  as  a  public  house.  The  Dents 
proceeded  forthwith  to  carry  out  the  extensive  restoration 
of  the  ancient  remains  and  the  construction  of  new  build- 
ings where  necessary  for  the  purposes  of  habitation. 

The  ancient  chapel,  which  had  been  desecrated  by  the 
Puritans,  was  thoroughly  renovated  under  the  direction  of 
Sir  John  Gilbert  Scott,  and  a  handsome  decorated  altar- 
tomb,  surmounted  by  a  gothic  canopy,  was  erected  on  the 
north  side  of  the  Sacrarium  to  the  memory  of  Queen 
Katherine  Parr,  whose  effigy  was  rendered  as  correctly  as 
it  could  be  from  the  portraits  which  are  extant,  and  in  the 
ornamentation  of  the  tomb  there  is  a  reproduction  of  the 
pattern  carved  on  the  fragment  of  the  original  tomb. 

On  a  pillar  next  to  the  west  end  of  the  tomb  a  plate  is 
now  affixed  upon  which  there  is  an  engraved  facsimile  of 
the  inscription  upon  the  leaden  case  or  coffin  in  which 
remains  of  Q.  Katherine  Parr  were  found,  and  of  which, 
through  the  kindness  of  Mrs.  Dent,  I  have  obtained  a 
rubbing,  and  am  able  therefore  to  append  an  accurate 
copy  of  the  inscription  reduced  by  photography.  The 
actual  space  covered  by  the  original  is  about  isin.  by  7in. 

Amongst  the  precious  relics  of  Queen  Catherine  Parr 
in  the  collection  at  Sudeley  Castle,  may  be  -mentioned 

the 


l8        QUEEN  KATHERINB  PARR  AND  SUDBLEY  CASTLE. 

the  miniature  portrait  by  Holbein,  formerly  preserved  at 
Strawberry   Hill,  and   three  locks  of   her  auburn  hair. 

KP 

Kfttnyn  Wife  toiwnQ 
)r\my  \\^fV\l\  AxuL. 


yh 


h/ 


'W^\i^^ 


Another  object  of  interest  is  a  book  which  belonged  to 
the  Queen-  called  "  Devotional  Tracts,"  fully  described 

by 


QUBBN  RATHBRINB  PARR  AND  SUDELBY  CASTLB.        I9 

by  its  late  possessor.  Dr.  B.  Charlton,  in  a  communication 
to  Notes  and  Queries,  dated  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  Aug. 
i8tb,  1850.  There  is  also  the  seal  of  Katherine  Parr 
(Archaeologia,  vol.  v.,  p.  232)  and  the  "  Parr  "  jug  from 
the  Strawberry  Hill  collection,  which  bears  upon  its  lid 
the  arms  of  the  Queen's  uncle,  Lord  Parr,  of  Horton,  from 
whom  it  came  to  his  daughter  Maud,  who  married  Sir 
Ralph  Lane. 

It  only  remains  for  me  in  conclusion  to  express  my 
sincere  obligations  to  Mrs.  Dent  for  the  facilities  afforded 
me  on  my  inquiries,  and  for  her  permission  so  kindly 
given  to  make  use  of  the  valuable  information  on  the 
subject  contained  in  her  sumptuous  **  Annals  of  Winch- 
combe  and  Sudeley,"  of  which  I  have  gratefully  availed 
myself  in  the  compilation  of  these  notes  relating  to  the 
last  days  and  in  memory  of  the  fair  Westmorland  Dame 
who  became  the  first  Protestant  Queen  of  England. 


(20) 


Art.  III. — Benefactors  to  the  Library^  Appleby  Grammar 
School.    By  R.  E.  Leach,  M.A.,  F.G.S.,  Headmaster. 
Read  at  Appleby,  July  ^th,  1893. 

11/ HEN  this  Society  visited  Appleby  in  the  year  1885,  ^t 
valuable  paper  on  Appleby  School  was  read  by  the  late 
Rev.  J.  Heelis,  who  dealt  so  thoroughly  with  his  subject 
that  nothing  remains  for  me  to  add  with  regard  to  the 
general  history  of  the  school.*  I  shall  therefore  confine 
myself  to  a  few  words  on  the  list  of  benefactors  to  the 
school  library.  This  library  was  commenced  at  an  early 
date,  for  there  is  a  list  of  books  left  by  Mr.  Bainbridge,  in 
possession  of  which  Mr.  Edmundson  entered  in  1656, 
and  in  1670  a  gift  of  books,  valued  at  ;^ioo,  was  made  by 
Dr.  Barlow,  Provost  of  Queen's  College,  Oxford ;  but  it 
was  not  until  1724  that  we  find  many  names  of  subscribers 
recorded.  In  an  old  manuscript  book,  which  I  found  in 
the  school  library,  occurs  the  following  sentence :  "Ac- 
count of  money  received  for  the  use  Appleby  School  by 
me,  Ri :  Yates,  since  Feby.  20th,  1724 ;  all  received  by 
the  boys  before  that  period  being  squandered  by  the  head 
scholars."t  Some  curious  entries  are  to  be  found  in  this 
book,  as  for  instance :  Mayor's  speech  money,  is.  6d. ; 
wedding  money,  12s.  6d. ;  Katy  Deane's  wed.  with  Mr. 
Greathead,  2s.  6d. ;  four  sixpenny  weddings,  2s."  and 
Mr.  Yates  records  in  1743,  May  12th,  "  My  own  wedding 
with  Nancy  Hartley,  £1  is."  We  find,  too,  the  names 
of  many  pupils  who  subscribed  to  the  augmentation  of 
the  library  on  leaving  school,  the  usual  subscription  being 
los.  6d.    This  manuscript  book  has  been  of  great  service 


*  Printed  in  these  Transactions,  vol.  VIII.,  p.  404. 
t  Richard  Yates  was  headmaster  from  1723  to  178 1. 

in 


APPLEBY   GRAMMAR   SCHOOL   LIBRARY.  21 

in  enabling  me  to  decipher  the  old  parchment  rolls  bearing 
the  names  of  benefactors  to  the  school  library,  which 
were  formerly  hung  up  in  the  school,  and  are  of  great 
interest  owing  to  the  well-known  names  inscribed  thereon. 
Lawrence  Washington,  the  eldest  son  of  Augustine  and 
stepbrother  of  the  famous  George  Washington  was  at 
Appleby  School,  and  subscribed  los.  6d.  upon  leaving  in 
1732.  His  brother  Augustine  was  certainly  at  Appleby 
ill  the  year  1741  and  subscribed  los.  6d.,  which  is,  I 
think,  sufficient  proof  that  he  was  a  pupil  at  the  school, 
but  unfortunately  the  parchment  roll  has  been  mutilated 
at  the  place  where  his  name  should  occur.  It  has  been 
thought  that  Augustine  Washington  presented  Middle- 
ton's  Life  of  Cicero  to  the  library,  but  this  was  the  gift  of 
William  Dent.  There  are  other  entries  shewing  the 
connection  between  some  of  the  friends  of  the  Washingtons 
and  Appleby  School.  Thus:  "John  Brunskill,  eldest 
son  of  John  Brunskill,  vicar  of  St.  Margaretta,  Caroline 
County,  River  Virginia,  upon  going  to  Pembroke  Hall, 
gave  J  guinee,"  and  in  1753  John  Skinker,  3rd  son  of 
Major  Samuel  Skinker,  of  River  Virginia,  on  being  called 
home,  gave  J  guinee.  The  following  entry,  "  Oct.  22, 1770, 
Mr.  James  Castley,  of  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxford,  who  in  1764 
obtained  Lady  Betty  Hastings'  Exhibition  by  lot  for  ist 
time,  sent  ^i  is.,"  shews  that  the  election  to  these 
famous  Exhibitions  was  conducted  in  a  different  manner 
from  that  of  the  present  day.  I  regret  that,  owing  to  the 
deplorable  condition  of  the  Rolls,  it  has  been  impossible 
to  decipher  as  much  as  could  be  wished,  but  enough 
remains  to  shew  how  largely  the  pupils  of  Appleby  have 
been  recruited  from  well-known  Cumberland  and  West- 
morland families. 

1739-  s.  d. 

Dec.  3. — Wastel  Briscoe,  6th  son  of  John  Briscoe,  Esq.,  of 
Crofton,  in  Cumberland,  upon  his  leaving   the  school, 
gave  ten  shillings  and  sixpence  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Dec.  4. 


22  APPLEBY   GRAMMAR  SCHOOL   LIBRARY. 

Dec.  4. — ^John  Hutton  [and]  son  of  [John  Hutton,]  Esq.,  of 
Sowerby,  in  Cumberland,  upon  his  leaving  the  school, 
gave  i  a  guinea       ..  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Dec.  4. — William  Thompson,  son  of  Mr.  I 

Thompson,  of  [Brough  under  Stainmore,  upon  his]  leav- 
ing the  school,  gave  ^  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

[1731.] 

Sep.  21. — Prank  Harrison,  eldest  son  of  .  .  .  Harrison, 
Ei^q.,  Comon  Council  Man  of  Appleby,  upon  his  going  to 
Queen's  College,  Oxon,,  gave  ^  a  guinea  ...  ...     10  6 

Oct.  12. — Preston  Christopherson,  [eldest]  son  of  Mr.  John 
Christopherson,  [gave  upon  his  leaving  school  going 
to  St.  John's]  Coll.,  Cambridge  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Dec.  4. — Richard  Machel,  eldest  son  of  Lancelot  Machel, 
Esq.,  of  Crackenthorpe  Hall,  in  Westmorland,  upon  his 
going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxon.,  gave  i  a  gui.     ...  ...     10  6 

1732- 

Dec.  4. — Lawrence  Washington,  eldest  son  of  Augustine 
Washington,  of  [River]  ....  upon  his  leaving  the 
school,  gave  i  a  gui.  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Dec.  23.— Thomas  Yates,  3rd  son  of  Thos.  Yates,  D.D.,  late 
Rector  of  Charleton  on  Otmere,  in  Oxfordshire,  who  left 
the  school  [Dec.  2]  3rd,  1732  [upon  his  leaving  gave  |  a 
guinea       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     to  6 

1733- 

[Aug.  28.J  —  [Richd.]  Baynes,  eldest  son  of  Sr.  Richard 
Baynes,  Attorney-at-Law,  of  Cockermouth,  in  Cumber- 
land, who  left  the  school  to ...     10  6 

[Jan.  I.] — Christor.  Harrison,  eldest  son  of  Nicholas  Har- 
rison, gent.,  of  Appleby,  upon  his  going  to  take  the 
[free  scholar]  shipp,  gave  i  a  crown  ...  ...  ...     [2  6] 

[Joseph  Studholm]  son  of ,  of  [HirkbyJ , 

in  Cumberland,  upon  his  leaving  the  school,  gave   [5 
shillings]  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...       5  o 

[John]  Christian,  eldest  son  of  John  Christian,  [  •   •   •  ] 
in  Cumberland,  upon  his  leaving  the  school,  gave  }  a 
guinea       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

[James]  Wharton,  2  son  of  [James]  Wharton,  of  Sand- 
forth,  in  Westmorland,  on  his  going  to  take  the  free 
[scholarshipp  of]  the  school,  gave  i  a  crown  ...  ...     f2|6 

[James  Bird] ,  eldest  son  of  Mr.  William  Bird,  Rector  of 
[Craik,  in  Scotland  ?]   upon  his  going  to  Queen's  Coll., 
Oxon.  [gave  ^  a  guinea]        ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

John 


APPLEBY  GRAMMAR  SCHOOL  LIBRARY.  2$ 

John  Craik,  2  son  of  Adam  Craik,  Esq.,  of  Oldinghara, 
Galloway,  Scotland,  upon  his  leaving  school  and  going 
to  [Queen's]  Coll.,  Oxon.  gave  i  a  gut.  ...  ...     lo  6 

1734- 

Philip  Fletcher,  eldest  son  of  [Phillip]  Fletcher,  Esq.,  of 

in  Cumberland,  upon  his  leaving  school, 

gave  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     lo  6 

John  Kirkby,  youngest  son  of  [Willm.]  Kirkhy,  Esq.,  of 

Cartand,  Lancashire,  [upon  his  leaving 

school  gave  |  a  guinea]        ...  ...  ...  ...     lo  6 

Aug.  2. — William  Parkin,  eldest  son  of  [Mr.  John]  Parkin, 
of  [Appleby] ,  [upon  his  going  off  to  teach  the  (new  ?) 
at gave  a  crown    ...  ...  ...      5  o 

Dec.  16. — ^Alfred  [Lawson] ,  3  son  of  [William  Law]  son, 
Esq.,  of  the  Customs,  at  [Tynemoulh] ,  who  left  school 
[Dec.  16,  1734,  and  went]  to  St.  John's  Coll.  [Camb., 
gave  i  a  gui.]  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

1735- 

Jan.  18. — Stephen  Bellas,  son  of  Mr.  [Richd.]  Bellas,  of 
Long  Marton,  near  Appleby,  upon  his  going  off  to  teach 
a  school  at  [Barnard  Park,  near  Barnard  Castle,]  gave 
i  a  crown  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...      2  6 

Apr.  8. — Geo.^Stephenson,  [eldest]  son  of  John  Stephenson, 
ofBongate  [Hill],  near  Appleby,  [upon  his  leaving  the 
school  gave  i  a  gui.]  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Nov. — Robert  Holme,  3  son  of Holme,  of 

[Holme  ?J  Hill,  in  Cumberland,  [gent.] ,  upon  his  [leaving 

the  school  when]  he  left  gave  j^  a  gui.  ...  ...     10  6 

1736. 

James  Parkin,  second  son  of Parkin,  of 

Appleby,  [upon  his  leaving  school]  gave  a  crown         ...      5  o 
Joseph  William  [son] ,  eldest  son  of  Mr.  Joseph]  William- 
son, of  Allonby  [in  Cumberland] upon 

going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  [Oxon,  gave  i  a  guinea]  ...     10  6 

John  Jackson,  [3rd]  son  of  [Willm.]  Jackson,  of  New- 
biggin,  in  Westmorland,  upon  his  going  to  [teach  a] 
school,  gave  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...      5  o 

1736. 

Apr.  7. — ^Thos.  Carleton,  [6th]  son  of  [Sr.]  John  Carleton, 
[D.D.] ,  Rector  of  St.  Mary's  [Colepitt  Hill  ?]   upon  his 
leaving  school  [and]  going  to    [Q.   Coll.,  Oxon,]  gave 
^  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...  •>•  ...     xo  ^ 

[Thos.  Wybergh,  junr.j ,  eldest  son  of  Thos.  Wybergh, 


of 


24  APPLEBV  GRAMMAR   SCHOOL   LIBRARY. 

of  [Appleby]  upon  [his  going]  apprentice  to  a  merchant 

in  Liverpool,  gave      ...  ...  ...       5  o 

[John  Sanderson]    only  son  of  Henry    [Sanderson]   of 

near  Appleby, gave  a  crown      5  o 

[John]  Caile,  eldest  son  of  [Samford  Courtney]    [Clark] 
upon  his  [going]  apprentice  lo  a  merchant  in  Liverpool, 
gave  i  a  guinea      ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Richard  [Munkhouse] ,  only  son  of  Sr.  Thos.  Munkhouse 
of  [Holme],  gent.,  [upon  his  leaving  school  gave  i 
a  gui.]       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Thos.  Munkhouse,  2  son  of  Mr Munkhouse 

[to  teach]  a  school  at  M.  1734    .... 

gave  a  crown  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...      5  o 

Sept.  I. — Daniel]  Fisher,  [3rd]  son  of  [Mr.  John]   Fisher,  of 

Embleton,   near  Cockermouth, [Coll. 

Cambridge] gave  a  crown      5  o 

[Gustavus]  Thompson,  only  son  of  [Gus.]   Thompson, 
Esq.,  of     ...     .     berland,  upon  his  going  to  Queen's 

Coll.  Oxon,  gave  i  a  gui.       ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Joseph  Richmond,  eldest  son  of  [Mr.]  Richmond,  Crosby 
[near  Cockermouth,  upon  his  leaving  school  going  to 

Liverpool] gave  ^  a  gui.  ...  ...     10  6 

[Thos.]  Backhouse,  eldest  son  of  Mr.  Edwd.  Backhouse 
[gave  upon  his  leaving  school]  ...  ...  ...      50 

[July  15] — Lancelot  Bland,  son  of   ...    .    [Bland,  Esqr. 

gent.] gave  a  crown  ...  ...      5  o 

George  [Bradley] ,  son  of    ...    .     [Bradley,  Esqr.] 

, Liverpool school  gave 

i  a  gui      ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

[John  Hutchinson]  Deputy  Coll.  of  the  Post  Office  Duty 

Appleby  School  where  he  was  educated 

gave  2  editions  of value    10  6 

Chrisr.  Musgrave,  son  of  Mr.  Christopher  Musgrave,  of 
[Edenhall,]  upon  going  to  Oriel  College,  Oxon.  ist  Sept., 
1734,  gave  i  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...     lo  6 

Thos.   Barnett,  2nd  son  of  [John]    Barnett,  of  Kirkby 
Stephen,  gent.,  upon  his  going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxon, 
gave  a  crown  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...      5  o 

Wm.  Bland,  only  son  of  Mr.  Wm.  Bland,  of  Knock  Holt, 

in  Kent,  upon  his  going  to  London,  gave  a  crown         ...      5  o 

[Will]  Machell,  only  son  of Machell,  of 

Lancaster,  gent.,  upon  his  leaving  school,  gave  i  a  gui.     10  6 

1740. 

Wm.  Parke,  eldest  son  of  [Allenstone]   Parke,  of  Whit- 
beck 


APPLEBY  GRAMMAR  SICHOOL  LIBRARY.  25 

beck,  near  Millom,  Cumberland,  who  went  apprentice  to  £  s.  d. 
Mr.  Wm.  [Eskell,]    Merchant,   [of  Liverpool,  upon  his 

leaving  school,  Mich.,  1736,  gave  |  a  guinea      10  6 

Edwrard  Musgrave,  [second]  son  of  Sir  Richard  Mus- 
^rave,  of  Ha3rton  Hall.  Upon  [his  being]  called  [away 
from  the]  Academy  he  sailed  to  fight  the  Spaniards. 
Gave  ^  a  guinea  10  6 

Aug.  19. — Willm.  Harrison son  of  Mr.  Hugh 

Harrison,  of  [Sandford.J  upon  his  going  to  London,  gave 

\  a  crown...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...      2  6 

[Oct.  28].— Robt.  Wilkin,  [2d]  son  of  Mr.  Wilkin,  of  Brough 
Sowerby,  who  went  to  Queen*s  Coll.,  Ozon,  May   [16] , 

1740,  gave  ^  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Riehd.  Bland,  4th  son  of  Mr.  Robt.  Bland,  of  Black 
[Sike],  near  Sandford,  who  left  school  at  Christmas, 
1739,  gave  a  crown...  ...  ...  ...  ...      5  o 

1741. 

Wm.  D[enl] ,  Esqr.,  Solicitor  to  the  Salt  Office,  who  left 
the  school  at  Mich.,  1725,  gave  as  a  memorial  of  gratitude 
to  the  place  of  his  education,     ....     |Middl'?ton's] 

Life  of  Cicero  in  2  vol.     Value  ...  ...  ...220 

[Piece  cut  out  here] . 

1742. 

Mar.  I. —  [Wm.  Lake],  ....  ,  Lake,  gent.,  [of  Liver- 
pool,] upon  leaving  school  gave  \  a  guinea     ...  ...     106 

Oct.  13. — ^Wm.  Thos.  Addison,  only  son  of  Mr.  Geo.  Addison, 
Coll.  of  Salt  Duty,  of  Workington,  upon  going  clerk  to 
Mr.  Edm.  Gibson,  Attorney,  in  Workington,  gave  ^  a  gui.     10  6 

Nov.  I. — Chardin  Musgrave,  4th  son  of  Sr.  Chardin  Musgrave 
of  Eden  Hall,  Bart.,  who  went  to  Oriel  College,  Aug.  10, 

1 74 1,  gave  Scapula's  Lecicon,  value  ...  ...  ...  i  i[oJ 

Dec.    3. — Timothy    Fetherstonhaugh,    Esqr.,   only    son    of 

Heneage  Fetherstonhaugh,  Esqr.,  of  Kirkoswald,  upon 
going  to  Oriel  Coll.,  Oxon,  gave  ^  a  guinea      ...  ...     10  6 

Sir  Richard  Musgrave,  eldest  son  of  Sr.  Richard  Mus- 
grave, of  Hayton  Castle,  Cumberland,  upon  going  to 
Oriel  Coll.,  Oxon,  gave  2  guineas       ...  ...  ...220 

»743- 

Aug.  27. — The   Rev.   W.   Atkinson,   Rector  ot   Woolstrop, 

between  Grantham  and  Belvoir  Castle,   who  went  to 

Queen's  Coll.,  Oxon,  in  Aug.,  1746,  gave  upon  sight  of 

this  list,  i  a  gninea  ...  ...  ...  ..     10  6 

»744- 

Oct.  I. — James  Harrison,  eldest  son  of  Mr.  [Perctval]  Har- 

rison. 


26  APPLEBY   GRAxMMAR   SCHOOL   LIBRARY. 

rison,  of  Appleby,  upon  going  to  Queen's  College,  Oxon,     s.  d. 
gave  I  a  guinea       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     lo  6 

Sep.  13. — James  Watson,  eldest  son  of  Mr.  James  Watson, 
Steward  at  Meaburn  Hall,  upon  going  [to  Q]  Coll., 
Oxon.,  gave  i  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Dec.  4. — Lancelot  Docker,  [2nd]  son  of  Mr.  Wm.  Docker,  of 
[Thrimby,]  upon  his  going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxon,  gave 
i  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

[1745]  Gilpin  Gorst  [2nd  son]  of  Mr.  Wm.  Gorst,  Steward  at 
Appleby  Castle,  upon  going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxon,  gave 
i  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

John  Warwick,  eldest  son  of  Mr.  John  Warwick,  Comon 
Council  Man,  of  Appleby,  who  left  school  about  [Xmas], 
gave  i  a  gui.  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Oct.  4. — 1746  Joseph  Robertson  [3rd]  son  of  Mr.  Joseph 
Robertson,  of  [Bongate] ,  Appleby  [Parish]  on  going  to 
Queen's  Coll., -Oxon.  gave  i  a  guinea...  ...  ...     106 

[May  7]. — Roger  Wilson,  only  son  of  Roger  Wilson,  of 
Casterton,  in  Westmorland,  Esqr.,  upon  leaving  school 
gave  i  a  g.  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

[July  11]. — William  Monkhouse  of  [Bliton  ?]  who  left  school 

Dec,  [6th] ,  1738,  gave  i  a  guinea      ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Aug  15. — Bryan  [Burrell]   2nd  son  of  Mr.  William  Burrell, 
Vicar  of  [Southwaite,  in  Cumberland  ?]  who  was  entered 
a  Commoner  at  Queen's  College,  Oxford,  in  Octo.  term, 
gave  i  a  guinea       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

28. — Thomas  Gildard,  5th  son  of  Jno.  Gildard,  Esqr., 

[upon    his  going  as   Prentice   to   a 

Merchant ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

1748. 

[Thomas  C]  ollquit son  of  [Hen  :J  Collquit 

Esqr.,  [Collector]  of gave  ^  a  gui.         ...     10  6 

Richard  Trafford,  [3rdJ  son  of  [Edward  TrafFord]  Esqr., 
Merchant,  in  Liverpool,  upon  his  leaving  school  gave  i 
a  guinea    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

[June  18J. — Thos.   [Leverland],  eldest  son  of   [Sr.   Phiiipp 

Leverland,] School upon 

his  going  gave  i  a  g.  ...  ...  ...  ...    [106] 

Willm.  Cheshyre,  5th  son  of  [John]  Cheshyre,  Esqr., 
Merchant,  of  Liverpool,  upon  leaving  School  gave  i  a  g.     10  ^ 

[Henry  Smith,  Esq.,] who  left  school 

[Feb.  3,]  1741,]  gave  i  a  gui.  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

John  Rant,  3rd  son  of  Wm,  Rant,  of near 

Appleby, 


APPLEBY   GRAMMAR    SCHOOL    LIBRARY  27 

/:s.d. 

Appleby,  who  left  school  TJan.  16,  1741]  gave  i  gui.     ...   [10  6] 
Richd.  Baxter,  only  son  of  [Mr.  Richard  Baxter.]  Stew- 
ard at  Meaburn  Hall 

1749. 

Apr.  2o. —  [Jo.J  Hutchinson,  Esqr.,  eldest  son  of  John  Hut- 
chinson, of  Lisbon,  Portugal,  Merchant,  who  went     .     . 

.....     [July]  1748 up  with  him 

to gave  i  a  g.  ...  ...  ...   [10  6] 

Marmaduke  Wilson,   3rd  son  of  Mr.   Wro.  Wilson   of 

[Carleton]  near  [Alt  hoi  me,  Lancashire] 

command ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Mathew  Lamb,  4th  son  of  Mr.  Thomas  Lamb,  of  .     .    . 

near  Appleby,  upon  going  to  assist  his 

brother Lamb  ...  ...  ...      5  o 

1750. 

Riehd.  Bemp-de  Johnstone,  esqr.,  Eldest  son  of  the  Rt. 

Honble.  the  Marchioness  of  Annandale, 

upon  going  to  Pembroke  Hall,  Cambridge  gave  a  guinea  £1  i 

Apr.  20. — Charles  Johnstone,  his  brother     .     .     .    *     .     the 

laste  time,  gave  |  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Mr.  John  Cheesebrough  of School,  1741, 

upon  his  going 

1750. 

May  4. — The  Rev.  Mr.  Thos.  Milburn,  3  years  Usher  of  this 

School  upon  going  along  with  the  two  Mr.  Johnstone's 
as  private  Tutor  gave  Bishop  Jewell's  and  Bishop  Hall's 
Works  in  two  Folios,  value  half-a-guin'ia         ...  ...     10  6 

Aug.  3»-— Alexander  Radcliffe,  Esq.,  son  of  John  Radcliffc, 
Esq.,  of  Radcliffe  Hall,  near  Manchester,  upon  leaving 
School  gave  Ainsworth's  Dictionary  2nd  edition  1746, 
value  15s.  15  o 

Oct.  16.— William  Chaytor,  eldest  son  of  Henry  Chaytor  of 
Croft  Yorkshire  near  Darlington  upon  going  to  Magdalen 
College,  Cambridge,  gave  one  guinea  ...  ...   i   i  o 

Dec.  3. — George   Murthwaitc,    second  son   of  Mr.   Richard 
Murthwaite  of  Ravenstonedale,  upon  going  to  Queen's 
College,  Oxon,  gave  half  a  guinea       ...  ...  ...     106 

18. — Hugh  Simpson,  only  son  of  Mr.  Thomas  Simpson  of 
Penrith,  Clerk  of  the  Peace  for  the  County  of  Cumberland 
who  went  to  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  in  Aug.  1749, 
gave  half  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10^ 

Dec.  22nd. — Christopher  Atkinson,  eldest  son  of  Mr.  Wm. 
Atkinson  of  Low  Hall  in  Morland,  Gent.,  who  went  to 
Queen's  College,  Feb.  24,  1747,  or  8,  gave  one  guinea   ...   i  i  o 

1751. 


28  APPLEBY  GRAMMAR   SCHOOL   LIBRARY. 

1751.  i  s.  c*. 

Feb.  20.— John  Brunskill,  eldest  son  of  John  Brunskill,  Vicar 
of  St.  Margaretta,  Caroline  county,  on  the  River  ?  Vir- 
ginia, upon  going  to  Pembroke  Hall,  Cambridge,  gave 
half-a-guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

23. — ^John  EUiotson,  and  son  of  Mr.  Thomas  EUiotson  of 
Great  Asby,  on  going  to  be  Usher  to  Mr.  Jos.  Rumney 
(late  Usher  here)  Schoolmaster  of  Berwick  gave  a  crown      5  o 

Mar.  z. — Samuel  Cotton,  3rd  son  of  Mr.  Thos.  Cotton  of 
Cank  Forge,  Staiford shire,  Gent.,  on  going  off  to  bus- 
iness gave  \  a  guinea        ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Apr.  20. — ^Joseph  Jackson,  3rd  son  of  Mr.  John  Jackson  of 
Little  Asby,  who  went  to  teach  a  school  at  Pickering  in 
Yorkshire  last  Christmas  gave  a  crown  ...  ...       5  o 

May  15th. — John  Harrison,  son  of  John  Harrison  of  Hesket 
New  Market,  Cumberland,  Gent.,  on  going  to  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  gave      ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Aug.   13. — Mr.   Abram   Rumney,  Schoolmaster  of  Aln^vick, 

who  left  School  in  Dec.  1734,  gave  half-a-guinea  ...     10  6 

Aug.  13. — Mr.  Jos.  Rumney,  Schoolmaster  of  Berwick  & 
Usher  of  this  School  from  Christmas  1746  to  Christmas 
I75«»  gave...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     lo  6 

Sept.  2. — George  Marsh,  2nd  son  of  Rev.  George  Marsh, 
Rector  of  Ford  near  Berwick,  who  went  to  Lincoln 
College,  1730,  gave  \  a  guinea  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Oct.  5.— James  Bewsher,  2nd  son  of  Mr.  Wm.  Bewsher  of 

Drybeck,  who  went  to  be  Usher  at  Bowes  School,  gave     zo  6 

5. — John  Heppel,  eldest  son  of  Wm.  Heppel, 

Field  near  Chester  in  county  of  Durham  gave  i  Gui.  ,,ȣ\  1  o 

i75«. 

Apr.  18. — ^James  Crackanthorp  of  Newbiggin,  Esq.,  who  left 
school  Michaelmas  1843,  i^^ave  the  Universal  History  in 
20  Volumes,  8vo  value  ...  ...  ...  £e^  10    o 

20. — Atkinson  Robinson  of  Appleby  Esq.  Surveyor  of  the 
Post  Office,  who  left  School  Aug.  15,  1736  gave  Pope's 
Works  in  9  Vols  8vo  Value  ...  ...  ...£2  14  o 

May  2.— Willm.  Raincock  eldest  son  of  John    Raincock  of 
Penrith,  Gent,  upon  going  to  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 
bridge gave  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

17. — ^John  Elleson,  eldest  son  of  Mr.  Thos.  Elleson,  of 
Sleagill,  who  left  school  Michaelmas,  1751,  gave  \  a 
Guinea      ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

June  20. — Mr.  John  Robinson,  Clerk  of  the  Peace  for  West- 
morland, 


APPLEBY  GRAMMAR   SCHOOL   LIBRARY.  ZQ 

£  8.  d. 
morland,  who  left  school,  Feb.  26,  1744,  gave  \  a  Gui. ...     10  6 
Dec.   2. — Robt.   Gibson  only  son  of  Mr.   Edmund   Gibson, 
Attoraey-at-Law,  near  Whitehaven,  on  going  Clerk  to 
his  Father  gave  \  a  Gui.       ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

1753- 

John  Hasell,  4th  son  of  Edward  HasclIjEsqr.  Dalemain. 

on  going  to  the  East  Indies  gave  \  a  Gui.       ...  ...     10  6 

Mar.  14. — ^Jonathan  Gilder,  4th  son  of  Mr.  Jonathan  Gilder, 

of  [BurtonJ  onf^oing  to  Queen's  Coll.  Oxonjgave  \  a 

Gui.  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Apr.  t6. —  [John]  Skinker,  3  son  of  Major  Samuel  Skinker  of 

River  in  Virginia  on  being  called  home 

gave  \  a  Gui.  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

„  29. —  [Edward  Hasell]  3  son  of  Edward  Hasell  Esqr.  of 

Dalemain,  [on  going  to]  business  gave  \  a  Gui.  ...     10  6 

July  31.  — [Wm.  Rosse]   son  of  Wm.  Rosse  of  Seven  Oaks, 

.  .  .  .  who  left  this  school  Oct.  17, 1740  gave  £1  \  £\  \  o 
„  — of  Do.  (the  above  ?)  who  left  School 

July  19,  1742,  gave...  ...  ...  ...  

1754- 

of  Blennerhasset  gave  2  Vols,  of    ...     . 

Value         

May  13. —  [Wyvell,  3rd  son  of Blennerhasset 

on  going  to  Dublin  College,  gave  \  a  Gui.        ...  ...     10  6 

1754- 

May  17. — ^James  Barton  5th  son  of  George  Barton  of  Man- 
chester, Gent.,  upon  leaving  School  gave  \  a  guinea...     10  6 

Aug.  21. — Blechynden  [Batch],  of  Penrith,  M.D.,  pleased 
with  the  laudable  design  of  these  benefactors  gave  \ 
a  gui.         ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     106 

1755. 

Jan.  17. — Edward  Law  eldest  son  of  Dr.  Law,  a  deacon  of 
Carlisle,  master  of  Peter  House  and  upon  his  removal  to 
the  Charter  House  gave  Gullinous  &  Gauter's  edition  of 
all  [Cicero's  works]  bound  in  two    ....    value    ...150 

Jan.  24. — Thomas  Noble,  Gent.,  son  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Row- 
land Noble,  of  Orton  near  Carlisle,  in  gratitude  to  the 
school  which  he  left  [A.D.  1736J  gave  a  fine  pair  of 
Price's  Globes  17  inches  diameter  with  Chest,  etc., 
value         ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...660 

Aug.  5. — Mr,  Richard  [Baynes]  SoUicitor,  of  Gray's  Inn, 
in  gratitude  to  the  school  which  he  left  [A.D.  1733]  (see 

the  list  above)  gave Appendix  ad  Stephani 

Thesaunim 


30  APPLEBY   GRAMMAR    SCHOOL    LIBRARY. 

Thesaurum  Graccae  Linguae  value    ...  ...  ...220 

Oct.  18.— The   Rev.    Dr.   Philip   Hastwell   A.M.    Rector  of 
Weston  in  Sussex  in  gratitude  to  the  school  which  he 
left  in  1738  gave  Bishop  Shaylock's  Discourse  in  4  vo- 
lumes value  20  sh.  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...100 

Dec.  I. — Mr.  John  Farrar,  Usher  this  last  year  on  going  to 

teach  a  school  in  New  Castle,  gave  J  a  guinea  ...     10  6 

1756. 

Aug.  27. — The   Rev.    Michael    Richardson,   D.D.  Rector  of 

Sulhampstead* who  left  school  in  Lent 

Term  1725  gave  two  guineas  ...  ...  ...220 

**  And  I  likewise  give  ten  guineas  to  Appleby  School,  over  which 
he  (Mr.  Yates)  presided  for  above  half  a  century  »vith  the  greatest 
dignity  and  honour,  and  this  little  benefaction  I  must  desire  him  to 
lay  out  in  the  purchase  of  such  books  or  other  furniture  as  he  shall 
think  most  convenient  for  the  school  or  library." 

Sep.  30. —  [Arthur]  Atkinson  son  of  Mr.  George  Atkinson  of 

ly  Mill  &  nephew  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  William 

,     registered  April  21,  1743  and  went  to 

Queen's  College, — Oxon,  May  i,  1734,  gave  J  a  guinea...     10  6 

May  8. — Frank  Wilson  eldest  son  of  Mr.  Thomas  Wilson 
of  Ormside  on  going  to  Queen's  College  Oxon.  gave  a 
Guinea      ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  i  i  o 

1758. 

Feb.  4.—  Thomas  Robertson,  Usher  the  2  last  years  on  going 
to  teach  the  Free  G  rammar .School  of  Ravenstonedale  gave 

May  3. — Christopher  Thornton  son  of  Joseph  Thornton  of 
Kirkby  Stephen,  Gent.,  upon  leaving  school  gave  J  a 
guinea       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Oct.  26. — The  Revnd.  Mr.  Isaac  Nelson  of  Morpeth  who  left 

Oct.  26  1752  gave  t  a  Guinea  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Oct.  26. —  [Thomas]  Bellas  4th  son  of  Mr.  Richard  Bellas 
of  Brampton  on  going  to  Queen's  College,  Oxon,  gave  ^ 
a  Guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

1759. 

Feb.  24. — Mr.  Septimus  Collinson,  Usher  for  last  year  on 
designing  to  go  as  a  Tutor  to  Mr.  Dixon's  son  on  Raphan- 
noh  River,  Virginia  but  in  reality  to  Queen's  College, 
Oxon.  gave  i  a  Guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...     i©  6 


*'  The  following  is  an  extract  from  Dr.  Richardson's  will. 


The 


APPLEBY   GRAMMAK    SCHOOL   LIBRARY. 


31 


The   Revnd.    Henry  Fothergill  A.M.    Rector  of    [Cheritonj 

Hishop  near  Exeter  who  left  school  at  Whitsuntide  I730 

upon  sight  of  this  gave  two  Guineas  ... 
1760. 
March. — ^John  Eaton  son  of  Millington  Eaton  of  Liverpool 

Esqr.,  upon  leaving  school  gave  i  a  Guinea    ... 
Aug. — The  Revrd.  Chardim  Musgrave  D.D.  Provost  of  Oriel 

gave  the  elegant  and  splendid  2nd  edition  of  Spence's 

Polymetis  1755  value  ...  ...  ...  ...2 

(See  the  other  list  Nov.  ist,  1742) 
— Arthur  Bonson  4th  son  of  Mr.   Thos  Bonson  of  Park 

houses  in  Brough  Parish  upon  going  off  to  teach  school 

at  Beathom  near  Milthrop  gave  i  a  Guinea    ... 
— Matthew  Powley,  Usher  for  the  last  18  months  4th  son 

of  John   Powley  of  Langwathby  on  going  to  Queen's 

College  Oxon.  gave 
—  [John]  Fawcett  eldest  son  of  the  Revrd.  Mr.  Fawcett  of 

upon  going  to  Queen*s  Coll.  Oxon.  gave 

i  a  guinea... 
1761. 

Oct.  I — Willm.  [LongstaffJ     ....     Monku 

Sept.   10.— Willm.    [Fothergill] Brownber 

Richard  Pearson Kirkby  Stephen 

Dec.  3 — ^John  [Ward] on  going 

1762. 

Feb.  20. — Thomas  [Breaks] of  Mus [grave] 

Dec.  3 — Robert  [Robertson Apple  [by] 

1763. 

May  21 — Henry  [Byne.junr.]     ....     Caskar  . 

school 

Dec.  3— John  [Gibbon] Gent.      .     . 

1764. 

May  ig — W  [ilUam  Wilkinson]     ....     of  K 

Chester  le  s     .     .     . 
Nov.  14 — [John  Atkinson]      ....     Carletbn      . 

[on  going]  to  be 
1765. 
]une  I — [Benn  Todd] — utterwick    . 

in  Newcastle,  gave 
Dec.  2— [Joseph  Powell]     .     ,     .     .     II  of  Temple. 

Brockbank     ....     [{]  guinea    ... 
1766. 
May  26 — [Jonathan  Powley]  son  of  Willm.  Powley  of 

[Cros]  by  Ravensworth    .... 


;fS.d. 


220 


13    6 


10  o 


10  6 


10  0 


10  6 


lisle     10  6 


10  6 


10  6 


10  6 


10  6 


[on 


32  APPLEBY   GRAMMAR    SCHOOL  LIBRARY. 

[on  going]  to  be  school  [Master] [gave  i]  £  s.  d. 

a  gui.    '    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

May  31 — [Willm.  Dobson son  of  Chris]  topher 

Dobson,  Gent., at  Eden  Hall  on  going 

Lyn  Regis  gave  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Dec.  7 — [Joseph  Robertson son  of]  Henry 

Robertson  of [on  going]  to  be  Usher  to 

Mr [half]  a  guinea       ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Kirkby  Thore on  Author^s 

Antient Value  ...  ...  ...     10  o 

1767. 

Oct.  8— [Willm.  Jackson]     ....    of  Mr.  Richd.  Jackson 

left  school  Whit.  1765  gave        ...  ...     10  6 

1768. 

Feb.  n — Holmes  Tidy tor  of  Red  Marshall 

Xmas  1754  gave  i  a  gui.  ...  ...     106 

Feb.  17— [Willm.  Kendal] Thos.  Kendal  of 

Stri—     ....     Usher  after  Matt  Powley      .... 

Mr.  Wilkinson's  .\cademy |  a  gui.  ...     10  6 

June  14— The  Revd.  Thos.  Foth(ergill)  D.D.  Provost  of 
Queen's  Coll.,  Oxon  from  a  [grate Jful  regard  to  a  School 
that  had  furnished  [so  many]  members  to  his  College 
gave  5  guineas        ...  ...  ...  ...  •••  5  5  0 

Dec.  2 — Thos.  Monkhouse  [     .     .     .     .     Aon  of]      .... 

ch  Monkhouse  of  Winton,  Gent.     .     .     .      gave  i  a  gui.     10  6 

1769. 

Mar.  23 — William  Brown Brown  of  Great 

Strickland     ....     Mr.  Kirby's  A(cademy)  ...     10  6 

Apr.  24 — [John  Pattenson] son  of    .... 

Pattenson     ....     to  be  school  [Master]    .... 

the  Tees     ....  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

p  of  Bon  [gate] i  a  gui.     10  6 

(June  io)—[Myles  Parkin  ?]     ....     Long 

guinea       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  i  i  o 

Sedgefield ...  ...     10  6 

Aug.  4 — [Richd.  Branthwaite] Branthwaite 

Wine  Merchant gave  ...     10  6 

1769. 

Aug.  4. — Anthony  Redman,  son  of  Mr.  T.  Redman,  of  Green- 
holme,  Orton,   on   going  assistant   to   Mr.    Heslop,   of 
Wencladale,  gave   ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

David  Smith,  son  of  Wm.  Smith,  of  Crosby  Ravensworth, 
on  going  assistant  to  Mr.  Warcop,  Kirkbride,  of  Stan- 
forth,  near  Barnard  Castle    ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Oct. 


APPLEBY  GRAMMAR  SCHOOL  LIBRARY.  33 

Oct.—The  Revd.  Henry  Fothergill,  Rector  of  Chcriton  Bishop  £  s.  d. 

Exeter,  f;ave  Seeker's  Lectures  on  the 

Confirmation  value  los.         ...  ...  ...  ...     lo  o 

Nov. — Henry  Hildyard,  only  son  of  J.  Hildyard,  of  York, 
the  celebrated  bookseller,  deceased,  on  goi>ng  to  Queen's 
Coll.,  Oxford,  gave  ...  ...  ...  ...  i  i  o 

Dec.  3.— Francis  Thompson  eldest  son  of  J.  Thompson,  of 

Brough,  Esq.,  upon  leaving  school     ...  ...  ...     10  6 

1770. 

Mr.  Thomas  Lancaster,  eldest  son  of  Revd.  T.  Lancaster, 
vicar  of  Alston,  who  left  school,  Sept.  1768,  and  got  the 
school  of    ...     .     soon  after  gave  ...  ...     10  6 

June  2. — Daniel  Teesdale,  3rd  son  of  Mr.  D.  Teesdale,  of 

Orton  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Oct.  22.— Mr.  James  Castldw,  of  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxford,  who 
in  1764  obtained  Lady  Betty  Hasting's  Exhibition  by 
Lot  for  the  ist  time,  sent     ...  ...  ...  ...  i  i  o 

Dec.  I. — George  Gibson,  of  Oddendale,    ...  ...  ...     10  6 

1771. 

June  5. — Ralph  Tatham,  son  of  Ralph  Tatham,  M.D.,  late 

of  Sunderland,  on  going  to  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge     10  6 

1772. 

March  2. — Anthony  Shaw,  of  Kavenstonedale,  on  going  to 

teach  Dufton  School  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

April.  —  John  Langhorne,  D.D.,  Rector  of  Blagdon,  Somers., 
who  left  school  at  'Xmas,  1753,  gave  12  vols,  of  his  own 
ingenious  works,  value         ...  ...  ...  ...440 

1773- 

March. — ^James  Lamb,  son  of  Mr.  J.  Lamb,  of  Dolphinby, 

par.  of  Edenal,  on  going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxford,         ...  i  i  o 

1774- 

Jan. — ^John  Hodgson,  of  Drybeck,  on  going  to  open  a  new 

school  near  Morpeth  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Feb. — Wm.   Horn,  Brougham  Castle,  on  going  to  Queen's 

Coll.,  Oxford  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

May. —  Richard  Munkhouse,  son  of  R.  Munkhouse,  of  VVinton, 

Gent.,  on  going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxford  ...  ...     10  6 

Aug. — ^John  Whelpdale,  of  [  ]    Brough,  on  going  to 

teach  Dufton  School  ...  ...  ..  

1775- 

Aug. — ^Jonathan  Earl,  of  Bolton  Field,  on  going  to  assist  Mr. 

Bowman,  of  West  Auckland,  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

1776. 

Aug.— 'Revd.  Thomas   Bradley,  son  of  Mr.  T.  Bradley,  of 

Kirby 


34  APl'LBBY  GRAMMAR  SCHOOL  LIBRARY. 

Kirby  Stephen,  who  went  to  the  school  and  curacy  ot  £  s.  d. 
Egremont,  at  Whitsuntide,  1776,  sent  ...  ...     10  6 

1778. 

Oct. — Mr.  William  Hymers,  son  of  J.  Hymers,  of  [Ormsby] 

near  Brough,  who  went  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxford  ...     10  6 

1779. 

June. — Lancelot  Ion,  of  Crackenthorpe,  allotted  one  of  Lady 

B.  Hasting*s  Exhibitions,  the  3rd  Exhibition  in  the  4th 

Turn  (none  going  to  stand  for  it  in  the  3rd  Turn)  ...  i  i  o 

1780. 

Feb.  — Mr.  John  Bowe,  son  of  Mr.  M.  Bowe,  of  Church 
Brough,  upon  quitting  the  school  as  Usher,  gave  two 
fine  vols,  of  Jortin*s  Life  of  Erasmus.     Value...  ...220 

Apr.  26. — John  Tebay,  son  of  Mr.  J.  Tebay,  of  Kirby  Stephen 

chosen  this  day  as  schoolmaster  of  Kirkby  Stephen       ...     10  6 

Aug.  24. — ^John  Stables,  Esq.,  a  Director  of  the  East  India 
Company,  out  of  gratitude  to  Appleby  School,  where  he 
was  educated,  sent  to  the  Library      ...  ...  ...550 

Dec. — ^Thomas   Pearson,  son  of  Nfr.  J.   Pearson,   of   Kirby 

Stephen,  on  going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxford      ...  ...     zo  6 

Mar. — Rev.  T.  Lancaster,  Lecturer  at  New  Chapel,  Sunder- 
land, 2  Vols.  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     12  6 

1781. 

March. — Thos.  Lancaster,  son  of  Mr.  J.  Lancaster,  of  Burton, 

on  going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxford       ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Jan.         )      Isaac    Johnson,   of   Cavaload,   near   Stainmore 

1782.       )         Chapel     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Aug. — Rev.  M.  Richardson,  D.D.,  late  Rector  of  Sulhamp- 

stead,  left  by  will    ...  ...  ...  ...  10  10  o 

March.— John  Waller,  son  of  J.  Waller,  of  Winton,  Gent., 

on  going  to  Queen's  Coll.      ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

178J. 

Oct.  4— James  Salkeld,  son  of  W.  Salkeld,  of  Mauds  Meaburn 

on  going  to  Pembroke  Hall,  Cambridge  ...  ...     10  6 

Dec.  4 — Robert   Robinson,  of  Newby  Stones,   Esq.,  gave  2 

elegant  Vols,  of  Suetonius    ...  ...  ...  ...     12  o 

June,   )  John  Jones  Thornhill,  of  Staindrop,  on  going  to  Lin- 

1785.    )      coin  Coll.,  Oxford,        ...  ...  ...  ...     10  6 

Aug.  15. — William  Thistlewood,  of  Liverpool,  Esq.,  one  of 
his  Majesty's  Justices  of  the  Peace  for  the  county  of 
Lancaster,  visiting  Appleby,  the  place  of  his  education 
in  1755.  gave  i  guinea  ...  ...  ...  ...i     i  o 

1786. 

Nov.— Wm.  Kilner,  son  of  Rev.  W.  Kilner,  Rector  of  Dufton, 

who  went  to  Queen's  Coll.    ...  ...  ...    '        ...     10  6 

1787. 


APPLEBY  GRAMMAR   SCHOOL   LIBRARY.  35 

1787. — Ralph  Lacy,  son  of  Mra.  Petherstonhaugh,  of  Kirk-  £  s.  d. 
Oswald,  who  left  to  go  to  business       ...  •••  ...     xo    6 

Joseph  Lacy,  brother  of  the  above     ...  ...  ...     10    6 

1789. — ^Thos.  Lamb,  son  of  Mr.  Alderman  Lamb,    .... 

admitted  to  Trinity  Coll.,  Cam.  in     ....    gave     ...i     i     o 

Ma3'. — Thos.  Wade,  of  Kendal,  nephew  to  John  Wade,  of 

Appleby,  Esq.,  on  going  to  London,  gave         ...  ...     10    6 

T.  Wade,  son  of  the  above  J.  Wade  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

Richard  Lacy,  3rd  son  of  the  above  Mrs.  Petherston- 
haugh, on  leaving  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

Joseph  Coward,  son  of  J.  Coward,  of  Kendal,  Esq.,  on 
being  allotted  one  of  Lady  Hasting's  exhibitions  at 
Queen*s  Coll.,  Oxford  ...  ...  ...  ..i     i     o 

1790. — ^Joseph  Jackson,  on  leaving  School  to  prepare  for 
going  to  America  to  teach  Banaby  School,  in  Maryland, 
gave  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

John  Wheatley  [?J,  son  of  G.  Wheatley  of 

Esq.,  on  going  to  St.  John*s  Coll.,  Cambridge,  ...     10    6 

Dec. — J.  Nicholson,  of  Thorpe,  in  the  parish  of  Barton,  on 

going  to  Queen*s  Coll.,  Ox.  ...  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

W.  Wilkin,  son  of  Mr.  Wilkin,  of  Appleby       ...  ...     10    6 

1791. 

May. — W.  Gorst,  son  of  Revd.  Gilpin  Gorst,  Rector  of  Marton 

and  Kirkbythore     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

Sept. — ^John  Hewecson,  nephew  of  Revd.  Mr.  Waite,  of  Isel, 

on  leaving...  ...  ..  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

Apr.  16. — Henry  Wheatley,  son  of  S.  NVheatley,  of  Lowther, 

1792.     Esq.,  on  going  to  Queen's  Coll.      ...  ...  ...     10    6 

Richard  Hill,  Esq.,  late  of  Crackenthorpe,  now  of  Ply- 
mouth Lodge,  Glamorgan     ...  ...  ...  ...2    2    o 

1792. 

June.— J.  B.  Glegg,  son  of  J.  Glegg,  Esq.,  of  Ncston,   in 

Cheshire,  on  going  to  Cambridge       ...  ...  ...     10    6 

Aug. — Rev.  G.  Lowson,  M.A.,  Pellow  of  Trinity  Coll.,  Camb., 

who  left  school  in  1783         ...  ...  ...  ...i     i     o 

Sept. — John  Garnett,  of  Bay  House,  Kirkby  Lonsdale         ...     10     6 
Sept.  9. — Robert  Dent,  son  of  Rev.  Dent,  of  Lanchester,  who 

went  to  Lincoln  Coll.,  1791       ...  ...     10    6 

Oct. — Richard  Rudd,  son  of  R.  Rudd,  of  Hartley,  Gent.,  on 

going  to  Queen's  Coll.,  Oxford  ...  ...  

Dec. — Rev.  John  Strickland,  Usher  for  the  last  five  years, 

gave  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

1793- 

Sept. — Wm.  Bewsher,  son  of  Mr,  W.  Bewsher,  Goaler,  who 

left 


36  APPLEBY  GRAMMAR   SCHOOL   LIBRARY. 

left  school  in  1786,  &  is  now  master  of  an  academy  at  £  s.  d. 
Richmond,  Surrey,  gave       ...  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

Thos.  Bewsher,  who  went  to  be  his  Brother's  Assistant, 

gave  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

1794. 

Jan. — Richard   Lacy,   B.A.,  of  Queen's    Coll.,  Cambridge, 

gave  an  elegant  edition  of  Thompson's  Seasons,  value...  150 

1797- 

May.— John  H.  Lister,  son  of  R.  H.  Lister,  of  Scarborough, 

Esq.,  gave...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10    6 

Sep.  30. — Rev.  J.  R.  Sproule,  Vicar  of  Appleby,  on  exchanging 
his  living  and  removing  into  Essex,  gave  Sir  W.  Temple's 
Miscellanies)  value...  ...  ...  ...  ...     10     6 

1796. 

Sep. — Richard   Hill,  of  Crackenthorpe,   upon   going  to    be 

Assistant  of  the  Rev.  R.  Crosby  at  Farnham,  Surrey  ...     10     6 
1800. 

Aug. — Wm.  Longstaff,  son  of  G.  H.  Longstaff,  of  Hylton 
Lodge,  Esq.,  on  leaving  School  to  enter  on  a  mercantile 
line  of  business,  gave         ...  ...  ...  ...  i     i     o 

Sept. — Francis  Reed  &  Thomas  Munkhouse,  Esqs.,  Executors 
of  Mr.  Richard  Yates,  Master  of  this  School,  presented 
to  the  Library  the  following  books  : 

Pine's  Horace,  2  Vols,  value  ...  ...  i  10     o 

Robinson's  Hesoid,  „  ...  ...       15     o 

Walton's  Theocritus,         „  ...  ...  i  10    o 

Basherville's  Virgil  „  ...  ...  i     00 

A  Manuscript  Translation  of  the  Spectator,  by 
Mr.  Yates. 


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(37) 


Art.  IW.—GUaston  Castle.    By  H.  S.  Cowper,  F.S.A. 
Read  at  Appleby^  July  4,  1893. 

A  BOUT  half  a  mile  north-east  of  the  village  of  Gleaston 
in  Low  Furness,  and  to  the  left  of  the  road  to  Scalesi 
rises  an  oblong  hill,  which  is  also  about  half  a  mile  in 
length,  and  the  summit  of  which  is  nearly  100  feet  above 
the  road  where  it  approaches  the  modern  farm  buildings 
of  Gleaston  Castle.  At  the  southern  base  of  this  hill  are 
situated  the  ruins  of  the  ancient  castle. 

The  castle  is  built  in  one  ward,  presenting  a  quadri- 
lateral figure  of  which  the  sides  are  of  unequal  length,  and 
having,  like  the  hill,  its  longer  axis  north-east  and  south- 
west. In  the  following  description  of  the  ruins,  the  two 
shorter  sides  will,  for  convenience,  be  termed  the  north 
and  south  sides,  and  the  two  longer  the  east  and  west 
sides.  The  greatest  measurement  from  north  to  south 
including  the  towers  is  330  feet ;  from  east  to  west  at  the 
north  end  244  feet ;  and  at  the  south  185  feet.* 

As  we  cannot  now  decide  with  certainty  the  position  of 
the  original  entrance,  we  will  commence  the  description 
at  the  north  end  of  the  west  curtain  and  proceed  south- 
wards. At  this  point  we  find  an  entrance  in  the  curtain 
about  13  feet  in  height,  6  feet  in  width,  and  with  a  [round 
head.  Externally  there  have  been  facings  of  dressed 
stone,  which  have  been  entirely  removed.  From  this 
point  the  curtain  runs  south  in  a  somewhat  decayed  con- 
dition for  rather  over  70  feet,  where  it  is  interrupted  by  a 
mass  in  a  state  of  absolute  ruin  some  70  feet  in  length. 
Externally  this  mass  projects  towards  the  field,  and  ex- 
amination here  reveals  portions  of  the  wall   faces  of  a 

*  The  ward  measures  about  26^  feet  in  length,  by  about  170  feet  in  width  at  its 
oortbern,  and  120  feet  at  its  southern  ends. 

tower 


38  GLBASTON  CASTLE. 

tower  measuring  about  30  feet  from  north  to  south.* 
Below  this  ruin  the  curtain  is  continued  straight  for  a 
distance  of  nearly  100  feet,  where  it  reaches  the  south- 
west tower.  It  is  not  however  in  the  same  straight  line 
with  the  curtain  north  of  the  ruined  part.  The  portion  of 
curtain  adjoining  the  south-west  tower  is  the  best  preserved 
in  the  castle,  being  about  30  feet  in  external  height,  and 
apparently  complete  except  the  battlements.  It  is  plain 
work  of  limestone  rubble,  of  roughly  squared  blocks  set  in 
mortar,  and  has  neither  plinth,  offset,  string  course,  nor 
ornament  of  any  kind.  Like  the  walls  throughout  the 
castle,  it  is  about  9  feet  thick.  The  south-west  tower  is 
the  smallest  in  plan  of  the  four  towers  of  which  anything 
can  now  be  seen,  and  is  fairly  complete.  It  is  almost  a 
square,  measuring  31  feet  by  33  feet,  set  a  trifle  askew 
against  the  west  curtain,  and  is  of  the  simplest  construc- 
tion. The  basement  is  entered  from  the  ward  by  a  door 
in  the  east  wall,  now  ruined,  but  which  has  been  4^  feet 
wide.  It  is  a  dungeon  with  no  aperture  for  light,  measuring 
15  feet  by  13  feet  and  in  height  about  7  feet.  It  was  not 
vaulted,  but  the  floor,  as  is  the  case  in  all  the  towers,  has 
gone.  From  the  left  side  of  the  entrance,  a  staircase  in 
the  thickness  of  the  wall  leads  to  the  first  floor. 

At  the  first  floor  level,  the  wall  is  reduced  in  thickness 
by  a  set-off  something  less  than  a  foot  on  the  north  and 
south,  so  that  the  measurement  of  this  room  is  about  17 
feet  by  13  feet,  and  its  height  was  about  10  feet.  It  was 
entered  by  a  doorway  to  the  right  at  the  summit  of  the 
stairs.  There  are  two  windows,  one  to  the  north,  and  one 
to  the  east :  there  is  also  a  diagonal  aperture  lighting  the 
stairs  near  the  head.  There  is  besides,  a  fireplace  in  the 
east  wall,  and  a  garderobe  closet  in  the  south  walL  Be- 
tween this  room  and  the  upper  two  chambers  of  the  tower 


*  This  must  not  be  confounded  with  the  walls  of  a  modern  byre  standing  just 
south  of  it. 

there 


GLBASTON  CASTLB. 


39 


there  is  no  internal  communication.  To  reach  them  it  is 
necessary  to  descend  and  come  round  to  the  north  face. 
Here  the  curtain  next  to  the  tower  is  bevelled  away  inter- 
nally to  allow  an  external  staircase  to  be  formed  without 
adding  to  the  thickness  of  the  wall.  Ascending  this,  the 
second  floor  is  entered  by  a  pointed  sandstone  arch  2  feet 


torn  (Mt. 


10  inches  in  width.  At  the  floor  level,  the  wall  has  again 
a  set-off"  of  one  foot  on  the  south  and  east,  so  that  the  size  of 
this  chamber  is  18  feet  by  14  feet,  and  its  height  was 
about  II  feet.  There  are  two  windows  in  the  south  and 
east  walls,  the  sills  of  the  rear  arches  of  which  were  about 
2  feet  above  the  floor :  and  a  square  headed  fireplace  with 

plain 


40  GLEASTON   CASTLE, 

plaiii  chamfer  in  the  west  wall^  in  which  also  remain  three 
corbels;  which  probably  supported  the  floor.  A  garderobe 
closet  occupies  the  same  position  as  the  one  below. 

From  the  right  of  the  entrance,  a  straight  flight  of 
stairs  lighted  by  a  loop  and  a  window*  ascends  to  the 
third  floor,  which  is  entered  on  the  left  by  a  pointed  door- 
way. On  this  floor  we  find  a  fireplace  in  the  east  wall,  one 
jamb  of  which  remains  with  a  hollow  at  the  angle.  There 
are  windows  in  the  west  and  south  sides,  the  sills  of  the 
rear  arches  of  which  were  about  one  foot  above  the  floor 
when  it  existed.  In  the  south  side  at  the  west  corner^ 
there  is  an  entrance  which  apparently  leads  to  a  garde- 
robe  closet.  Of  these  three  garderobes  in  this  wall,  it  is 
only  possible  to  enter  the  lowest,  but  it  appears  that  the 
shafts  from  them  fall  parallel,  those  from  the  upper  stories 
just  west  of  those  below.  From  the  head  of  the  stairs  a 
newel  stair  in  the  north-west  angle  leads  to  the  battle- 
ments, which  are  too  ruinous  and  overgrown  to  examine 
carefully.  The  remains  of  the  parapet  can,  however,  still- 
be  traced ;  and  on  the  east  side  the  walk  is  broken  by  the 
chimney  shaft  from  the  room  below.  The  line  of  an 
obtuse  angled  roof  can  be  seen  below  the  walk,  and  the 
watch  turret  though  ruinous  still  stands  over  the  newel 
head.  The  total  height  of  this  fine  tower  is  43  feet  from 
the  battlements  to  the  ground  level  on  the  west  face.  Like 
the  curtain,  and  in  fact  the  rest  of  the  castle,  the  walls  are 
absolutely  plain,  without  any  sort  of  off-set.  It  is  impos- 
sible to  examine  the  windows  either  externally  or  inter- 
nally at  all  carefully,  as  the  outside  is  overgrown  with  ivy, 
and  no  floors  exist  within.  Those  that  can  be  seen  are 
very  weathered  about  the  head.  In  most  cases  they 
appear  to  have  been  narrow,  pointed  apertures,  about  a 
foot  in  width,  with  a  plain  chamfer  externally,  splajed  to 


*  This,  at  the  head  of  the  stairs,  looks  as  if  it  may  have  had  a  trefoil  head,  but 
it  is  too  weathered  to  be  certain. 

3  to  5 


til  GLEASTON  CASTLE,  South-east  Tower. 


GLEASTON  CASTLE.  4t 

3  to  5  feet  within,  and  with  the  rear  arch  roughly  pointed. 
The  door  arches  have  also  a  plain  chamfer. 

Distant  from  this  tower  about  120  feet,  and  connected 
by  a  straight  curtain  wall,  stands  the  south-east  tower. 
The  connecting  wall,  which  runs  at  rather  more  than  a 
right  angle  from  the  west  curtain,  is  flush  with  the  ward 
level  internally,  but  externally  is  about  3  feet  high. 


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GLEASTON       CASTLE. 


The  south-east  tower  is  somewhat  larger  in  plan  than 
the  last,  but  is  only  two  stories  high.  Its  situation  is  the 
lowest  in  the  castle.  In  plan  it  is  a  rectangular  parallelo- 
gram of  31  by  44  feet,  with  a  recess  8  feet  long  and  5  feet 
deep  cut  out  of  the  south-west  corner.    The  entrance  is 

from 


42  GLBASTON  CASTLE. 

from  the  west,  next  to  the  curtain,  through  a  pointed 
doorway  of  red  sandstone  3  feet  10  inches  wide,  having 
a  plain  chamfer,  and  a  weather  moulding  above.  In 
the  wall,  the  hole  for  the  great  sliding  bar  to  secure  the 
door  can  be  seen.  There  is  also  the  jamb  of  an  inner 
door  beyond  the  thickness  of  the  wall.  The  basement 
is  an  apartment  26  feet  by  13  feet,  and  was  about  12 
feet  high  :  at  the  south-west  comer  is  a  projection  cor- 
responding to  the  external  recess,  which  is  occupied  by 
a  closet  lighted  by  a  narrow  window,  which  may  have 
been  a  porter's  room,  or  possibly  a  garderobe.  At  each 
end  there  is  a  square-headed  window,  about  a  foot  wide 
at  the  opening,  that  on  the  north  being  splayed  to  about 
5  feet  internally.  The  fireplace  is  in  the  east  wall.  On 
the  left  of  the  entrance,  a  narrow  stone  stair  in  the 
thickness  of  the  wall,  lighted  by  two  loops,  leads  to  the 
first  floor,  which  was  entered  at  the  top  through  a  large 
pointed  door,  one  jamb  only  of  which  is  now  remaining. 
At  the  first  floor,  the  wall  has  a  set  off  of  a  foot  all 
round  for  the  double  purpose  of  flooring,  and  of  increasing 
the  space,  which  now  becomes  28  feet  by  15  feet.  This 
room  is  well  lighted,  having  windows  on  the  north,  east, 
and  south  :  while  on  the  west,  there  is  one  on  the  left  of 
stair  top,  one  about  the  middle  of  the  wall ;  and  in  the 
south-west  corner  there  is  a  square  headed  doorway  that 
appears  to  have  communicated  with  the  rampart  walk  of 
the  south  curtain,  and  may  also  lead  to  a  garderobe.  At 
this  corner  the  interior  projection  of  the  basement  is  dis- 
continued on  this  floor,  so  that  the  plan  is  a  parallelogram. 
In  the  east  wall  is  a  fireplace  with  a  hollow  at  the  angle. 
From  the  head  of  the  stair,  a  stone  newel  in  the  north- 
west angle  leads  to  the  battlements,  which  like  those  of 
the  south-west  tower,  are  overgrown  and  ruinous.  The 
parapet  however  still  remains  on  the  east  and  south  sides, 
and  through  the  latter  a  plain  drain  to  carry  away  water 
can  be  seen.     Over  the  newel  head  is  still  standing  the 

ruined 


GLEASTON  CASTLE.  43 

ruined  watch  turret.  No  roof  line  is  distinguishable,  so 
that  the  roof  may  have  been  flat.  The  height  of  this 
tower  from  the  battlements  to  the  ground  on  the  west 
side  is  30  feet.  The  windows  are  here  also  too  weather- 
worn and  overgrown  to  make  much  of.  Those  on  the 
upper  floor  seem  to  have  been  plain  lancets  with  a  cham- 
fer, splayed  internally,  with  the  rear  arches  throughout 
obtusely  pointed,  and  the  sills  about  4  feet  above  floor 
level.  In  Buck's  view  (1726)  some  are  shown  trefoil 
headed,  but  this  does  not  seem  to  be  correct. 

From  the  south-east  tower  the  curtain  runs  north-east, 
in  a  straight  line  with  the  west  wall  of  the  tower,  and 
therefore  not  parallel  with  the  west  curtain.  Except  a 
portion  at  the  southern  end  which  is  still  standing  about 
10  feet  above  ward  level  (and  about  20  feet  above  the 
ground  outside),  it  is  so  ruined  as  to  appear  simply  a 
mound  from  the  interior  of  the  castle,  although  externally 
it  has  an  elevation  of  g  feet.  The  gap  is  probably  quite 
modern. 

At  about  igo  feet  from  the  south-east  tower  are  the 
fragmentary  remains  of  the  north-east  tower.  As  only 
its  southern  wall  which  projects  about  25  feet  from  the 
curtain,  and  some  fragments  of  its  east  wall  remain, 
it  is  impossible  to  say  much  as  to  its  plan.  There  are 
two  apertures  in  the  former  which  seem  to  be  a  fire- 
place and  perhaps  the  shoot  of  a  garderobe.  The  tower 
appears  to  have  been  about  60  feet  long.  From  here  to 
the  north-west  tower,  a  distance  of  150  feet,  the  curtain 
has  entirely  disappeared  although  its  line  is  traceable  in 
the  turf. 

The  north-west  tower  is  placed  at  the  highest  part  of 
the  enceinte,  at  about  the  100  feet  ordnance  contour,  but, 
as  immediately  outside  its  walls  the  hill  slopes  gently  up 
to  150  feet,  its  position  is  without  natural  strength.  It 
was  in  fact  the  weakest  corner  of  the  castle  and  accord- 
ingly the  keep,  the  largest  and  strongest  tower  was  placed 
here.  The 


44  QLEASTON  CASTLE. 

The  principal  portions  now  remaining  of  the  keep,  are 
a  large  piece  of  the  north  and  west  walls,  a  fragment  of 
the  east  wall,  and  a  block  of  the  south  wall  where  it  was 
joined  by  the  west  curtain.  In  the  west  and  north  por- 
tions, there  are  no  lights  into  the  basement,  which  must 
have  been  a  dungeon  :  and  above  the  first  floor  there  is  a 
set  off  in  the  wall  to  support  a  floor.  These  parts  stand 
between  30  and  40  feet  high,  and  at  the  west  end  there 
are  two  narrow  freestone  lights  facing  west  on  the  first 
floor ;  above  which  can  be  seen  the  remains  of  another 
window,  a  fire-place  and  a  doorway.  The  adjoining  piece 
of  north  wall  shows  a  section  of  a  mural  passage  at  the 
first  floor  which  leads  to  a  garderobe  above  which  is  one 
narrow  trefoil  headed  window.  There  is  also  a  garderobe 
at  this  angle  in  the  second  floor,  to  which  the  doorway 
above  mentioned  appears  to  lead. 

In  the  east  fragment,  there  is  in  the  basement  a  narrow 
light,  splayed  internally  4  feet,  from  which  the  dressed 
stone  has  been  robbed.  At  the  first  floor  there  is  a  .plain 
fireplace  with  segmental  arch  and  chamfer,  on  the  left  of 
which  there  is  a  drain  passing  through  the  wall.  Again 
to  the  left  of  this  there  is  a  narrow  trefoil  headed  window. 
Above  the  fireplace  can  be  seen  two  unornamented  cor- 
bels, which  probably  supported  the  second  floor,  and  there 
is  another  trefoil  headed  window  at  this  level  above  those 
already  mentioned.  On  the  summit  are  two  merlons  in 
a  ruined  condition.  In  the  mass  of  masonry  terminating 
the  west  curtain,  there  is  a  window  at  second  floor  level. 
The  external  measurements  of  this  tower  have  been  about 
90  feet  by  45  feet,  but  the  remains  extant  are  hardly 
sufiicient  to  draw  conclusions  as  to  its  original  plan. 

About  half  way  between  the  east  and  west  fragments  is 
a  large  ruinous  block  of  masonry,  which  was  once  a  stone 
stair  leading  from  the  basement  to  the  first  floor.  In 
Buck's  engraving  of  the  castle  (1726),  the  drawing  of  this 
part  is  so  confused  as  to  be  of  little  use ;   but  it  can  be 

seen 


I^lt 


•       c  >•  «     * 


GLBASTON   CASTLB.  45 

seen  by  it»  that  a  portion  of  the  south  wall  was  then 
standing  adjoining  the  east  end.  This  can  indeed  be  still 
traced  in  the  fallen  debris.  The  engraving  represents  a 
two  light  window  in  this  part,  apparently  on  the  first 
floor,  which  perhaps  was  a  window  of  the  hall,  which  may 
have  extended  the  full  width  of  the  building  for  some  50 
feet  from  the  east  end.  It  is  not  however  impossible  that 
a  hall  of  less  lasting  material  stood  somewhere  in  the 
enceinte.  This  tower  now  stands  in  a  mound  of  debris, 
formed  by  its  own  fall. 

Throughout  the  castle  the  walls  are  of  the  same  thick- 
ness, about  9  feet.  The  masonry  varies  somewhat,  but  is 
a  rubble  of  limestone  blocks  of  various  s'zes,  in  places 
laid  with  some  regard  to  courses.  The  blocks  are  gener- 
ally roughly  squared  but  not  dressed :  and  the  masonry 
appears  to  be  all,  or  mostly  of  one  date.  Throughout  the 
southern  part  of  the  castle  the  interior  of  the  ward  is 
raised,  probably  artificially  from  3  to  6  feet  above  the 
ground  level  without  the  walls.  This  is  found  occasionally 
in  other  castles,  and  was  probably  done,  to  make  a  more 
level  interior,  and  to  ensure  a  drier  surface. 

The  history  and  descent  of  the  manor  or  manors  of 
Muchland  and  Aldingham  has  been  told  at  length  in  the 
works  of  West,  Baines,  and  Whitaker,*  so  that  it  is  not 
necessary  to  take  here  more  than  a  passing  glance. 

The  names  of  Aldingham  and  Gleaston  both  occur  in 
Doomsday.  The  former  was  a  manor  in  the  possession 
of  one  Ernulph  who  had  six  carucates.  The  latter 
"  Glassertun  "  (evidently  an  English  name)  was  a  portion 
of  the  manor  of  Hougun,  in  which  was  two  carucates. 

Ernulph  disappears ;  and  soon  after  in  his  stead  we 
find  one  Michael  Le  Fleming  or  Flandrensis,  a  foreigner, 
whom  it  is  supposed  that  the  Conqueror  installed  here  as 
a  buffer  against  the  Scots.     He  and  his  descendants  were 

*  The  ^genealogist  should  consult  the  Coucher  Book  of  Furness  Abbey. 

important 


46  GLEASTOM  CASTLE. 

important  and  powerful  people  in  the  country ,  and  in  the 
foundation  charter  of  Fumess  Abbey  in  1126,  the  lands  of 
Michael  le  Fleming  are  excepted  from  the  grant.  This 
domain  formed  the  manor  of  Muchland«  It  has  been 
suggested  very  plausibly  that  Muchland  and  Much  Urs- 
wick  are  corruptions  of  Michaels  land  and  Michaels 
Urswick,  and  supporting  the  theory  we  find  the  term 
Mychel  land  in  use  in  deeds  as  late  as  the  time  of  Henry 
VIII.  The  transition  by  the  old  English  "  Mickle  "  is 
easy  enough.* 

After  some  three  or  four  generations  of  Flemings,  the 
manor  passed  about  1270  by  an  heiress  to  the  Cance- 
fields,t  in  which  family  it  remained  till  1293  when  it  went, 
also  by  an  heiress,  to  Robert  de  Harrington,  the  first  of 
that  family  to  exercise  territorial  power  in  Lancashire. 
In  this  family  it  continued  four  or  five  generations,  till  in 
1457!  it  was  again  transferred  by  an  heiress  to  Lord 
Bonville  of  Shuton,  who  took  the  title  of  Lord  Harrington. 
His  granddaughter  (a  fourth  heiress)  carried  it  by  marriage 
to  Thomas  Grey,  first  Marquis  of  Dorset,  whose  grandson 
Henry,  created  Duke  of  Suffolk  by  Edward  VI,  shared  the 
fate  of  beheading  with  his  two  brothers,  his  daughter 
Lady  Jane  Grey,  and  her  husband  Lord  Dudley.  On  the 
Duke's  attainder  in  1554,  the  manor  and  castle  were  for- 
feited to  the  crown,  and  were  afterwards  granted  out 
separately,  into  which  part  of  their  history  it  is  unneces- 
sary to  follow  them  here. 

About  I J  miles  south-east  of  the  castle,  on  the  edge  of 
the  sea,  are  the  earthworks  called  Aldingham  Moat  Hill, 
which  were  no  doubt  the  "  burh  "  of  the  thane  Ernulph, 


*  So  we  have  Much  the  Miller's  son.    In  the  Sloane  MS.  he  is  called  Muchel. 

t  Spelled  in  various  ways. 

t  Members  of  the  Harrinfton  or  Haryn^on  family  lingered  for  some  time  in 
the  parish.  One  William  Haryn?ton  was  supervizor  of  Uie  will  of  John  Cowper 
of  Aldingham,  6  Jan.,  1543.  llie  name  is  found  considerably  later  in  Much 
Urswick. 

and 


GLBASTOM  CASTLE.  47 

and  of  his  successors  the  early  Le  Flemings.  Tradition 
says  that  the  sea  having  swallowed  up  the  early  residence 
at  Aldingham,  the  Lords  were  compelled  to  build  Gleas- 
ton  Castle.  This  is  evidently  erroneous  as  the  existence 
ofAldingham  Moat  Hill  bears  witness :  but  it  is  not  im- 
probable that  fear  of  such  a  catastrophe  caused  their 
migration  to  the  safer  site  of  Gleaston. 

From  the  great  thickness  of  the  walls,  the  fact  that 
throughout  the  castle  there  is  not  extant  a  solitary  double 
light  window^  and  that  all  that  can  be  examined,  are 
either  plain  lancet,  square,  or  trefoil  headed  lights,  we 
roust  conclude  that  it  was  erected  some  time  in  the 
thirteenth  century,  but  whether  by  one  of  the  later  Le 
Flemings,  or  by  the  Cancefields,  or  the  earliest  Harrington 
it  is  difficult  to  say.*  The  great  thickness  of  the  walls, 
and  the  height  and  strength  of  the  towers  contrast  oddly 
with  the  weakness  of  the  site,  which  must  probably  be 
accounted  for  by  some  caprice  on  the  builder's  part.  The 
idea  was  perhaps  that  the  castle  thus  situated  would  more 
easily  escape  observation,  a  singular  desideratum  for  a 
fortress  of  the  dimensions  of  Gleaston.  Again  it  is  most 
curious  that  the  builders  did  not  dig  a  deep  dry  ditch 
round  the  northern  end,  a  thing  easy  to  do,  and  which 
would  have  added  greatly  to  the  strength  of  the  site. 

The  stoiy  so  often  repeated  that  the  walls  are  run 
together  with  mud  instead  of  lime  is  hardly  correct. 
There  is  indeed  in  much  of  the  walls,  and  everywhere  in 
the  outer  courses,  an  abundance  of  lime  mortar,  but  in 
some  places  where  the  ruined  wall  allows  its  interior  to  be 
examined,  it  is  earthy  and  poor. 

There  are  no  signs  of  a  well  within   the  enceinte, 


*  Probably  in  the  last  part  of  the  retgti  of  Henry  HI,  or  in  that  of  Edward  I. 
Domestic  work  of  the  13th  century  is  exceedingly  rare  in  Cumbria  because  of 
the  continual  Border  disputes.  Castles  of  the  same  date  are  also  rare  in  the 
north.  Kirkoswald  however  has  probably  some  work  of  this  period.  The  minor 
castles  of  Cumberland  have  not  however  yet  received  the  attention  they  deserve. 

although 


48  GLEAStON   CASTLE. 

although  good  water  supplies  exist  at  Gleaston  beck  on 
the  west,  and  at  a  well  on  the  east,  neither  of  which  are 
at  any  great  distance.  There  is  nothing  to  support  the 
repeated  suggestion  that  a  strong  keep  existed  within  the 
walls.  If  that  was  the  case,  where  are  the  ruins  ?  The 
centre  of  the  ward  seems  to  have  been  artificially  levelled, 
but  there  are  no  mounds  of  debris.  Some  building,  pro- 
bably of  timber  or  wattle,  did  most  likely  exist  here,  but 
the  north-west  tower,  of  which  parts  remain,  was  the 
keep.  In  it  I  think  was  the  first  hall.  Whether  any  of 
the  later  lords  built  another  hall  within  the  ward,  there 
is  now  no  evidence,  but  it  is  not  improbable.  Buildings  of 
different  sorts,  barracks,  stables  and  offices,  would,  in  the 
time  of  the  Harringtons  and  Bonvilies,  line  the  inner 
sides  of  the  curtain,  but  the  absence  of  debris  shows  that 
they  were  but  slightly  constructed.  Wood  was  exten- 
sively used  in  the  thirteenth  century. 

What  the  north-east  tower  was  cannot  now  be  told.  It 
was  evidently  quite  in  ruins  in  1727,  for  Buck's  plate 
omits  that  corner  altogether,  which  would  hardly  have 
been  the  case,  had  anything  of  importance  been  then 
standing. 

As  to  the  ancient  entrance,  I  would  suggest  it  was 
through  the  ruined  tower  in  the  centre  of  the  west  curtain. 
That  near  the  north-west  tower  is  evidently  an  insertion. 
The  west  wall,  as  it  is  not  straight  may  have  been  partly 
taken  down  and  rebuilt  at  some  time. 

The  castle  had  all  the  appendages  of  a  medieval  for- 
tress and  household.  John  de  Harrington  obtained  a 
license  for  a  park  within  the  manor  of  Aldingham  in  1340. 
The  farm  called  Gleaston  Park  lying  halfway  between  the 
castle  and  Aldingham  moat  shows  where  this  was  situated. 
The  beacon  hill  lies  close  to  the  castle  on  the  south-east 
side,  and  the  corn  mill  still  is  to  be  found  in  use,  a  third 
of  a  mile  away  on  the  road  to  Gleaston. 

Within  the  village  is  a  well  called  SL  MichaeVs  well, 

which 


GLBASTON   CASTLB.  49 

which  we  may  conclude  was  originally  Sir  MichaeVs  well, 
and  to  be  another  memento  of  Michael  Flandrensis  or  one 
of  his  successors. 

I  will  conclude  with  the  quaint  words  of  Iceland's 
Itinerary/  which  show  that  the  castle  had  gone  to  ruin 
in  the  time  of  Henry  VIII,  so  that  it  must  have  been 
abandoned  early. 

*' There  is  a  Ruine  and  waulles  of  a  Castle  in  Lancastreahtre 
cawlyd  Gleston  Castell,  sometyme  longynge  to  the  Lord  Haringtons, 
DOW  to  the  Marquise  of  Dorset.  It  stondithe  a  2  miles  from  Carthe- 
maile.'* 

Needless  to  say,  "  Carthemaile  "  is  much  further  from 
Gleaston  than  "  a  2  miles."  Possibly  Fumess  was 
meant. 


•VIII,  p.  94. 


(5«) 


EXCURSIONS  AND  PROCEEDINGS, 


Tuesday  and  Wednesday,  July  4Th  and  5th,  1893. 

AN  Tuesday,  July  4th,  1893,  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Cumberland 
^  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and  Archseological  Society  was 
held  at  Appleby,  and,  according  to  the  usual  proceedings  of  the 
Society,  the  first  excursion  of  the  season  took  place  contemporane- 
ously, starting  from  Bowes  on  Tuesday  morning,  and  driving  along 
the  Roman  Road  from  east  to  west,  to  Appleby,  and  continuing  next 
morning  to  Penrith  and  Plumpton.  The  castles,  churches,  camps 
and  other  places  of  interest  on  the  route  were  visited,  the  President, 
Chancellor  Ferguson,  being  guide  and  director.  The  first  place 
visited  was  Bowes  Castle,  now  in  a  state  of  ruin.  It  is  a  single 
rectangular  tower  and,  as  the  President  observed,  is  thus  far  pecu- 
liar, the  rule  being,  as  at  Brough  and  Brougham,  subsequently 
visited,  that  the  keep  forms  but  a  principal  part  of  the  castle,  and  is 
in  association  with  other  buildings.  This  castle  stands  within  the 
limits  of  a  Roman  camp,  a  few  yards  from  the  Roman  Road,  and  is 
928  feet  above  the  sea.  It  was  built  in  the  time  of  Henry  II.,  1171 ; 
and  according  to  the  Pipe  Rolls  cost  £z55'  The  fast  vanishing  line 
of  the  Roman  earthworks  could  not  be  traced,  the  length  of  grass 
in  the  fields  concealing  them.  The  Church  was  also  visited. 
After  leaving  it,  luncheon  was  served  at  the  Unicom  Hotel,  and 
then  conveyances  were  taken  for  the  drive  to  Appleby,  a  distance 
of  about  22^  miles,  over  what  Sir  Philip  Musgrave  wrote  of, 
in  excuse  of  Parliamentary  service,  as  **that  great  and  terrible 
mountain  of  Stainmore.**  The  modern  turnpike  follows  the  line  of 
the  2nd  Iter  with  but  slight  deviation.  On  the  top  of  the  pass  there 
was  a  strong  and  chilly  east  wind  blowing.  The  party  first  halted  at 
the  camp  of  Raycross.  This  camp  is  a  very  large  one,  and  has  eight 
or  ten  gates  with  a  tumulus  in  front  of  each.  It  has  been  thought  by 
some  a  British  Camp,  while  other  authorities,  taking  a  cue  from  the 
gate  defences,  and  also  its  size,  attribute  it  to  the  6th  Legion  under 
Hadrian ;  there  is  a  smaller  camp  within  the  larger,  probably  used 
by  smaller  bodies  of  troops  as  a  place  of  rest  for  the  night.  The 
Raycross  itself,  which  the  Society  has  of  late  secured  and  fenced  off, 
has  been  thought  to  be  a  Roman  milestone ;  but  the  sounder  theory 

now 


EXCURSIONS  AND  PROCEEDINGS.  5I 

now  appears  to  be  that  it  was  a  boundary  stone  between  England 
and  Scotland  when  a  great  portion  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland 
was  included  in  the  kingdom  of  Strathclyde.* 

A  call  was  made  at  Maiden  Castle,  a  small  Roman  station,  where 
several  pieces  of  pottery  and  bones  were  picked  up.  Proceeding 
then  to  Hrough,  the  Castle,  which  also  stands  within  a  Roman  camp, 
was  inspected.  It  is  in  the  form  of  a  right-angled  triangle  with  a 
comer  cut  off,  which  corner  is  occupied  by  the  keep,  this  tower  being 
not  quite  so  large  in  some  of  its  dimensions  as  Bowes.  A  drum- 
tower  at  the  south  corner  is  called  Clififord*s  Tower.  The  Castle  is 
late  Norman,  and  some  time  or  other  has  evidently  been  blown  up 
with  gunpowder,  probably  at  the  time  of  the  Commonwealth.f  The 
church  at  Brough  was  hastily  visited,  and  a  halt  was  made  at  the 
Roman  fort  at  Copeland  Beck — the  half-way  station  between  the 
camps  at  Brough  and  Redlands.  Appleby  was  reached  about  halt- 
past  seven  in  the  evening ;  and  a  little  later  dinner  was  served 
at  the  King's  Head  Hotel.  Among  the  membeiTi  present  were 
Chancellor  Ferguson,  F.S.A.,  Carlisle;  Rev.  R.  Bower,  M.A.,  St 
Cuthbert*s,  Carlisle ;  Mr.  £.  T.  Tyson,  Maryport ;  Mr.  F.  Haverfield» 
F.S.A.,  Christ  Church,  Oxford ;  Mr.  John  and  Miss  Fothergill,  Brown* 
ber;  Rev.  W.  S,  Calverley,  F.S.A.,  Aspatria;  Rev.  R.  W.  Metcalfe, 
M.A.,  Ravenstonedale ;  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Beardsley,  Grange-over- Sands ; 
Mr.  W.  L.  Fletcher,  Stoneleigh ;  Rev.  B.  Barnett,  Preston  Patrick ; 
Mr.  R.  £.  Leach,  M. A.,  Appleby  ;  Rev.  Canon  Mathews,  Appleby ; 
Mr.  J.  Robinson,  C.E.,  Barry;  Mr.  £.  G.  Paley,  Lancaster;  Mr.  A. 
C.  Whitehead,  Appleby ;  Mr.  and  Mrs,  Simpson,  Romanway ;  Mr. 
G.  Watson,  Penrith ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harrison,  Newby  Bridge  ;  Mr* 
A.  B.  Clark,  Aspatria ;  Mr.  £.  L.  Tyson ;  Mr.  W.  Hewetson» 
Appleby ;  Mr.  Titus  and  Miss  Wilson,  Kendal ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  P. 
Wilson,  Kendal ;  the  Mayor  of  Appleby,  &c. 

ANNUAL  M££TING. 

The  formal  business  of  the  annual  meeting  succeeded  dinner,  and 
the  hour  being  late  the  proceedings  were  comparatively  brief.  The 
minutes  were  read  and  confirmed,  and  the  officers  of  the  Society 
were  elected  without  alteration. 


*  For  Raycross  see  these  Transactions :  Vol.  v.,  p.  70;  also  Vol.  ix.,  p.  443 ; 
and  xi.,  p.  312. 

t  For  Brough  Castle,  see  paper  by  G.  T.  Clark,  in  these  Transactions,  vol.  vi., 
p.  26b 

Patrons 


52  EXCURSIONS  AND   PROCEEDINGS. 

Patrons:— The  Right  Hon,  the  Lord  Muncaster,  F.S.A.,  Lord 
Lieutenant  of  Cumberland ;  The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Hothfield, 
Lord  Lieutenant  of  Westmorland. 

President  and  Editor: — The  Worshipful  Chancellor  Ferguson, 
M.A.,  LL.M.,  F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents  :— E.  B,  W.  Balme,  Esq.  ;  The  Right  Rev. 
The  Lord  Bishop  of  Carlisle ;  The  Very  Rev.  the  Dean  of  Carlisle ; 
The  Earl  of  Carlisle ;  James  Cropper,  Esq. ;  H.  F.  Curwen,  Esq. ; 
Robt.  Ferguson,  Esq.,  F.S.A. ;  G.  J.  Johnson,  Esq. ;  Kev.  T.  Lees, 
M.A.,  F.S.A. ;  Hon.  W.  Lowther;  H.  P.  Senhouse,  Esq. 

Elected  Members  of  Council  : — W.  B.  Arnison,  Esq.,  Penrith ; 
Rev.  R.  Bower,  Carlisle ;  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley,  F.S.A.,  Aspatria ; 
H.  Swainson  Cowper,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Hawkshead ;  C.  J.  Ferguson, 
Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Carlisle;  T.  H.  Hodgson,  Esq.,  Newby  Grange  ;  Rev. 
Canon  Mathews,  M.A.,  Appleby;  E.  T.  Tyson,  Esq.,  Maryport; 
Rev.  James  Wilson,  M.A.,  Dalston. 

Auditors  :  James  G.  Gandy,  Esq.,  Heaves  ;  Frank  Wilson,  Esq., 
Kendal. 

-  Treasurer  : — W.  D.  Crewdson,  Esq.,  Helme  Lodge,  Kendal. 
Secretary  : — T.  Wilson,  Esq.,  Aynam  Lodge,  Kendal. 
On  the  presentation  of  the  accounts  by  Mr.  Titus  Wilson  (hon. 
sec),  the  President  observed  that  their  financial  position  was  ex- 
tremely gratifying.  They  had  commenced  the  year  with  a  balance 
in  hand  of  ;^i39 ;  and  they  finished  with  an  increased  balance  of 
;£'i94.    The  accounts  were  passed. 

The  following  new  members  were  elected : — Miss  T.  R.  Arnison, 
Lockholme,  Penrith ;  Mr.  R.  T.  R.  W.  Hallam,  Kirkby  Stephen ; 
rMr.  Drinkwater  Butt,  Carlisle;  Mr.  Matthew  Robinson  Fairer, 
Kirkby  Stephen  ;  Rev.  T.  O.  Sturkey,  Kirkandrews-on-Eden ;  Rev, 
W.  Dacre,  Irthington ;  Mr.  J.  Thompson,  Milton  Hall ;  Miss  Gough, 
Whitefield,  Abingdon.  The  question  of  the  second  excursion  for 
the  season  was  left  to  the  consideration  of  a  small  committee,  in- 
cluding the  President,  Mr.  E.  T.  Tyson,  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley,  and 
the  hon.  secretary.  Mr.  Simpson  enquired  if  arrangements  could 
be  made  to  visit  the  Isle  of  Man,  The  President,  however,  thought 
that  would  need  arranging  six  months  beforehand;  they  had  not 
received  much  encouragement  from  that  quarter,  but  now,  seeing 
they  had  a  new  Bishop  from  the  Isle  of  Man,  all  difficulties  might 
be  got  over.  Hardknot  was  mentioned  as  a  probable  place  to  be 
visited. 

There  were  few  papers  read.  The  President  observed  that  the 
*'  Archeological  Survey  of  Cumberland,  Westmorland,  and  Lanca- 
shire North  of  the  Sands,*'  prepared  by  himself  and  Mr.  H.  S. 

Cowper 


EXCURSIONS  AND  PROCBBDINGS.  53 

Cowper,  had  been  published  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  in  58 
qaarto  pages  of  printed  matter, — a  copy,  mainly  composed  of  a 
topographical  list,  being  handed  round.  The  President  exhibited 
some  specimens  of  Roman  pottery  with  curious  graffiti,  which  he 
pointed  out  to  be  obvious  forgeries,  but  of  some  considerable  age. 
The  papers  read  will  appear  in  these  Transactions. 

On  Wednesday  morning  the  drive  from  Appleby  to  Pluropton 
Camp  was  undertaken.  The  Roman  Camp  at  Redlands  was  the  first 
stopping  place,  and  here,  as  the  President  remarked,  there  was  need 
to  exercise  "  the  eye  of  faith  **  somewhat  in  distinguishing  the  earth- 
works from  the  natural  surface  of  the  enclosed  fields.  However 
previous  to  their  enclosure.  General  Roy  had  made  a  plan  which 
showed  the  camp  to  be  similar  in  construction  to  that  at  the  Ray 
Cross,  and  consequently  it  was  also  supposed  to  be  the  work  of  the 
6th  Legion.  The  Roman  road  was  pointed  out,  distant  about  a 
hundred  yards  from  the  turnpike  at  this  point.*  The  camp  at  Kirkby 
Thore  was  next  inspected  and  was  said  to  have  been  a  more  perma- 
nent station  than  Redlands,  with  walls  of  masonry :  large  discoveries 
of  Roman  remains  were  made  here  at  the  end  of  the  17th  century. 
The  "  Maiden  Way  "  crosses  the  "  2nd  Iter  **  near  this  place,  going 
over  the  fields  to  Alston.  The  curious  little  church  of  St.  Ninian, 
near  to  Edenhall,  was  another  place  of  interest  visited;  the  church 
being  on  the  ground  where  the  saint  had  preached  Christianity  on  his 
way  up  into  Strathclyde,  about  395  A.D.,and  prior  to  the  arrival  of  St- 
Augustine  in  Kent.  St.  Ninian  was  the  only  apostle  of  the  North  who 
preached  in  the  time  of  the  Roman  occupation.  The  church  is 
supposed  to  date  from  about  iioo,  and  has  been  evidently  renovated 
at  various  times. f  Proceeding  to  Brougham  Castle,  standing  between 
the  right  bank  of  the  river  Eamont  and  the  Roman  station  of 
Brovacium,  the  next  halt  was  there  made.  The  area  of  the  last- 
named  camp  was  about  113  feet  broad  and  198  feet  long,  but  its 
length  has  been  reduced  to  134  feet  by  a  portion  cut  off  for  the  Castle 
outworks  and  ditches. |  The  members  of  the  party  had  luncheon  at 
the  Crown  Hotel,  Penrith,  then  drove  on  to  the  fine  Roman  camp  at 
Plumpton,  over  which  they  were  conducted  by  Mr.  Simpson. 
Afternoon  tea  was  provided  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Simpson,  at  Romanway, 
and  thoroughly  enjoyed.  Then  about  five  o'clock  the  party  broke 
np  at  the  Railway  Station,  dispersing  to  their  homes  after  a  most 
interesting  and  pleasant  excursion. 


*  For  Redlands  camp,  see  these  Transactions,  vol.  XI,  p.  312. 

t  For  St.  Ninian*8  Church,  see  these  Transactions,  vol.  1 V,  p.  430. 

{For  BrougKam  Castle,  by  G.  T.  Clark,  see  these  Tfansactioos»  vol.  VI,  p.  15. 

Monday 


54  EXCURSIONS  AND  PROCBBDINGS. 

Monday  and  Tuesday,  Sept.  25TH  and  26th,  1893. 

The  second  meeting  and  two  days  excursion  of  members  of  the 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and  Archaeological 
Society  for  the  year  1893  commenced  on  Monday,  September  25th, 
the  field  of  exploration  comprising  a  portion  of  South  Westmorland 
that  embraces  many  centres  of  antiquarian  interest.  Members  as- 
sembled at  Oxenholme  railway  station  shortly  after  eleven  o'clock, 
when  among  those  present  were  Chancellor  Ferguson,  F.S.A.  (Presi* 
dent),  Carlisle ;  The  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley,  F.S.A.,  and  Mrs.  Calver- 
ley,  Aspatria ;  Mrs.  Piatt,  Kirkby  Lonsdale ;  the  Rev.  H.  V.  Mills, 
Kendal;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  Robinson,  Sedbergh;  the  Rev.  R.  B. 
Billinge,  Urswick;  the  Rev.  B.  Bamett,  Preston  Patrick;  Mr.  H\. 
Swainson  Cowper,  F.S.A.,  Yewdale;  Miss  Gibson,  Whelprigg;  the 
Rev.  J.  Clarke,  Selside ;  Mr.  Robert  Blair,  F.S.A.,  South  Shields ;  Mr. 
A.  B.  Clarke,  Aspatria ;  Mr.  W.  Crewdson,  Kendal ;  Mr.  J.  Robinson, 
C.B.,  Kendal ;  Mrs.  Hartley  and  party,  Morecambe ;  Mr.  J.  H.  and 
Miss  Nicholson,  Wilmslow;  Mr.  T.  Hesketh  Hodgson,  Newby 
Grange ;  Mr.  George  Watson,  Penrith;  Mr.  Joseph  Wiper,  Kendal; 
Mr.  E.  T.  Pease,  Darlington;  Mr.  W.  O.  Roper,  Lancaster;  Mr. 
John  Otley  Atkinson,  Kendal ;  Mr.  C.  B.  and  Mrs.  Daniel,  Ulver- 
ston  ;  Mr.  Titus  Wilson  (honorary  secretary)  and  Mrs.  Wilson, 
Kendal.  During  the  day  they  were  joined  by  Mr.  and  Miss  Cropper, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jacob  Wakefield,  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  W.  Weston. 
After  a  pleasant  drive  in  warm  sunshine  and  under  general  conditions 
that  promised  well  for  the  full  enjoyment  of  the  excursion,  the 
conveyances  turned  into  the  narrow  lane  which  approaches  Bleaze 
Hall,  of  which  the  president  gave  a  description,  calling  particular 
attention  to  the  wood  work,  to  the  great  oak  framed  table,  15  feet 
long,  and  dated  1631,  and  to  the  Dobbie  or  flaying  stone,  a  holed 
stone,  in  this  case  a  pre-historic  stone  axe,  suspended  by  a  hempen 
strand  from  an  iron  chain,  hanging  from  a  rafter  in  a  room  in  the 
roof:  this  is  a  very  ancient  superstition  the  object  being  to  prevent 
the  Dobbie.  or  house  ghost  from  flaying,  or  frightening  the  live 
stock,  particularly  the  horses :  the  Romans  did  the  same,  to  prevent 
the  evil  spirit  Mara  from  giving  the  horses  night  mare.  Henry 
Bateman,  who  lived  at  Bleaze  Hall  in  1644,  was  a  pack  horse  carrier 
on  a  large  scale  between  London,  York,  and  Kendal,  as  shown  by 
the  long  range  of  stabling  at  Bleaze  Hall.  The  Tysons  of  Eskdale 
were  in  the  same  business,  and  a  holed  stone  (a  natural  one)  hangs, 
and  has  long  hung,  in  their  residence  in  Eskdale  :  Now,  a 
Tyson  long  ago  brought  to  Eskdale  as  his  bride  a  Bateman  of 
Blease  Hall ;  did  she  take  the  superstition  with  her,  substituting  a 

natural 


EXCURSIONS  AND   PROCEEDINGS.  55 

natural  holed  stone  for  an  artificial  one.*  Prom  Blease  Hall,  the  car- 
riages went  to  Barrows  Green  by  the  road  skirting  the  base  of 
Helm,  on  whose  summit  are  some  earthworks,  which  have  been 
said  to  be  a  Roman  fort.  Several  of  the  party  climbed  up  to  see 
them,  and  the  opinion  formed  was  that  they  were  not  Roman,  but 
British  :  the  site  is  not  such  as  the  Romans  were  wont  to  select,  nor 
do  the  works  in  plan  or  profile  seem  Roman. 

From  Barrows  Green  the  party  proceeded  to  Stainton  by  Cross- 
crake  Lane  and  Spies  Acre  Wood,  where  the  Secretary  (Mr.  T. 
Wilson)  made  the  following  remarks : — 

AN  OLD  ROMAN   ROAD. 

We  are  now  entering  a  very  ancient  lane,  and  I  wish  to  suggest  that  we  are  on 
the  track  of  the  Roman  road  from  Hincaster  to  the  camp  at  Watercrook.  If  you 
examine  the  Ordnance  Survey  you  will  find  that  this  road  is  almost  in  a  straight 
line  between  the  two  places.  It  is  situate  in  the  township  of  Stainton,  a  name 
which  is  mentioned  in  Domesday  Book ;  and  when  we  have  travelled  a  little 
further,  we  shall  come  across  the  site  of  a  chapel  that  existed  in  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury. Both  these  facts  are  evidence  that  the  road  is  a  very  ancient  one,  and 
therefore  most  likely  to  have  been  originally  made  for  the  march  of  the  Romans 
through  Westmorland.  Mr.  Watkins,  in  his  Roman  Lancashire,  mentions  that 
traces  of  the  Roman  road  between  Lancaster  and  Kendal  are  now  all  but 
obliterated  by  the  advance  of  civilisation  and  by  the  progress  of  agriculture,  but 
I  think  we  are  here  on  a  track  that  1  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  is  the  right  one. 

The  next  move  was  to  Cross  Crake  on  the  way  to  Stainton,  and  at 
the  former  place  Mr.  Wilson  again  became  the  cictrdnc  in  the  follow- 
ing observations  about 

CROSS  CRAKB  OLD  CHAPEL. 

This  plot  of  ground  is  the  site  of  the  old  chapel  of  Cross  Crake.  The  original 
chapd  was  founded  and  endowed  in  the  reign  of  Richard  I.,  1190,  by  Anselm  de 
Fomess,  son  of  the  first  Michael  le  Fleming ;  and  in  the  latter  part  of  the  thir- 
teenth century.  Sir  William  Strickland  granted  the  same  to  Cartmel  Priory.  It 
continued  in  the  gift  of  the  Prior  of  Cartmel  till  the  dissolution  of  relifi^ous  houses 
in  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.,  1556,  and  soon  after  went  to  decay.  It  was  after^ 
wards  repaired,  and  was  used  for  some  time  for  Divine  service.  In  Machell's  time 
it  is  described  as  an  ancient  chapel  re-built.  It  had  no  bell ;  no  service  was  per- 
formed therein,  and  no  salary  belonged  to  it,  but  it  was  used  as  a  school,  and  it 
eventually  fell  again  into  a  ruinous  condition.  After  the  chapel  had  long  laid  in 
this  sad  and  sorry  condition.  Bishop  Keene,  the  executors  of  Dr.  Stratford,  and  the 
curate,  subscribed  ^200,  which  was  further  augmented  by  £200  from  Queen 
Anoe's  Bounty,  and  also  by  the  proceeds  of  a  charity  brief.    In  1773  the  chapel 


•  Ex  relatione^  Rev.  W.  S.  Calveriey,  F.S.A.  For  an  account  of  Blease  Hall  see 
"The  Old  Manorial  Halls  of  Westmorland  and  Curaberiand,"  by  M.  W.  Taylor, 
F.S.A.,  p.  229. 

was 


S6 


BXCUR8I0NS  AND  PROCBBDINQS. 


wms  re*bntl^  and  in  1823  ^  barial  gnrand  was  added.  The  chapel  was  denolisbed 

about  twenty  ago,  and  was  superseded  by  the  present  new  church,  on  an  adja- 
cent site  given  by  the  late  W.  H.  Wakefield,  Esq.,  and  the  burial  ground  was  at 
the  same  time  enlarged  by  the  addition  of  an  adjoining  field. 

The  *'  Mounds  at  Hincaster**  (anciently  Hencastre,  the  old  camp) 
were  then  visited.  West,  in  his  **  Guide  to  Lakes,**  is  responsible  for 
the  statement  that  the  Romans  had  a  camp  here,  but  Hodgson,  in 
his  "  History  of  Westmorland,**  says  no  trace  nor  tradition  of  it 
exists.  Certainly  these  mounds  are  not  a  Roman  Camp,  but  are 
probably  glacial  moraines.'^'  Of  Preston  Hall,  the  next  stopping 
place,  no  account  is  contained  in  Dr.  Taylor's  book,  *'The  Old 
Manorial  Halls  of  Westmorland  and  Cumberland,*'  but  the  Rev.  B. 
Barnett  gave  the  following  particulars  : — 

PRESTON  PATRICK. 

In  the  Domesday  Survey  the  manor  of  Preston  was  held  by  Torfin,  and  it  then 
passed  to  the  Barons  of  Kendat,  the  daughter  of  the  sixth  baron  marrying 
Gilbert,  son  of  Roger  Fitz  Reinford.  Richard  I.  granted  to  this  Gilbert  lands  in 
Levens,  Farleton  Detene,  Preston,  Holme,  Berton,  Henecastre,  and  Loppeton, 
and  Gilbert  granted  land  in  Holme,  Preston,  and  Button  to  Thomas,  son  of  Gos- 
patrick,  who  gave  lands  and  possessions  to  the  abbey  at  Preston  about  11 19, 
which  abbey  was  afterwards  removed  to  Shap.  On  the  dissolution  of  the  mona- 
steries, these  posseiffiions  came  into  the  hands  of  the  Crown,  and  were  granted  by 
James  I.  to  Lord  Wharton,  from  which  family  they  passed  by  purchase  to  the 
Lowther  family.  How  long  Preston  Patrick  (exclusive  of  what  was  given  to  the 
abbey)  continued  in  the  Talebois  family  after  Patrictus  de  Culwen,  is  not  known. 
After  some  time,  Preston  Patrick  and  Preston  Richard  passed  to  the  family  of 
Preston,  who  seem  first  to  have  possessed  Preston  Richard,  and  then  to  have 
settled  here  at  Preston  Hall.  John  de  Preston,  Knight,  represented  the  county 
in  Parliament  in  the  reign  of  Edward  HI.  The  second  Richard  de  Preston,  in  the 
reign  of  Richard  U.,  held  the  manor  of  Preston  Richard  of  Sir  W.  Parr.  He  died 
without  male  issue  and  was  succeeded  at  Preston  Patrick  by  probably  his 
brother,  third  Sir  John  Preston.  He  had  two  sons,  John,  a  clergyman,  and 
Richard,  who  succeeded  to  the  inheritance.  This  Richard  married  Jacobine,  a 
daughter  of  Middleton  of  Middleton  Hall,  and  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VI.  they 
obtained  a  licence  for  an  oratory  for  the  manors  of  Preston  and  Levens,  which  is 
supposed  to  have  stood  where  the  present  church  stands.  The  family  owned  the 
manor  two  hundred  years.  The  thirteenth  Preston  (Sir  Thomas)  was  a  priest  of 
the  Romish  Church,  but,  on  the  death  of  his  brother,  unmarried,  he  married 
Mary,  daughter  of  Carill  Viscount  Molineux,  of  Maryburgh,  in  Ireland.  His 
wife  died  in  1673,  and  was  buried  in  Heversham  Church.  Sir  Thomas,  being  a 
widower,  resumed  his  priestly  functions,  and  settled  his  Westmorland  estates  on 
his  two  daughters,  Mary  and  Anne.    The  manor  of  Preston  Patrick  was  assigned 


•  See  these  Transactions,  vol.  vi.,  p.  201. 

to 


EXCURSIONS  AND   PROCBBDINGS.  57 

to  tbe  elder  sister,  who  was  married  to  William  Herbert  Visconot  Montgromery, 
SOD  of  William,  Marquis  of  Powis.  It  remained  in  this  family  till  1717*  when  the 
lands  were  sold  to  Frands  Charieris,  Esq.,  of  Hornby  Castle.  In  1773  the  manor 
was  enfranchised  for  the  sum  of  ^^5, 130.  The  manor  house  of  Preston  Hall  has 
been  converted  into  a  (arm  house,  and  there  remains  little  of  the  ancient  fabric 
Challon  Hall,  which  time  will  not  permit  us  to  visit,  was  entirely  re-built  in  1770. 
It  was  anciently  known  as  Chanon  Hall,  from  the  Canons  of  the  abbey,  to  whom 
it  is  supposed  to  have  belonged.    It  came  into  the  Wakefield  family  in  1594. 

The  President  added  a  few  particulars  respecting  Preston  Hall*  in 
which  he  said : — 

They  woald  notice  from  the  front  that  it  was  in  some  respects  very  much  like 
Bleeze  Hall  in  having  a  central  building  with  two  wings.  One  of  these  wings  is 
vaulted  on  the  ground  6oor,  and  has  walls  of  great  thickness,  showing  that  it  was 
originally  a  peel  toiler,  whose  upper  part  has  been  re-built.  The  upper  room 
was,  no  doubt,  the  lord's  solar  or  retiring  room ;  it  is  also  known  as  the  court 
room,  this  having  been  the  manor  house.  The  peel  tower  dated  probably  from 
the  fifteenth  century.  In  the  Jacobean  period  the  place  was  re-modelled ;  the 
upper  part  of  the  peel  tower  re-built,  and  another  wing,  vaultless,  and  with  thin 
walls,  built  so  as  to  correspond  externally  with  the  peel-wing. 

The  party  next  proceeded  to  Preston  Patrick  Church,  when  the 
Vicar  (the  Rev.  B.  Bamett)  made  the  following  observations : — 

He  stated  that  the  dedication  of  the  church  was  uncertain,  but  that  it  was  pro- 
bably dedicated  to  St.  Gregory,  as  the  well  near  was  called  Gregory  Well.  "The 
only  dedications  connecting  the  Cumbrian  Church  with  the  Church  of  Ireland, 
are,"  said  Canon  Venables,  "  those  of  St.  Patrick,  St.  Bride  or  St.  Bridget,  and 
St.  Begfaa.  Three  churches  in  Westmorland  and  one  in  Cumberland  have  the 
title  of  St.  Patrick,  those  of  Patterdale, — the  old  name  of  which  was  Patrickdalet 
Bampton  Patrick,  and  Preston  Patrick.  Some  doubt  is  thrown  upon  the  dedica- 
tions of  Bampton  Patrick  and  Preston  Patrick  by  the  fact  that  both  these  places 
belonged  to  Patrick  of  Culwen  or  Curwen,  the  great-grandson  of  Gospatrick,  son 
of  Orme,  son  of  Ketd."  He  (Mr.  Barnett)  believed  that  the  dedication  should 
be  St.  Gregory  and  not  St.  Patrick.  Messrs.  Sharpe  and  Paley  reported  on  the 
old  church  in  1850:  "  The  chapel  appears,  from  the  character  of  its  architecture, 
to  have  been  erected  about  the  time  of  Henry  VII.,  the  south  and  east  walls  being 
the  only  portions  that  have  remained  in  their  original  condition,  the  north  and 
west  walls,  together  with  the  entire  roof,  having  undergone  considerable  altera- 
tions at  comparatively  recent  periods."  There  was  a  chapel  here  long  before 
these  dates,  and  the  niches,  piscina,  and  figure  heads  of  the  windows  are  said  to 
have  belonged  to  this  old  chapel.  The  ancient  salary  of  the  curate  was  ^3  6s.  8d., 
and  for  many  years  after  the  Reformation  no  curate  was  appointed,  but  since 
1657  there  has  been  a  regular  succession.  In  1781  parochial  privileges  were  con- 
ferred upon  the  district,  and  in  1873  it  was  constituted  a  separate  parish.  I'he 
people  appointed  the  curate,  and  in  1746  there  was  a  trial  in  the  Court  of 
Chancery  with  the  Vicar  of  Burton  as  to  the  right  of  presentation.  The  ad  vow- 
ion  was  sold  to  Lord  Lonsdale  for  ^525.  The  greater  part  of  the  endowment  is 
modem,  the  living  being  aug^mented  in  1873,  towards  which  the  late  Mr.  W.  H. 
Wakefield  gave  £500,  Mr.  Keightley  jCsoo,  Trinity  College  £500,  Canon  Gilbert 
£itOoth  and  the  Eari  of  Lonsdale  £soo.  The  Chancel  was  tbe  gift  of  the  late 
Miss  Keightley. 

Heversham 


58  EXCURSIONS   AND   PROCEEDINGS. 

Heversham  Church  and  Hall  were  the  last  places  on  the  pro- 
gramme for  the  day,  and  at  the  place  Canon  Gilbert  pointed  out  the 
points  of  interest,  and  the  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley,  F.S.A.,  read  a 
paper,  which  will  appear  in  these  Transactions.  The  Hall  is 
described  in  Dr.  Taylor*s  book."^  In  it  is  a  dining  table  of  late  Eliza- 
bethan work,  with  massive  frame  and  footrail  on  fixed  baluster  legs. 
The  top  is  loose  and  is  one  solid  plank  of  heart  of  oak,  six  inches 
thick,  measuring  13  feet  8  inches  by  2  feet  10  inches. 

The  headquarters  for  the  night  were  at  the  Crown  Hotel,  Amside. 
After  dinner  the  following  new  members  were  elected  : — Mr.  Towers 
Tyson,  Eskdale;  Mrs.  A.  A.  Richardson,  Ballawray,  Ambleside; 
Mr.  Claude  Lonsdale,  Rose  Hill,  Carlisle;  Mr.  John  Inman  Sealsby 
Gilcrux,  Oxton,  Cheshire;  Mr.  Lowthian  Nicholson,  Belgrave  Road, 
London;  Mr.  Martin  Hair,  Newtown,  Carlisle;  Rev. J.Clark,  Selside 
Vicarage,  Kendal ;  Rev.  R.  S.  G.  Green,  Croglin  Rectory,  Carlisle. 

The  following  Societies  were  elected  exchanging  members,  viz. : — 
The  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Antiquarian  Society,  and  the  Heidel- 
berger  Historisch  Philosophischer  Vereine  Universitats  Bibliothek, 
Heidelbergh ;  and  several  papers  were  read,  which  will  appear  in  the 
Transactions. 

Tuesday  morning  turned  out  decidedly  wet,  and  the  proposed 
visits  to  Arnside  and  Hazelslack  Tower  were  cut  out  of  the  pro- 
gramme, and  Burton  Church  was  the  first  place  visited,  where  a 
paper  was  read  by  one  of  the  churchwardens,  Mr.  J.  Chalmers, 
which  will  be  printed,  and  Mr.  Calverley  called  attention  to  some 
early  sculptured  stones.  The  party  next  drove  to  Borwick  Hall, 
where  Mr.  W.  O.  Roper  read  an  interesting  paper  entitled  "  Borwick 
Hall  and  the  Bindlosses."  Another  dining  table  of  the  type  of  those 
at  Blease  and  Heversham  Halls  was  at  Borwick  Hall.  A  curious 
thing  about  these  massive  tables  is — that  they  smack  of  the  reality 
and  pass  with  the  freehold. 

Owing  to  the  wet,  the  party  did  not  leave  the  carriages  at  Dock 
Acres,  but  contented  themselves  with  a  distant  view  of  the  ancient 
dock.  After  lunch,  at  Warton,  Warton  Church  was  visited,  where 
Mr.  W.  O.  Roper  read  a  paper  on  **  Warton  Church  and  the  Wash- 
ingtons.**  Beetham  Hall,  described  by  Dr.  Taylor,f  was  visited  en 
route  to  Beetham  Church, |  which  was  described  by  the  Vicar  (the 
Rev.  G.  W.  Cole),  and  the  party  broke  up  at  Milnthorpe  Station. 


*  '*  The  Old  Manorial  Halls  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,"  p.  209. 
t  "  The  Old  Manorial  Halls  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland/'  p.  211. 
t  For  an  account  of  Beetham  Church  see  these  Transactions,  p.  358* 


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(59) 


Art.  V. — Notes  on  John  Penny,  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  1505-20. 
Part    I. — By  the  Rev.  James  Wilson,  M.A. 
Part  II. — By  J.  Holme  Nicholson,  M.A. 

PART  I. 
COME  time  ago,  I  was  making,  for  my  own  amusement, 
certain  inquiries  into  the  vagaries  of  ecclesiastical 
tonsure  as  far  as  it  could  be  ascertained  from  monumental 
evidence  in  the  diocese  of  Carlisle,  and  in  due  time  my 
attention  was  directed  to  the  singularly  well-preserved 
effigy  of  Bishop  Penny  in  St.  Margaret's  Church,  Leices- 
ter. In  consultation  with  some  of  my  friends,  I  was 
informed  that  this  monument  of  one  of  our  mediaeval 
bishops  was  not  generally  known  and  that  it  might  be 
perhaps  of  some  local  interest  if  a  print  of  it  could  be  put 
within  reach  of  all  the  members.  The  Editor,  concurred, 
and  for  me  there  was  no  door  of  escape. 

In  the  first  place,  how  do  I  know  that  this  is  the 
monument  of  Bishop  Penny  of  Carlisle,  having  never  seen 
it,  and  having  no  inscription  to  identify  it.  There  does 
not  seem  to  be  any  room  for  doubt.  Nicolson  and  Burn,* 
on  the  authority  of  Dr.  Todd,t  say  that  he  was  buried 
"  in  St.  Margaret's  Church,  Leicester,  where  is  his  effi- 
gies in  alabaster  curiously  wrought,  though  without  any 
inscription,"  a  piece  of  information,  by  the  way,  of  which 
Anthony  i  WoodJ  was  not  cognisant.  On  reference  to 
the  present  vicar  of  that  church,  the  Rev.  Arthur  M. 
Rendall,  he  informed  me  that  the  Bishop's  monument 
was  in  St.  Margaret's,  and  very  courteously  sent  me  "as 
good  a  photograph  of  it  as  it  could  be  possible  to  get 


*  "  History  of  Westmorland  and  Cumberland"'  vol.  11.,  p.  277. 

f  1  have  not  been  able  to  find  the  place  where  Todd  makes  this  statement. 

{  Athena  Oxonienses,  vol.  I.,  p.  563. 

under 


6o  NOTES  ON  JOHN   PENNY. 

under  the  circumstances."  But  the  question  arises 
whether  St.  Margaret's  is  the  original  site  of  the  monu- 
ment and  whether  Todd  is  right  when  he  says  the  Bishop 
was  buried  there.  The  most  reliable  account  within  my 
reach  is  as  follows  : — 

John  Penny  is  said  to  have  been  of  Lincoln  College,  Oxford,  but  to 
have  taken  the  degree  of  LL.D.  in  this  University  (Cambridge).  He 
was  a  canon  of  the  abbey  of  S.  Maty-de-Pratis  at  Leicester,  1477, 
and  was  admitted  abbot  of  that  house  25  June  1496,  obtaining  in 
Sept.  1505  the  small  priory  of  Bradley  in  the  same  county  in  com- 
ptendam.  He  was  consecrated  Bishop  of  Bangor  1504,  and  trans- 
lated to  Carlisle  1508,  obtaining  a  general  pardon  just  before  his 
translation  when  he  resigned  his  abbey  and  priory.  He  died  at 
Leicester  at  the  end  of  1519  or  beginning  of  1520  and  was  buried  in 
the  abbey  there,  under  a  tomb  which  was  subsequently  removed  to 
and  is  now  in  the  church  of  S.  Margaret,  and  on  which  is  his  recum- 
bent figure  in  a  pontificial  habit.  He  made  great  additions  to  the 
buildings  of  Leicester  abbey  and  gave  lands  for  maintaining  a  free 
school  in  the  parish  of  S.  Margaret  in  that  town."^ 

But  when  the  tomb  was  removed  from  the  abbey  to  the 
church  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain.  It  would  appear 
from  the  statement  of  Dr.  Todd  that  it  has  been  in  St. 
Margaret's  Church  for  at  least  two  centuries.  But  the 
pedestal  is  surely  modern :  at  least  it  looks  of  different 
date  to  the  effigy.  In  1848  "  the  restoration  of  this  old 
church  "  was  commenced  **  under  the  superintendence  of 
Mr.  Carpenter  "  and  the  work  was  done  with  such  thor- 
oughness and  orthodoxy  as  to  warrant  the  admiration  of 
the  EcclesiologistA  It  is  a  bold  conjecture,  but  I  should 
not  be  surprised  to  learn  that  the  pedestal  is  from  that 
architect's  design,  specially  as  the  work  of  restoration  was 
"  not  confined  to  the  care  of  the  external  fabric  alone,** 


*  Athena  Cantahrigienses,  vol.  I.,  p.  22.  The  Messrs.  Cooper  fortify  them- 
selves by  fnving  these  references: — Richardson's  Godwin,  Le  Neve's  Fasti, 
Wood's  Athena,  vol.  I.,  p.  562,  Nicholl's  Leicestershire,  vol.  1.,  pp.  26S,  275, 394, 
51 1>  558,  5625  vol.  II.,  510,  and  Rymer. 

t  The  Ecclesiologist,  vol.  IX.,  p.  141  (No.  LXVIII,  October,  1S48 :  new  series. 
J^o.  XXXII.). 

but 


MOTBS  ON  JOHN   PENNY.  6l 

but  was  SO  far-reaching  as  to  include  **  the  zealous  incum- 
bent and  his  curates  who  are  showing  forth  a  notable 
example  of  living  a  collegiate  life.*'  But  it  is  better  to  let 
the  monument  speak  for  itself.  I  say  this  in  deference  to 
the  opinion  of  Mr.  M.  H.  Bloxam,  who,  according  to  a 
Leicester  correspondent,  has  stated  that  **  there  is  no 
special  interest  about  the  tomb  or  the  vestments."  In 
many  ways  it  is  interesting  and  certainly  in  this  that  it 
shows  a  bishop  of  Carlisle  in  pontificial  robes  at  a  very 
critical  time  in  the  ritualistic  history  of  the  English 
Church. 

PART  II. 

By  J.  Holme  Nicholson,  M.A. 

My  attention  was  first  drawn  to  the  subject  of  Bishop 
Penny  by  seeing  in  the  "  Graphic"  of  the  27th  May,  1882, 
an  engraving  of  a  fine  altar  tomb  with  a  recumbent  figure 
of  an  ecclesiastic  in  pontificial  robes,  with  a  mitre  on  his 
head,  and  a  pastoral  staff  by  his  side.  It  was  stated  that 
this  was  the  tomb  of  Bishop  Penny  in  St.  Margaret's 
Church,  Leicester,  and  the  following  paragraph  with 
reference  to  it  was  appended  : — 

Not  very  many  years  since  this  beautiful  monument  lay  neglected 
in  a  dusty  recess  under  a  children's  gallery.  Penny  was  Bishop  of 
Bangor  and  Carlisle  in  the  first  decade  of  the  x6th  century,  and  died 
about  1 519,  at  Leicester  Abbey,  where  he  was  staying  on  a  visit.  He 
was  buried  by  his  own  direction  in  St.  Margaret's  Church.  Bishop 
Penny  was  first  Abbot  of  Leicester,  and  according  to  Leiand  *'  made 
the  new  bricke  workes  of  Leicester  Abbey,  and  much  of  the  bricke 
walles."  The  monument  represents  the  Bishop  dressed  in  the  albe, 
chasuble,  and  mitre,  and  holding  the  pastoral  staff,  the  maniple  being 
over  the  left  arm. 

John  Leiand,  the  Antiquary,  died  in  1552,  and  his  visit  to 
Leicester  must  therefore  have  been  made  within  twenty  or 
thirty  years  of  the  Bishop's  death.  The  burial  place  of 
Bishop  Penny  may  have  been  in  the  Abbey  church  of  St. 

Mary 


62  NOTES  ON   JOHN    PENNY. 

Mary  de  Pr6,  or  de  Prates,  at  Leicester,  of  which  be  bad 
been  abbot,  the  monastery  where  the  great  Cardinal 
Wolsey  died  in  November,  1530,  and  this  tomb  erected 
there  in  the  first  instance,  but  if  so  it  must  have  been 
removed  to  St.  Margaret's  at  the  dissolution,  for,  as  the 
following  quotation  shows,  it  was  there  when  Leland 
visited  Leicester. 

5.  MargareU^s  is  thereby  the  fairest  Paroche  Chirch  of  LeircesUr^ 
wher  ons  was  Cathedrale  Chirch  and  thereby  the  Bishop  of  Lincoln 
had  a  Palace  wherof  a  litle  yet  standith.  John  Peny  first  Abbate  of 
Leircesier  then  Bishop  of  Bangor  and  Cairluel  [is  here  buried  in]  an 
Alabester  Tumbe.  [This  Penny  made  the  new  Bricke  workes  of 
Leicester  Abby  and  much  of  the  brick  walles] . 

"  Itinerary  of  John  Leland  the  Antiquary,"  Oxford,  MDCCX., 
vol.  I.,  p.  14. 

Anthony  k  Wood's  reference  to  Bishop  Penny  is  as 
follows : — 

John  Penny  whose  native  place  is  as  yet  to  me  unknown,  was 
educated'''  in  Lincoln  College,  but  whether  in  the  condition  of  a 
fellow  I  cannot  tell.  Afterwards  he  being  doctor  of  the  laws  and 
noted  for  an  eminent  canonist  was  made  bishop  of  Bangor  in  1504 
(having  before  been  abbot  of  Leicester,  as  John  Leland  saith)  where 
sitting  till  1508  was  by  the  Pope*s  bull  dated  at  Rome  cal.  Oct.  in  the 
same  year  translated  to  Carlisle,  and  on  the  23d.  January  following 
paid  his  obedience  to  the  Archb.  of  York.  He  gave  way  to  fate  about 
fifteen  hundred  and  twenty,  but  where  buried,  unless  in  his  Church  of 
Carlisle,  I  know  not.  His  predecessor  in  that  see  was  Rog.  Lay- 
bourne  of  Cambridge  who  by  his  WillJ  dated  17th  July  1507  desired 
to  be  buried  in  the  parish  church  of  St.  James's  near  to  Charing 
Cross  by  London,  but  whether  he  died  in  that  or  the  year  following  I 
cannot  tell,  because  there  was  no  probat  made  of  his  Will.  Walter 
Redman,  D.D.,  and  Master  of  the  College  at  Greystock  in  Cumber- 
land was  one  of  his  executors. 


*  Fr.  Godwin  in  Com.  de  Praesul  Angl.  int.  ep.  Carlisle. 

t  In  Tom,  I.  Collect,  p.  472. 

X  In  ofiic.  praerog.  Cant,  in  Reg.  Adeane,  qu  16." 

"  Athens  Oxoniensis/'  edited  by  Philip  Bliss,  Lond.  1815 :  vol.  II.,  col. 
716.    The  note  is  by  Bishop  Kennet. 

Penny 


NOTES  ON  JOHN   PENNY.  63 

Penny  was  buried  at  St.  Margaret's  Church  in  Leicester  under  a 
fine  alabaster  tomb  at  the  end  of  the  North  isle,  having  his  effigies 
curiously  carved  lying  upon  it  in  his  episcopal  habit.  I  presume  his 
burial  here  was  occasioned  by  his  having  been  the  chief  instrument 
in  rebuilding  this  Church. — Willis  Cathedrals,  Carlisle,  p.  296. 

The  notices  of  Bishop  Penny  in  the  Histories  of  Nicolson 
and  Burn,  and  Hutchinson,  add  nothing  to  our  knowledge 
of  him,  and  are  evidently  derived  from  the  foregoing 
authorities. 

Several  families  bearing  the  name  of  Pepny  were 
located  in  the  district  of  Low  Furness,  chiefly  in  the 
valley  of  the  Crake,  early  in  the  i6th  century,  and  pro- 
bably long  before.  One  branch  was  possessed  of  consider- 
able landed  property,  and  settled  in  the  lower  part  of  that 
valley,  where  they  built  a  bridge  over  the  river  Crake,  and 
where  a  village  afterwards  sprung  up  which  is  still  known 
as  Penny  Bridge.  The  present  representative  of  this 
family,  and  the  possessor  of  their  estates,  is  Miss  Machell 
of  Penny  Bridge,  who,  in  reply  to  my  enquiries,  cour- 
teously informs  me  that  as  far  as  she  knows  there  is  no 
reference  to  the  Bishop  in  any  of  the  family  records  or 
any  tradition  of  his  having  belonged  to  that  family. 

The  tomb  whereon  the  effigy  of  Bishop  Penny  rests  has 
all  the  appearance  in  the  photograph  of  being  modern 
work,  and  it  bears,  I  believe,  neither  inscription  nor  arms, 
otherwise  we  might  have  been  able  to  trace  the  family 
from  which  he  sprung.  Possibly  there  was  an  older 
pedestal  which  may  have  been  destroyed.  The  arms  of 
Penny  of  Furness  are  "azure  five  fleurs-de-lis  or."  Should 
any  fragments  bearing  these  arms  be  discovered  about  St. 
Margaret's  Church,  or  among  the  ruins  of  the  Abbey,  it 
would  settle  the  question  of  his  connection  with  the 
Furness  family. 


(64) 


Art.  VI. — Burton  Church.     By  J.  Chalmers. 
Read  at  Burton,  Sept.  27,  1893. 

THIS  Church,  dedicated  to  S.  James,  consists  of  a 
square  tower  of  Norman  structure,  a  nave  and  side 
aisles,  and  two  mortuary  chapels.  The  tower  contains 
two  Norman  arches,  one  in  the  baptistry,  the  other  in  the 
ringing-room.  The  Dalton  Chapel  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Church.  There  is  no  piscina  in  this  Chapel.  A  board  on 
the  wall  here  informs  that  Sir  Peter  Legh  was  the  founder 
of  it :  P.L.  Fundator,  1628.  He  was  Sheriff  of  Lancashire 
in  1596,  elected  M.P.  for  Cheshire  in  1601,  and  died 
February,  1635/6  at  a  ripe  old  age.  His  descendant, 
Richard  Legh,  of  Lyme,  in  Cheshire,  built  Dalton  Old 
Hall,  as  maybe  seen  from  a  tablet  over  the  door  inscribed 
rLe  1666.  He  would  be  a  comparatively  young  man 
when  he  built  the  Hall.  He  died  in  1687  at  the  age  of  53 
years.  Lord  Lilford  was  the  heir  of  the  Leghs  of  Lyme. 
He  sold  Dalton  near  the  end  of  last  century  to  Rev. 
Geoffrey  Hornby,  who  was  Rector  of  Winwick,  Lancaster, 
in  1782,  and  great-grandfather  to  the  present  Major  E.  G. 
S.  Hornby. 

The  chapel  on  the  south  side  was  founded  by  the 
owners  of  Preston  Hall.  There  is  a  piscina  in  the  corner 
on  the  south  wall,  but  no  stone,  memorial  or  otherwise, 
or  inscription  which  would  be  likely  to  lead  to  the  identi- 
fication of  the  founder,  I  am  told  that  previous  to  the 
restoration  in  1872  there  was  a  board  on  the  south  side  of 
the  chancel  bearing  some  letters  or  dates.  What  has 
become  of  it  no  one  seems  to  know.  Some  say  it  con- 
tained J.F.F.,  1634.  There  are  in  the  building  two  old 
carved  stones,  one  in  an  arch  in  the  south  wall  near  to  a 
piscina,  which  points  to  the  supposition  that  they  were 

enclosed 


BURTON  CHURCH.  65 

enclosed  within  a  chapel.  The  other  is  in  the  south-west 
corner  of  the  tower.  These  stones  are  supposed  to  be 
memorials  of  some  of  the  Croft  family,  and  bear  their 
arms, — lozengy,  argent  and  sable  The  Crofts  were  con- 
nected with  Dalton  in  early  times.  In  1254,  Roger  de 
Croft  held  two  carucates  of  land  in  Dalton,  and  in  1303 
Roger  de  Croft  held  free  warren  in  Dalton.  The  last  of 
the  Crofts  were  two  daughters ;  one  of  them,  Alice,  mar- 
ried Sir  Geo£f:  Middleton,  and  carried  Warton  to  the 
Middletons ;  and  Mabel,  marrying  Peter  Legh,  of  Lyme, 
CO.  Cheshire,  thus  brought  Dalton  and  Claughton  into  the 
Legh  family.  In  1739  a  faculty  was  obtained  by  Jno. 
Barker,  draper,  of  Burton,  which  allowed  him  to  build  a 
gallery  at  the  west  end  of  the  church  between  the  arches 
of  the  north  and  south  aisles. 

Previous  to  1844  the  church  had  no  clear  story.  It 
then  underwent  restoration.  The  roof  was  removed,  a 
clear  story  built,  the  vestry  and  chancel  were  taken  down 
and  re-built;  the  north  door  done  away  with,  and  the 
porch  restored,  at  a  cost  of  about  3^500.*  The  roof  of  the 
church  has  a  longer  slope  on  the  south  side  than  on  the 
north,  but  we  possess  no  documents  to  show  when  that 
alteration  was  made.  In  1872  the  church  again  under- 
went restoration,  at  the  instigation  of  the  Rev.  W.  Chastel 
de  Boinville,  the  present  vicar.  The  gallery  before  men- 
tioned was  removed,  and  the  organ,  built  by  Holt  of 
Bradford,  was  considerably  enlarged  by  Wilkinson  and 
Sons,  Kendal,  and  placed  in  its  present  position.  The 
old-fashioned  pews  were  removed  and  the  present  seats 
erected.  Two  arches  in  the  south  of  the  chancel  were  re- 
built. The  pulpit  and  reading-desk — a  double-decker — 
with  sounding-board,  beautifully  carved,  was  re-modelled, 
the  reading-desk  and  sounding-board  done  away  with,  and 

•  The  clear  story  windows  were  made  from  the  drawing  of  one  of  the  old 
windows  in  the  west  end  of  the  south  aisle. 

the 


66  feURtOK  CHURCH. 

the  pulpit  fitted  up  as  at  present.  Tradition  says  it  was 
dated  1607  ;  there  is  no  sign  of  a  date  now.  The  church- 
yard was  considerably  enlarged  at  the  same  time.  In 
making  the  alterations  in  the  churchyard,  several  stones, 
supposed  to  be  ancient  memorials,  were  discovered. 

There  is  a  head  of  a  cross,  thought  to  be  the  old 
churchyard  cross,  a  shaft,  containing  several  human 
figures,  of  another.  Part  of  an  altar,  and  one  piece  of 
more  modern  times.  The  old  font  was  replaced  by  the 
present  one,  the  gift  of  Mrs.  Hornby.  It  is  formed  of 
beautiful  limestone,  found  in  the  parish — Dalton  quarries. 

There  is  a  scarcity  of  tomb  or  monumental  stones,  and 
none,  except  the  few  mentioned,  of  very  great  antiquity. 
The  south  wall  supports  stones  in  memory  of  the  Lucas, 
Parkinson,  Cotton,  and  Atkinson  families.  In  the  Preston 
Chapel  are  stones  in  memory  of  the  Waller  and  Atkinson 
families.  No  stone  appears  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of 
one  of  Burton's  greatest  benefactors,  the  Rev.  Jno.  Hut- 
ton,  who  died  on  the  5th  August,  1806.  In  the  west  wall  is 
the  monument  of  Mr.  Cockin,  who  was  at  one  time  teacher 
of  writing  in  the  Lancaster  Grammar  School,  and  the 
author  of  several  works,  including  a  poem,  "  The  Rural 
Sabbath";  then  went  to  Nottingham,  and  died  at  Kendal. 
A  little  to  the  north-west  of  this  stone  is  one  erected  to 
the  memory  of  John  Garnett,  who  died  in  1773.  The  stone 
tells  us  that  *' Here  lies  an  honest  man."  He  was  the 
grandfather  of  Wm.  Garnett,  of  Quernmore  Park,  1782- 
1863.  In  the  Dalton  Hall  Chapel  there  is  a  beautiful 
monumental  brass,  to  the  memory  of  the  late  Mrs. 
Hornby,  of  DaltonHall,  who  died  August  17,  1886.  This 
was  designed  by  J.  G.  Waller,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  London. 
There  are  four  memorial  windows,  one  in  the  east  win- 
dow in  the  chancel,  placed  by  the  members  of  the  Hornby 
family,  the  work  of  Clayton  and  Bell.  One  in  the  north 
window  in  the  tower,  in  memory  of  some  of  the  Nutter 
family.  One  in  the  north  aisle,  placed  there  by  the 
parishioners  in  memory  of  Mrs.  Hornby.  The 


cwt 

qrs. 

lbs. 

7 

2 

20 

6 

0 

I 

5 

I 

13 

5 

I 

4 

4 

I 

19 

4 

2 

3 

BURTON   CHURCH.  67 

The  first  record  of  a  bell  in  existence  is  the  receipt  for 
^7,  for  a  bell  for  use  at  Burton  Church,  1663.  The  peal 
previous  to  1804  only  consisted  of  three  bells ;  in  that  year 
Mr.  T.  Mears,  London,  cast  and  fitted  up  a  peal  of  six 
musical  bells  at  a  cost  of  £32$  5s.  lod,  allowance  for  old 
bells  being  £77.   This  peal  was  opened  on  Sept.  13, 1804. 


Tenor  ^  _. 

Fifth  .-.  .-.           _ 

Fourth 

Third  -.  _ 

Second  .^  «...            .... 

Treble  ...  _. 

This  Church  is  one  of  the  many  in  the  neighbourhood 
given  to  the  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  York,  by  Ivo  de  Tailbois, 
with  one  carucate  of  land,  which  was  on  the  19  October, 
A.D.  1539  (33  year  of  Edward  III.)  appropriated  to  that 
monastery,  reserving  y*^  pension  of  40s.  to  y*  A.D.  of 
Richmond  6/8  to  y**  ArchBp  &  Dean  &  Chapter.  In  1460 
William  Archbishop  of  York  ordained  **  that  there  be  in 
this  Parish  of  Burton  in  Kendal  newly  appropriated  to  y« 
Abbatt  &  Convent  of  St.  Mary's,  York  one  perpetual  secu- 
lar Vicar  in  priest's  orders  who  shall  be  presentable  by  y« 
said  Abbatt  &  Convent  to  ye  Arch  Deacon  of  Richmond 
for  to  be  admitted.  The  portion  of  whose  vicarage  shall 
consist  in  ^^20  sterling  with  one  Mansion-house  &  Compe- 
tent garden  &  a  close  called  Kirkbutts,  with  tithes  of 
Burton,  Dalton,  &  Holme.  The  Vicar  to  pay  the  annual 
pension  of  103/4  to  the  s^  Abbatt  &  Convent  of  S.  Mary  in 
money,  at  Martinmas  &  Pentecost  by  equal  portions  in  y« 
parish  Church  of  Burton  effectually."  Kirkbutts  was 
afterwards  lost  to  the  Church,  as  it  merged  into  the  hands 
of  the  lord  of  the  manor.  In  1735  an  entry  in  church- 
wardens' book  is  as  follows  :  "  To  loading  stones  in 
Churchyard  &  Kirkbutts  2/-,"  which  points  to  its  then 
belonging  to  the  living. 

LIST 


68 


BURTON   CHURCH. 


LIST  OF  VICARS, 

Jas.  Williamson,  Gierke,  Vicar  of  Burton,  died,  1585. 

Years. 


John  Thexton,  1655.  7 

Gerard  Brown,  1662.  7 

Jno.  Ormerod,  Ap.,  1669.  21 

J.  Usherwood,  Apl.,  1691  i 

Tho.  Barbon,  Aug.,  1692  32 


Jno.  Bennison,  Mar.  1723  41 

Jno.  Hutton,  May,  1764  42 

Bryan  Waller,  Oct.,  1806  36 

Robt.  Morewood,  Oct.,  1842  24 
W.  Chastel  de  Boinville,  1866 


Removed. 

Died  Ap.  19,  1691. 
Removed. 

Removed  to  Vic.  of 

Cockerham 

was  at  Battle  of  Boyne 

as  an  ensign. 


REGISTERS. 

These  were  commenced  in  the  year  1653.  The  entries 
in  the  year  1744  show  that  there  were  only  four  burials.* 

On  November  23,  1745,  the  Scotch  rebels  entered 
Burton.  They  do  not  appear  to  have  come  on  a  maraud- 
ing expedition,  as  the  Registers  only  account  for  20  deaths 
in  that  year. 


*  In  1655  there  appear  more  deaths  registered  than  in  any  other  'year^-33 ;  in 
1666,  the  year  of  the  London  Plag^ue^  the  number  of  deaths  is  26,  and  this 
number  occurs  again  ia  1673  and  1675. 


(69) 


Art.  VII. — Cumberlattd  and  Wesimorland  under  the  Tudon, 
being  Extracts  from  the  Register  of  the  Privy  Council  in 
the  reigns  of  Henry  VIII.  and  Edward  VI.     By  T.  H. 
Hodgson. 
Read  at  Amside^  Sept.  25,  1893. 

THE  Registers  of  the  Privy  Council,  which  are  now  in 
course  of  publication  under  the  editorship  of  Mr. 
Dasent  of  the  Education  Department,  though  they  have 
not  come  down  to  us  in  so  complete  a  state  as  might  be 
wished,  contain  a  most  interesting  mass  of  information  as 
to  the  manners  and  customs  of  our  ancestors.  The  series 
DOW  being  published  begins  with  the  year  1542,  the  31st  of 
Henry  VIII.,  and  comes  down  at  present  to  the  death  of 
Queen  Mary  in  1558.  In  those  times  the  Privy  Council, 
acting  as  a  body,  discharged  the  duties  which  are  now  dis- 
tributed among  the  various  Departments  of  State.  Foreign 
and  domestic  policy,  naval  and  military  afifairs,  trade  and 
commerce,  the  administration  of  law  and  justice,  religion, 
and  in  short  all  the  matters  important  or  trivial,  not  to 
say  frivolous,  on  which  Ministers  are  now  nightly  ques- 
tioned in  the  House  of  Commons,  then  came  before  the 
Privy  Council  collectively.  As  might  be  expected  from 
the  disturbed  state  of  the  Borders,  the  Northern  counties 
occupied  no  small  share  of  attention,  and  I  purpose  in 
this  Paper  to  collect  the  notices  of  local  interest.  It  is 
not,  of  course,  possible  to  make  anything  like  a  connected 
story  of  these  scattered  and  disjointed  entries,  but  it  is 
hoped  that  the  collection  of  them  may  prove  of  use  to 
those  who  are  interested  in  the  history  of  the  two 
counties. 

1542. — ^The  first  notice  we  meet  with  is  dated  i  Deer., 
1542,  when  Sir  Thomas  Wharton  and  My  Lord  of  Car- 
lisle, probably  the  Bishop,  are  directed  "to  view  dili- 
gently " 


70  CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS, 

gently"  the  proceedings  of  Mr.  Stevins  in  the  King's 
buildings  and  fortifications  at  Carlisle  and  report  to  the 
Council,  Stevins,  who  is  described  as  "  Overseer  of  the 
King's  works  at  Carlisle  is  directed  to  repair  to  the  King 
bringing  **  plottes  "  or  plans  of  what  is  proposed  to  be 
done  during  the  next  year. 

II  December. — Lord  Lisle,  Commissioner  in  the  North, 
Sir  Thomas  Wharton,  Warden  of  the  Marches,  and  the 
Earl  of  Angus  are  desired  to  procure  a  "  plot  "  (map)  of 
Scotland  for  the  King. 

The  same  day  Sir  Thomas  Wharton's  Report  of  the 
defeat  of  the  Scots  at  Solway  Moss  was  received  and  read 
at  the  Council.  The  Scottish  prisoners  were  ordered  to 
be  brought  to  London,  and  to  wear  a  red  St.  Andrew's 
cross  as  a  distinguishing  mark.  Several  entries  follow 
respecting  the  treatment  of  these  prisoners.  On  the  i6th 
Deer,  a  Report  was  received  of  the  capture  of  Stephen 
Davison  and  "  other  thieves  of  Teviotdale." 

On  2oth  Deer,  is  read  Sir  Thos.  Wharton's  Report  of 
certain  exploits  done  20  miles  within  Scotland,  by  Robin 
Foster  and  others.  He  complains  that  many  good  pri- 
soners were  ransomed  for  small  prices,  perhaps  in  the 
expectation  that  the  then  victorious  party  might  in  the 
future  be  in  need  of  a  similar  favour.  He  also  reports 
the  capture  of  the  Laird  of  Fentre,*  whom  I  cannot  iden- 
tify. Lord  Lisle  reports  an  exploit  done  in  Scotland,  by 
Sir  George  Douglas.  This,  however,  would  I  think  be  on 
the  East  Marches. 

On  the  2ist  Deer,  the  Scottish  prisoners,  including  the 
Earl  of  Cassilis,  Lord  Glencarn,  Lord  Somerville,  and 
Lord  Maxwell,  were  received  by  the  Council  in  the  Star 
Chamber,  and  released  on  parole. 

1542-3. — They  departed  on  the  9th  January  for  Scot- 
land, and  Sir  Thomas  Wharton  was  advised  that  they 


*  Perhaps  Fintry,  Stirlifigsbire. 

would 


CUUBBRLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS.  Jt 

would  be  at  Carlisle  on  the  loth  January,  where  their 
friends  were  to  send  pledges  for  them.  One  Carlisle,  a 
Pursuivant  at  Arms,  was  directed  to  provide  horses  and 
other  such  necessaries  as  they  would  need  by  the  way. 
They  were  entrusted  with  letters  for  the  Scottish  Council. 

The  7th  Jan. — Sir  Thomas  Wharton  was  cautioned  to 
leave  the  town  and  castle  of  Carlisle  in  safe  custody  in 
case  of  his  going  into  Scotland. 

The  17th  Jan. — Sir  Thomas  Wharton  is  directed  to 
appoint  one  Sconcrost  to  the  office  of  King's  Carpenter  at 
Carlisle,  in  case  the  information  exhibited  against  one 
Vicars,  who  it  is  to  be  presumed  then  held  the  office  and 
had  been  accused  of  some  misconduct,  should  be  proved. 

gth  Jan. — The  Lord  Lieutenant  of  the  North  (I  do 
not  know  who  held  the  office)*  is  granted  permission  to 
reside  at  Alnwick  or  Newcastle  at  his  discretion,  but  is 
cautioned  not  to  expect  letters  from  Carlisle  (to  the 
Council)  to  be  sent  first  to  him,  the  "  compass  '*  being  so 
great. 

^543-  27th  April. — The  "matter  of  contention  between 
Blaynerhasset  and  Jack  a  Musgrave  "  was  committed  to 
the  Duke  of  Noriolk.  It  does  not  appear  what  the  dis- 
pute was,  but  the  names  of  the  parties  are  familiar  to  us 
here.  They  appear  again  on  14  May,  when  the  King's 
pleasure  was  declared  touching  rewards  to  be  given  to 
Jacke  a  Musgrave,  Thomas  Dacres,  Eglanbye  (Aglionby) 
Blanerhasett,  and  the  Greymes,  doubtless  the  Grahams 
of  the  Debateable  land.  It  is  provoking  to  have  no  infor- 
mation as  to  the  services  for  which  they  are  rewarded, — 
probably,  however,  in  connection  with  the  Battle  of 
Solway  Moss. 

On  22  May  the  Duke  of  Suffolk  is  appointed  to  hear 
and  determine  a  dispute  between  Edward  Eglanbye 
(Aglionby)  and  one  Forster,  perhaps  one  of  the  Forsters 

•  Probably  the  Earl  of  Shrewsbury  or  Earl  of  Hertford. 

of 


72  CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS. 

of  Stonegarthside,  both  of  whom  claimed  to  be  the 
captors  of  Lord  Maxwell  ;  also  between  one  Greme 
(Graham)  and  one  Briskoo  (Brisco)  as  to  the  capture  of 
Lord  Somervile.  The  next  day  there  is  a  notice  of  a 
letter  to  the  Dean  of  Carlisle,  but  no  entry  of  its  contents. 
From  22nd  July,  1543,  to  10  May,  1545,  the  Registers  are 
deficient. 

In  Nov.,  1545,  Lord  Maxwell  makes  submission,  and 
enters  into  a  bond  to  become  a  King's  true  subject  and 
servant ;  Lord  Wharton*  is  directed  to  receive  him 
favourably  accordingly. 

The  15th  of  the  same  month  instructions  were  sent  to 
Lord  Wharton  (Warden  of  the  West  Marches)  to 
assemble  a  force  at  Carlisle  for  an  enterprise  in  Scotland. 
Part  of  this  force  consisted  of  German  mercenaries.  Sir 
Thos.  Whartont  received  3^34  for  his  expenses  in  bringing 
up  and  returning  with  Lord  Maxwell. 

8th  December. — Lord  Wharton  is  asked  if  he  wishes  to 
have  a  force  of  Spanish  harquebusiers  for  Carlisle. 

The  19  Dec.  we  find  a  grant  of  land  and  license  to 
purchase  other  land  granted  to  Graham,  a  Borderer,  in 
consideration  of  his  resigning  his  claims  to  Robert  Max- 
well and  two  other  Scottish  prisoners.  The  following  day 
a  warrant  is  issued  to  Lord  Wharton  to  exchange  James 
Pringle,  taken  at  Solway  Moss,  for  Parson  Ogle. 

1545-6.  9  Jan. — A  warrant  is  issued  to  Mr.  Woodall 
for  the  pay  of  soldiers  serving  at  Carlaverock :  six  hack- 
butters  for  12  days  at  8d.  per  day  and  6  gunners  for  54 
days  at  the  same  rate.  The  claim  is  certified  by  Lord 
Wharton  and  the  Clerk  of  the  Ordnance  at  Carlisle. 

Lord  Maxwell's  sons  having  made  submission  were 
granted  a  pension  of  400  crowns — as  would  appear  200  to 
each. 


•  Sir  Thomas  Wharton  above,  who  was  created  a  Baron  in  Jan.,  154-45. 
fSon  of  Lord  Wharton. 

28  Jan. 


CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDBR  THE  TODORS.  73 

28  Jan. — Richard  Graham  has  permission  to  take 
ransom  for  such  of  his  Scotch  prisoners  as  may  be  safely 
released.  Lord  Wharton  is  instructed  to  recover  if  pos- 
sible ransom  for  the  Laird  of  Fentree,  and  to  decide  a 
dispute  between  (Richard  Graham  ?)  and  John  Thompson 
for  a  Scot  sold  to  Thomas  Dacre. 

29  Feb. — Thomas  Nicholson  and  John  Oxley,  gunners 
at  Carlisle,  had  warrant  to  Mr.  Uvedale  (the  same  as 
Woodall  above)  Treasurer  of  the  Northern  Garrisons  for 
the  arrears  of  their  wages  at  8d.  per  day,  as  well  as  for 
their  continuance  of  wages. 

22  March. — Lord  Maxwell's  son  has  a  pass  to  be  fur- 
nished with  two  good  horses  for  himself  and  his  servant 
at  id.  per  mile. 

1546. — 13  April. — The  Chancellor  of  the  Augmentations 
is  instructed  that  lands  belonging  to  the  Lordship  of 
Holm  Cultram  be  not  sold,  and  in  the  leasing  of  Chan- 
tries in  the  West  Marches  the  inhabitants  doing  good 
service  are  to  have  preference,  as  recommended  by  Lord 
Wharton. 

16  April. — Pat  Grame  and  George  Grame  have  a  grant 
for  life  of  40  acres  in  the  Debateable  Land. 

18  April. — A  Warrant  to  Mr.  Uvedale  to  pay  Robert 
Sutton,  Master  Gunner  of  the  Citadel  and  Castle  at  Car- 
lisle, wages  at  I2d.  p.  d.,  due  to  him  since  28th  Sept.,  and 
George  Warwick,  gunner  there,  wages  at  8d.  p.  d.  from 
26  Deer. 

I  July. — Sir  John  Lowther,  Captain  of  the  Castle  of 
Carlisle,  has  permission  to  repair  to  the  Court  after  the 
Proclamation  of  Peace  with  France. 

1546.  2  August. — Lord  Wharton  is  directed  that 
James  Lindsey,  a  Scotsman  claimed  prisoner  by  John 
Brisco,  may  be  put  to  ransom  by  judgment  of  two  Eng- 
lishmen and  two  Scotsmen. 

28  August. — A  Warrant  is  issued  for  the  payment  to 
Sir  John  Lowther  of  3^40  for  sinking  the  wells  and  other 
necessaries  in  Carlisle  Castle.  Vol.  IL 


74  CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS. 

Vol.  II. 

This  brings  us  to  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.,  in  which, 
though  there  was  evidently  still  much  anxiety  as  to  the 
Borders,  the  entries  refer  more  to  Berwick  and  the  East 
Marches  than  to  the  district  with  which  we  are  now 
more  especially  concerned.  There  was,  however,  trouble 
with  regard  to  Langholm,  which  was  then  in  possession 
of  the  English,  Michael  Wharton,  probably  a  relation  of 
Lord  Wharton,  Warden  of  the  West  Marches,  being 
Captain.  In  a  letter  book  which  has  been  preserved  and 
is  printed  as  an  Appendix  to  the  volume  now  before  us, 
there  is  a  rather  curious  letter  to  Lord  Wharton  to 
which  no  reference  appears  in  the  minutes.  It  is  as  fol- 
lows : — "  Letters  to  My  Lord  Wharton  that  being  adver- 
tised by  his  letters  of  a  late  raid  of  the  Scots  who  passing 
the  river  of  Esk  made  depredation  after  their  wonted 
manner  upon  our  Borders,  the  Lords  have  thought  good 
for  certain  purposes  to  require  him  that  by  one  letter  apart 
he  should  inform  them  of  the  very  certainty  of  their  number 
and  damage  by  them  done  at  that  time  as  truly  as  he  him- 
self was  instructed  therein,  and  by  another  letter  to 
enlarge  the  matter  describing  their  number  to  have  beeri 
upon  a  700  and  that  they  burned  a  three  or  four  villages 
upon  our  Borders,  took  notable  Grays  (Grahams  ?) 
prisoners,  and  cattle  away  with  such  other  aggravations 
of  that  their  rode  as  his  wisdom  in  that  behalf  could  set 
forth."  What  was  the  object  of  this  duplicity  is  not 
apparent. 

On  12  April,  1547,  a  letter  is  addressed  to  Lord  Dacre 
of  Gilsland  calling  attention  to  complaints  of  his  officers* 
of  Burgh  and  Gilsland  for  their  neglect  of  the  King's 
.  service  upon  the  Borders,  with  a  strong  warning  of  the 
consequences  if  they  fail  to  attend  to  their  duties.  No 
doubt  the  Dacres  felt  themselves  sufficiently  powerful  to 
take  their  own  course  with  small  regard  to  the  remon- 
strances 


CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS.  75 

strances  or  warnings  of  the  Council.  The  same  day 
instructions  were  sent  to  Lord  Wharton  to  report  as  to 
several  matters, — who  should  have  the  keeping  of  the 
Scots  prisoners,  the  fortification  of  Langholm,  the  means 
of  providing  for  bowyers  and  fletchers  (arrow  makers)  at 
Carlisle ;  he  is  also  instructed  that  the  pensions  of  men 
on  the  Borders  are  to  die  with  them,  and  "  have  no  long 
continuance  after."  Letters  of  thanks  to  gentlemen  for 
service  on  the  Borders  were  also  sent  to  him  to  be  ad- 
dressed and  forwarded.  He  is  also  directed  that  the 
Debateable  ground  is  to  be  divided  by  his  discretion  to 
such  persons  as  have  served  the  King's  Majesty  against 
the  enemy  and  amongst  such  as  claim  right  and  title 
thereto  with  special  bond  to  be  made  by  them  that  shall 
receive  the  land  that  they  shall  make  ditches  and  quick- 
sets upon  the  ground  allotted  to  them  and  pay  to  the 
King's  use  by  name  of  a  knowledge  (acknowledgment) 
some  small  thing,  as  4/  for  every  20  acres  and  so  to  take 
assurance  for  7  years.  The  said  Lord  Wharton  to  adver- 
tise if  he  shall  proceed  therein  and  otherwise  his  opinion 
for  the  better  service  of  his  Majesty  and  the  satisfaction 
of  the  people.  Patye  Grame  to  have  the  40  acres  hereto- 
fore appointed  or  so  much  in  some  other  place  near  the 
same.  Orders  were  also  sent  to  Mr.  Uvedall  or  Woodall 
for  payment  of  the  garrison  at  Langholm. 

1547.  19  April. — Letters  were  addressed  to  Sir  Row- 
land Thirkeld  (Threlkeld),  Provost  of  the  College  of 
Kirkoswald,  and  his  brother  to  conform  themselves  for 
alteration  of  that  College  for  another  use,  for  whose  pen- 
sions order  should  be  given  in  reasonable  sort  by  the 
Commissioners.  The  17th  May,  further  instructions 
were  sent  as  to  Langholm,  that  it  was  to  be  put  in  a  state 
of  defence  and  not  to  be  abandoned  without  a  siege.  It 
would  appear  that  Lord  Wharton  had  recommended  its 
being  abandoned.  Apparently,  however,  the  view  was 
that  it  should  be  held  unless  in  the  event  of  a  serious 

attack 


76  CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS. 

attack^  rather  from  Dotion^  of  policy  than  of  its  value^  bat 
he  is  instructed  to  report  if  an  attack  is  made. 

The  8  June  there  is  a  further  letter  as  to  the  dissolution 
of  the  College  of  Kirkoswald.  It  is  that  the  Commis* 
sioners  had  intended  to  make  an  example  of  the  Provost 
and  Fellows,  but  on  their  submission  they  are  allowed  to 
continue  there  for  the  present  under  conditions.  There  is 
no  further  entry  relating  to  the  West  Marches  till  19 
Nov.,  I549>  when  a  warrant  was  issued  for  the  payment 
of  3^142  to  Lord  Wharton  "  for  so.  much  due  to  him,  for 
exercising  of  the  office  of  Warden  of  the  West  Marches 
foranempst  Scotland." 

In  Feb.,  1549-50,  Lord  Wharton  is  directed  to  cease  to 
trouble  the  inhabitants  and  tenants  of  the  demesne  of 
Holme  Cultram  and  deliver  them  possession  and  restitu- 
tion of  their  goods  again  ^'  untill  they  shall  be  conimuned 
and  recompensed  by  the  Chancellor  of  the  Augmentations 
other  ways." 

The  28th  of  the  same  month  Edward  Eglanby 
(Aglionby),  Captain  of  the  Citadel  in  Carlisle,  is  directed 
to  appoint  Robert  Smalwood  to  be  Master  Gunner  at 
Carlisle. 

The  22  March  Sir  Robert  Bowes,  Warden  of  the  East 
Marches,  is  directed  to  furnish  so  much  artillery  and 
ammunition  as  he  can  spare  from  Berwick  for  the  defence 
of  the  Castle  of  Carlisle,  on  application  being  made  to 
him  by  Lord  Dacre. 

1552.  22  July,  Sir  Richard  Lee  and  Sir  Thomas 
Palmer  were  appointed  commissioners  to  examine  into 
the  state  of  fortified  places  on  the  Borders.  They  are  in- 
structed, after  having  surveyed  Berwick,  Norham,  and  - 
Wark,  to  repair  to  Carlisle  and  survey  the  state  of  that 
town  and  castle,  and  "  if  any  small  thing  shall  seem  requi- 
site to  be  amended  or  done  out  of  hand  they  for  the 
suretie  of  that  town  to  give  undelayed  order  for  doing 
thereof,  causing  a  plott  to  be  made  of  the  whole,"  which 

done 


CUMBERLAND  AND  WBSTMORLAKD  UNDER  THE  TUDORS.  ^^ 

done  they  may  from  thence  return  hither  a^ain  and  make 
full  report  of  their  proceedings.  The  pay  of  these  officers 
is  fixed  at  26/6  each  per  day. 

1550.  On  14  August  a  Report  being  made  from  Lord 
Dacre  that  the  Scots  under  Lord  Maxwell  are  likely  to 
invade  the  Debateable  Land,  he  is  directed  to  defend  it ; 
also  ^'  further  to  entreat  the  Graymes  inhabitants  there  as 
amicably  as  he  might,  to  keep  them  still  the  King's 
Majesty's  good  subjects  as  they  were  before."  This, 
however,  looks  as  if  they  were  somewhat  wavering  in 
their  allegiance.  The  Scottish  invasion  seems  to  have 
taken  place,  however,  before  Lord  Dacre  could  have  re- 
ceived his  instructions,  as  on  the  21st  August  complaint 
is  made  to  the  French  Ambassador  that  400  Frenchmen 
accompanied  Lord  Maxwell  and  the  Scots.  Lord  Dacre 
is  directed  to  "comfort"  Sandie  Armstrong  with  his 
associates  to  continue  the  King's  faithful  subjects  and  to 
remonstrate  with  the  Scots  on  their  raid,  while]  Lord 
Wharton  and  Sir  Robert  Bowes  (Warden  of  the  East 
Marches)  are  called  to  report  what  they  know  concerning 
the  King's  estate  and  interest  in  the  Debateable  ground. 

The  30th  August  Lord  Wharton  is  called  on  to  report 
as  to  the  prisoners  taken  at  Solway  Moss.  Apparently  the 
bonds  given  for  their  ransom  had  not  been  paid. 

The  5  Sept.,  Sir  Robert  Bowes  is  directed  to  send  300 
hackbutters  to  Lord  Dacre  should  he  apply  for  them,  also 
to  hear  and  certify  ^the  matter  in  question  between  Sir 
Thomas  Dacre  and  Richard  Graym  touching  the  parcel  of 
lande  between  Esk  and  Levyn,  or  Lyne. 

The  8th  Sept.,  a  letter  to  Dalston*  and  others  besides 
Carlisle  to  cease  felling  of  wood  at  Flembie,  presumably 
Flimby,  though  it  is  at  a  considerable  distance  from  Car- 
lisle. 

On  the  2ist  Oct.  there  is  the  minute  of  a  letter  to  Lord 


*  Probably  Dalston  of  Dalston  Hall. 

Dacre 


7S  CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS. 

Dacre  on  various  matters.  It  appears  that  John  Mus- 
grave  had  neglected  to  obey  a  summons  for  service,  for 
which  he  is  warned  to  attend  "  or  otherwise  it  shall  be 
more  sharply  looked  on  against  him."  Also  that  Lord 
Wharton's  steward  had  retained  two  Englishmen  in  Fur- 
ness.  But  the  most  important  matter  is  a  conference 
with  the  Maxwells  respecting  that  frequent  subject  of 
contention,  the  Debateable  Land,  respecting  which  the 
Council  states  that  since  their  last  conference  with  the 
Master  of  Erskine  they  have  instructed  Sir  John  Mason, 
their  Ambassador  in  France,  to  treat  with  the  French 
King  according  to  instructions  given  him.  In  the  mean- 
time. Lord  Dacre  is  directed  to  handle  the  matter 
cautiously. 

The  7th  Deer.,  Lord  Dacre  is  directed  to  "  restore 
divers  the  tenants  called  Greames  to  the  possession  of 
such  lands  as  Sir  Thomas  Dacre  took  from  the  same  by 
wrong." 

The  15  Jan.,  1550-51,  the  Mayor  and  John  Tomson,  of 
Carlisle,  are  called  on  to  see  redress  in  a  cause  of  George 
Greames,  Priest,  concerning  his  marriage,  to  report  to  the 
Council,  to  restore  his  goods  and  suffer  him  to  enjoy  the 
liberties  of  the  town ;  also  to  suffer  him,  being  Master  of 
the  Queresters,  to  enjoy  the  same  according  to  the 
foundation  of  the  Church. 

The  29  Jan.  the  French  Ambassador  appears  before  the 
Council  respecting  the  Debateable  Qround,  the  point 
being,  whether  the  Scots  may  be  restored  to  their  ancient 
limits  and  that  the  Debateable  Ground  may  be  neutral. 
He  was  informed  that  a  full  answer  should  be  given  on 
the  arrival  of  Lord  Dacre.  The  ist  Feb.  he  appears  again 
with  demands  for  the  restoration  of  Edrington  or  Ethring- 
ton  Castle  and  the  Fisheries  in  Tweed,  the  neutrality  of 
the  Debateable  Land,  the  payment  of  ransom  for  certain 
Englishmen  formerly  prisoners  in  Scotland,  freedom  of 
intercourse  between  the  two  countries,  and  restoration  of 

five 


CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS.   79 

five  Scottish  ships  embargoed,  and  the  restoration  of  the 
hostages  for  the  prisoners  taken  at  Solway  Moss.  To 
which  the  Council  replied  that  they  would  consider  the 
matter  and  reply  in  a  few  days.  It  will  be  remembered 
that  Mary  of  Guise  was  at  this  time  Regen  of  Scotland, 
and,  in  the  words  of  the  Council,  Scotland  was  now 
made  French,  in  consequence  of  which  they  refused 
**  with  fair  words "  an  application  from  Lord  Maxwell, 
apparently  then  in  France,  to  pass  through  England  into 
Scotland. 

On  14  Feb.  they  made  answer  to  the  French  Ambas- 
sador, refusing  the  restoration  of  Etherington  Castle,  &c., 
agreeing  that  the  ransoms  should  be  paid,  and  that  Scot- 
tish ships,  except  pirates,  shall  be  restored,  but  refusing 
liberty  of  trade,  except  that  such  Scottish  ships  as  may  be 
driven  on  the  English  coast  by  stress  of  weather  should 
be  free  to  return.  With  regard  to  the  release  of  hostages 
they  temporised. 

1551.  The  20  May  the  matter  in  variance  between 
Greame  and  his  wife  and  the  Mayor  and  others  of  Car- 
lisle (doubtless  the  case  mentioned  above)  was  submitted 
to  the  Marquis  of  Dorset. 

The  26  July,  Richard  Bunny,  Treasurer  of  the  North, 
is  instructed  to  continue  the  payment  of  a  gunner's  wages 
at  Carlisle  to  Clement  Rayleton.  Also  instructions  are 
sent  for  the  restoration  of  the  Scottish  prisoners  and 
hostages  in  England. 

On  19  August  there  is  an  entry  of  a  Warrant  for  a 
reward  of  3^30  to  Richard  Salkeld,  probably  one  of  the 
Cumberland  family  of  that  name,  for  his  service  in  the 
wars. 

The  25th  Sept.,  orders  are  given  to  Lord  Conyers,  and 
the  Sheriffs  and  Justices  of  Cumberland  not  to  proceed  at 
their  next  Quarter  Sessions  with  the  inquisition  of  the 
matters  laid  against  John  Musgrave  for  the  death  of 
Ambrose  Armstrong;  the  Musgraves,  as  well  as  Carleton, 
however,  are  to  be  detained  in  safe  hold.  The 


8o  CUMliERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS. 

The  28th  Sept.,  a  return  of  the  wages  heretofore  ap- 
pointed to  the  Wardens  and  Deputy  Wardens  on  the 
Borders  is  called  for.  Also,  Sir  Thomas  Smith,*  Dean  of 
Carlisle,  is  directed  to  distribute  moneys  which  the  Chap- 
ter are  bound  to  distribute  among  poor  folk  and  upon  the 
highways,  notwithstanding  a  suit  which  appears  to  have 
been  pending.  The  same  day  the  Lord  Chancellor  is 
directed  to  send  for  the  Lord  Dacre  and  his  factors  and 
John  Musgrave  and  such  of  his  tenants  as  the  case 
concerns  to  appear  before  him  in  a  case  concerning  Beau- 
{:astle  or  Bewcastle  Dale  in  the  county  of  Cumberland. 

On  the  26th  of  Nov.,  Lord  Conj'ers  is  directed  to  defer 
the  agreement  with  Lord  Maxwell,  in  order  that  the  con- 
troversy about  the  Debateable  Ground  and  a  murder 
lately  committed  there  may  be  further  considered,  and 
he  is  ordered  to  stay  a  raid  which  he  appears  to  have 
contemplated. 

The  loth  Dec,  a  Warrant  is  issued  to  the  Lord  Chan- 
cellor for  a  patent  appointing  Lord  Conyers  Deputy 
Warden  of  the  West  and  Sir  Nicholas  Stirley  for  the 
East  Marches.  It  should  have  been  mentioned  that  on 
the  II  Oct.  a  patent  was  ordered  for  the  Duke  of  North- 
umberland (Dudley),  to  be  Warden  General  of  the  North 
Marches, — the  present  appointments  not  to  be  prejudicial 
to  his  patent.  An  interesting  entry  on  the  20th  Dec. 
shows  what  the  pay  of  these  officers  was ;  it  is  a  warrant 
to  pay  to  Lord  Conyers  600  marks  a  year  for  himself,  and 
an  imperfect  entry  beginning  X.  From  a  later  entry  it 
appears  to  have  been  £10  a  year  each  for  his  two  depu- 
ties, and  40  shillings  a  year  each  for  two  Warden 
Sergeants.  Lord  Ogle  appears  to  have  been  Deputy 
Warden  of  the  Middle  Marches,  his  salary  being  only  five 
marks  a  year. 

1551-1.     From  an  entry  on  8  Jan.,  it  seems  that  Sir 


•  Secretary  of  State  under  Edward  VI.  and  Elisabeth. 

Ingram 


CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS.   8l 

Ingram  Clyfford  was  one  of  Lord  Conyers'  deputies,  as 
he  is  empowered  to  act  for  the  latter  during  his  absence. 

The  8th  Feb.  a  summons  is  issued  to  Edward  Michael, 
Vicar  of  Aspatric,  and  Nicholas  Williamson,  Priest 
Official  to  the  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  to  appear  before  the 
Council.  The  23rd  of  the  same  month  there  occurs  a 
grant  of  the  patronage  of  the  church  of  Gosforth  in  Cum- 
berland to  Fergus  Greyme  and  his  heirs. 

On  the  28th  Feb.  there  is  a  long  entry  respecting  the 
Debateable  Land,  chiefly  concerned  with  the  proposal 
to  appoint  Commissioners  for  the  division  thereof.  The 
English  Council  objected  to  the  Commissioners  named  by 
the  Scots,  or  rather  the  French,  as  too  numerous,  and 
propose  a  Commission  of  four  on  each  side,  to  meet  at 
Carlisle.  They  name  on  their  part  the  Earl  of  Westmor- 
morland,  Lord  Wharton,  Sir  Thomas  Chaloner,  and  Sir 
Thomas  Palmer.  The  Commission,  as  we  know,  resulted 
in  the  division — nominal  at  least — of  the  Debateable 
Land,  though  it  is  long  after  referred  to  by  that  name, 
and  certainly  the  turbulent  disposition  of  the  inhabitants 
showed  little  if  any  improvement. 

About  this  time  Lord  Conyers  resumed  his  office  and 
relieved  Sir  Ingram  Clyfford,  who  received  the  thanks  of 
the  Council. 

On  the  5th  March,  Lords  Dacre  and  Wharton,  who,  as 
it  appears  had  long  been  at  odds,  were  summoned  before 
the  Council,  when  "  after  long  travail  they  made  friends, 
causing  them  to  shake  hands  and  to  promise  solemnly 
and  constantly  before  their  lordships  that  they  would 
remit  one  to  another  all  hatred,  ill-will,  and  displeasure.*' 

The  17th  March,  it  was  resolved  to  send  a  herald  to 
attend  the  Commissioners  for  the  Debateable  Land.  This 
probably  signifies  the  acceptance  by  the  Scots  of  the 
proposals  of  the  Council. 

1552.  26  March. — Petitions  of  Richard  and  Fergus 
Grame  against  Sir  Thomas  Dacre,  and  one  of  Margaret 

Blackbourne 


82  CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS. 

Blackbourne  were  sent  to  Lord  Conyers,  who  is  to  inquire 
into  them,  and  for  the  King's  Majestie's  better  service  to 
set  a  final  peace  between  the  Grame's  and  the  Dacres  if 
he  can  so  do.  Arrears  of  his  wages  to  be  paid  to  John 
Oxley,  gunner  of  Carlisle. 

The  loth  April,  the  Council  inform  the  Commissioners 
in  the  North  that  no  mention  can  be  found  in  any  of  the 
treaties  with  Scotland  of  the  Debateable  Land  and  Cano- 
hie,  it  being  therefore  supposed  that  these  Agreements  have 
been  made  by  the  Wardens  they  are  instructed  to  search 
for  records  and  the  evidence  of  old  men.  A  plan  of  the  De- 
bateable Land  was  sent  to  the  Commissioners  on  the  6th 
May.  The  loth  May,  Lord  Ogle  is  cautioned  that  his 
Letters  are  so  slightly  sealed  that  they  are  for  the  most 
part  opened  before  their  delivery;  he  is,  therefore,  to  take 
order  for  the  surer  sealing  of  them  henceforth.  The  23rd 
May,  Lord  Conyers  and  Sir  John  Lowther  are  directed  to 
suffer  John  Dudley  to  enjoy  his  share  of  the  mills  of 
Perith  (Penrith).  Lord  Wharton  is  directed  to  allow  the 
Earl  of  Cumberland's  servants  to  hold  a  Fair  at  Kirkby 
Stephen,  which  he  is  promised  shall  be  no  prejudice  to 
his  title. 

The  26  May,  a  Warrant  issued  for  the  payment  of  ^^40 
to  Sir  Ingram  Clyfiford  for  his  salary  while  acting  as 
Deputy  Warden  for  Lord  Conyers  from  26  Jan.  to  21st 
March  last. 

7th  June. — Lord  Conyers  is  directed  to  defer  no  longer 
to  appoint  a  Day  of  March  with  Lord  Maxwell,  he  being 
sufficiently  authorised  by  his  patent  of  Dep.  Warden,  and 
that  the  same  meeting  may  be  a  means  to  increase  quiet- 
ness and  to  avoid  disasters  on  either  side. 

On  the  14  June,  a  letter  was  addressed  to  the  Chan- 
cellor of  the  Augmentations  to  receive  in  fee  by  way  of 
exchange  of  the  Lord  Dacre  certain  lands  and  tenements 
in  Poltraghan,  Kinker  Hill,  Aikeshawe,  Lyne  Holme, 
Mashethorne,    Corncroke,    Daplelandes    or    Daplemoor, 

Levin 


CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS.  83 

Levin,  Graynes,  Wyntershell,  Rydings,  and  Smithlands 
in  the  countie  of  Cumberland,  belonging  to  the  said  Lord 
Dacre  and  very  meet  for  the  King's  Majesty,  and  to 
deliver  him  in  recompense  a  like  estate  in  the  town  of 
Papcaster  in  the  said  countie  of  the  yearly  value  of  £i& 
IS.  7d.  (xviii^  xix'')  and  to  be  comprised  in  the  same  ex- 
change those  lands  of  the  said  Lord  Dacres  within 
Beaucastle  Dale  aforesaid.  All  these  tenements,  except- 
ing Poltraghan,  can  be  easily  identified  on  the  Ordnance 
Map — ^indeed  the  names  are  little  changed.  The  Dacres 
at  this  period  were,  according  to  the  county  histories. 
Lords  of  Papcastle ;  in  whose  hands  Bewcastle  was  does 
not  appear.  Whelan  suggests  the  Musgraves,  but  as  the 
Castle  of  Bewcastle  was  a  royal  castle,  it  may  have  been 
in  the  Crown.  As  the  exchange  was  to  be  carried  out  by 
the  Chancellor  of  the  Augmentations,  the  Court  estab- 
lished for  dealing  with  the  plunder  of  the  monasteries,  it 
is  probable  that  these  lands  formed  part  of  the  confiscated 
ecclesiastical  endowments. 

The  i6th  August  an  agreement  was  come  to  with  the 
French  Ambassador  on  behalf  of  the  Scots  for  the  divi- 
sion of  the  Debateable  Land,  which  was  to  be  communi- 
cated by  one  of  the  Secretaries  to  the  Scots,  and  order 
taken  for  marking  the  agreed  boundary  by  pillars,  and  the 
29th  of  the  same  month  the  agreement  and  plan  were 
despatched  to  the  Commissioners  by  the  hands  of  Sir 
Thomas  Chaloner,  one  of  the  Commissioners.  Finally, 
on  the  23  March,  1552-3,  Lord  Wharton  is  directed  with 
regard  to  the  ditch  which  is  cast  for  the  partition  of  the 
Debateable  Land  (Scots  Dyke)  to  do  what  he  can  to  get 
the  neighbours  to  contribute  to  the  cost,  and  to  inquire 
whether  the  Scots  will  bear  their  share.  If  he  cannot 
raise  the  funds  required  in  this  way,  the  Receiver  of  those 
parts  is  authorised  to  pay  ^100  towards  the  charges — 
Lord  Wharton  using  such  persuasion  as  he  shall  think 
most  convenient  both  with  our  men  and  the  Scots. 

1552. 


84  CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS. 

1552.  Oct.  6.— Jno.  Bunny,  Treasurer  of  Berwick, 
has  orders  to  pay  half  the  sum  payable  to  the  Duke  of 
Northumberland  as  Lord  Warden  to  Lord  Wharton,  he 
being  appointed  the  Duke's  deputy. 

The  12  Oct.,  Lord  Wharton  is  directed  to  give  orders 
that  his  and  all  other  letters  of  the  King's  Ministers  on 
the  Borders  be  securely  sealed,  for  that  they  are  oft  times 
opened  by  the  way. 

The  13th  Nov.,  a  letter  to  Lord  Wharton  for  the  com- 
passing into  the  King's  hands  the  demesnes  of  Hexham, 
according  to  the  minutes.  This  means  a  minute  pre- 
served in  the  Council  Office  ;  it  is  of  frequent  occurrence, 
but  I  do  not  know  that  any  have  been  preserved. 

The  20th  Nov.,  the  Master  of  the  Rolls  is  directed  to 
search  the  records  of  thfe  Chancery  to  see  whether  the 
Captains  of  the  castle  and  citadel  of  Carlisle  and  their 
retinue  have  any  patents  of  their  offices  and  fees  enrolled 
there. 

The  3rd  Dec,  Lord  Wharton  is  directed  to  assign  to 
Lord  Evers,  Deputy  Warden  of  the  Middle  Marches,  the 
hous^  at  Wallington  that  was  Constable's  that  is  fled  into 
Scotland  for  his  residence. 

28  Dec. — Lord  Evers  appointed  Deputy  Warden  of  the 
Middle  Marches,  Ralph  Grey  of  Chillingham  of  the  East 
Marches.     Instructions  to  Lord  Wharton  accordingly. 

I552-3-  23  March. — Lord  Wharton  instructed  to 
examine  the  matter  touching  the  lewd  words  reported  by 
one  Threlkeld,  and  to  punish  the  same  as  by  trial  he  shall 
find  it  deserve. 

1553-  27  March. — A  letter  to  Lord  Wharton  to  make 
inquiry  respecting  certain  English  fugitives  fled  into 
Teviot  dale,  two  of  whom,  Thomas  Crayford  and  Thomas 
Reynolds  have  broken  out  of  the  Marshalsea.  He  is  to 
request  the  Governor  of  Scotland  to  have  them  delivered, 
also  Constable  (probably  the  person  mentioned  above)  the 
coiners,  Parys  the  Irishman,  and  certain  murderers  that 

murdered 


CUMBERLAND  AND  WESTMORLAND  UNDER  THE  TUDORS.    85 

murdered  a  man  in  Wales, — and  if  be  shall  perceive  that 
the  Governor  to  seem  to  show  the  rather  readiness  (sic) 
to  satisfy  the  request  by  the  late  setting  at  liberty  of  the 
Scottish  merchants,  then  to  satisfy  also  his  demand  for 
the  delivery  unto  him  of  Wilson  the  Scot,  fled  thither  out 
of  Scotland. 

24  April. — ^A  letter  to  the  Chancellor  of  the  Augmenta- 
tions to  give  order  that  the  parsonage  of  Holm  Cultram  in 
the  county  of  Cumberland  after  the  determination  of  his 
interest  that  now  hath  the  same, — who  he  was  does  not 
appear, — may  remain  always  to  the  Captain  of  the  Castle 
of  Carlisle,  paying  the  due  yearly  rent  as  a  thing  annexed 
to  the  office  of  the  same  Captain  for  his  better  relief  and 
maintenance,  giving  knowledge  of  this  the  King's 
Majesty's  determination  to  any  person  that  may  happen 
to  sue  for  the  said  parsonage,  and  to  advertise  the  Lords 
thereof,  that  if  need  be  further  order  may  be  given  for  the 
better  stay  of  the  same  according!}'. 

The  28th  April,  a  warrant  is  issued  to  the  Receiver  of 
the  Court  of  Wards  (William  Dansell)  for  the  sum  of  £45 
to  Sir  Richard  Musgrave,  Knight,  for  the  amendment  «of 
things  within  his  charge  in  the  Castle  of  Carlisle. 

The  13  May,  Lord  Wharton  is  again  required  to  allow 
the  Earl  of  Cumberland's  servants  to  keep  a  Fair  at 
Kirkby  Stephen,  which  he  is  assured  shall  be  no  prejudice 
to  his  title,  **  but  rather  a  mean  to  frame  a  good  end  in 
the  matter  much  the  sooner."  Lord  Cumberland  is 
required  to  give  order  that  his  servants  that  shall  be 
appointed  to  keep  this  Fair  do  use  the  same  in  such  good 
and  discreet  sort  as  no  cause  of  unquiet  do  arise  thereof 
but  that  it  may  appear  only  as  it  is  meant,  rather  for  the 
avoiding  of  trouble  than  either  to  fortify  his  Lordship's 
title  or  to  prejudice  the  right  of  the  said  Lord  Wharton. 

This  is  the  last  entry  in  the  Register  during  the  reign 
of  Edward  VL,  who  died  on  the  6th  July,  1553.  If  these 
extracts  are  considered  of  sufficient  interest,  they  may  be 
resumed  at  a  future  date. 


(86) 


Art.  VIII. — On  some  Obsolete  and  Semi-Obsolete  Appliances. 

By  H.  SwAiNSON  CowPER,  F.S.A. 
Read  at  Arnside,  Sept.  25,  1893. 

T  HAVE  ventured  to  put  down  in  the  ensuing  pages  a 
-■-  few  remarks  about  some  appliances,  domestic  and 
otherwise,  the  use  of  which  is  now  dying  out,  or  has  but 
disappeared  within  the  memory  of  man.  That  such  a 
subject  comes  within  the  proper  sphere  of  a  local  Society 
of  Antiquaries,  I  venture  to  maintain  ;  for  what  can  be 
more  indispensable  for  the  true  understanding  of  the 
home  life  of  a  rural  district,  than  a  familiarity  with  the 
surroundings  and  appliances  of  the  people,  before  every- 
thing was  reduced  to  a  cut  and  dried  uniformity  by 
the  introduction  of  steam  traffic,  and  machinery  in 
general.  Thus  though  the  study  is  one  of  trifles,  it  is  not 
unimportant,  and  in  scope  it  is  much  larger  than  one 
would  at  first  imagine.  A  chat  with  a  Cumberland  village 
patriarch  about  old  times,  will  soon  put  the  uninitiated 
into  a  mist  about  details  for  the  simple  reason  that  allu- 
sions will  almost  surely  be  made  to  contrivances  which, 
though  bright  in  the  patriarch's  memory,  are  now  to  be 
seen  only  in  the  most  retired  dalesmen's  homes,  if  indeed 
they  survive  at  all.  Some  of  these  appliances  have  died 
a  natural  death,  apparently  for  little  or  no  reason,  as  the 
fire  cat  and  push  plough.  Others,  like  the  brank  and  the 
stang,  which  are  not  domestic,  but  punitive,  have  given 
way  before  the  relaxation  of  the  communal  judicial  codes, 
which  has  followed  as  a  natural  re-action  the  barbarous 
ideas  of  less  enlightened  ages.  But  the  majority  have 
disappeared  before  the  influence  of  railway  traffic,  which 
has  brought  within  reach  of  all  classes  cheap  and  service- 
able, if  often  badly  constructed  and  always  inartistic, 
appliances  of  domestic  and  other  character. 

The 


Plate  1. 


SPIT.    (A.  THE  HANDLE.) 


OBSOLETE  AND  SEMI-OBSOLETE  APPLIANCES.  87 

The  examples  which  I  describe  to-day  are  but  a  few 
which  have  occurred  to  me  as  suitable,  because  I  have 
access  to  examples,  and  am  therefore  able  to  lay  before 
you  some  slight  sketches  which  will  illustrate  the  subject. 
But  there  are  many  others,  probably  more  important  and 
of  greater  interest :  and  in  my  opinion  all  are  worthy  of 
some  record  at  our  hands  unless,  as  must  inevitably 
happen  otherwise,  they  are  to  be  absolutely  forgotten  and 
lost  in  oblivion. 

Many  of  the  accessories  of  the  house  place  hearth  of  the 
old  farm  houses  and  statesmen's  residences,  have  become 
quite  or  partly  obsolete  during  the  last  fifty  years.  Since 
ranges  have  taken  the  place  of  the  open  hearth,  it  is  only 
here. and  there  in  a  deserted  farm,  where  one  can  see,  by 
gazing  up  the  sooty  chimney  shaft,  the  crossbeam  called 
the  rannel  balk,*  fixed  firmly  in  the  walls  parallel  with 
the  floor  of  the  room  above.  From  this  hung  a  chain 
with  hooks  so  arranged  that  it  could  be  lengthened  or 
shortened  as  might  be  required,  and  at  the  end  of  which 
could  be  suspended  a  pan.  This  was  called  the  ratten 
crook.t 

Another  appliance  which  has  disappeared  with  the 
hearth  fire  is  the  girdle  and  brandiron,  or  brandreth.  The 
latter  was  an  open  ring  of  iron  supported  on  three  legs, 
which  was  placed  over  the  fire  with  the  girdle  or  circular 
baking  plate  upon  it.  On  this,  the  crisp  haver  bread 
(oat  bread)  was  baked.  Sometimes  the  girdle  was  sus- 
pended to  the  ratten  crook,  instead  of  being  placed  upon 
the  brandreth.t 

A  form  of  spit  for  cooking  or  toasting  before  the  fire  is 
shown  in  Plate  i.     This  object,  which  was  bought  in 


*  Sometimes  called  Rannel  tree  or  Gaily  balk.-"  Glossary  of  the  Dialect  of 
Cumberland,"  English  Dialect  Society,  series  C,  viii. 

t"T'rattans  ran  on  t'rannel  tree.  Old  Song  (idem).  Presumably  this  habit 
of  "f  rattans  "  f^ave  the  name  to  this  appliance. 

t  Lonsdale  Magazine^  vol.  111.,  p.  290. 

Hawkshead 


88  OBSOLETE   AND   SEMI-OBSOLETE  APPLIANCES. 

Hawkshead  parish^  is  of  iron,  and  is  2  ft.  5  in.  high.  The 
component  parts  are  a  tripod,  from  which  rises  a  slender 
iron  rod,  upon  which  Is  adjusted  a  framework  of  a  some- 
what curious  shape,  furnished  in  front  with  five  pairs  of 
iron  prongs,  two  above  and  three  below.  At  the  back  are 
two  perforated  projections  (the  upper  with  a  handle) 
through  which  passes  the  rod.  A  double  spring  from  the 
back  of  the  frame  also  presses  against  the  rod,  so  that  the 
framework  can  be  slid  up  to  any  elevation,  and  will 
remain  there.  The  same  system  is  used  in  the  candle 
holders  from  Troutbeck  and  Wreay,  figured  in  my  paper 
on  that  subject  in  a  late  volume  of  the  Proceedings  of  this 
Society.*  I  have  met  with  no  other  local  example  of  a 
spit  of  this  form.  This  specimen  probably  belongs  to 
the  first  half  of  last  century. 

The  toast  being  made  and  buttered,  it  was  put  on  a 
plate  and  placed  in  front  of  the  fire  on  the  "  cat  "  to  keep 
warm.  It  is  singular  that  this  simple  and  useful  appliance 
appears  to  be  quite  out  of  use  at  the  present  day  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  Lake  District,  although,  made  of 
brass,  they  are  still  in  general  use  in  some  parts  of  the 
Lowlands  of  Scotland.  Those  which  are  sometimes 
found  in  farms  in  the  Lakes  are  of  wood,  and  consist  of 
six  turned  legs,  screwed  or  fastened  into  a  central  ball  of 
wood.  As  a  rule  they  stand  about  a  foot  high.  The 
derivation  of  the  name  is  obvious ;  in  common  with  pussy 
and  the  arms  (or  legs)  of  man, — quocunque  jeceris  stabit.  I 
recently  purchased  a  "  cat "  from  the  widow  of  an  inn- 
keeper in  the  Lakes,  in  whose  possession  it  had  been  for 
years,  but  who  had  never  had  the  slightest  idea  as  to  its 
use  (Plate  II). 

Sometimes  at  the  back  of  the  fire  was  an  ornamental 
plate  of  cast  iron,  which,  according  to  the  dignity  of  the 
household,  was  more  or  less  elaborate.     These  are  so 


^  Vol.  XIL,  pp.  117,  119  (Nos.  16  and  i8). 

rare 


Plate  II. 


A  FIRE  CAT. 


ttl 

h 

3 


OBSOLBTS  AKt)  SBHI-OBSOL&T^  At>l>LIAKCfiS.  &g 

rare,  however,  that  they  can  never  have  been  usual  except 
in  houses  of  a  somewhat  superior  sort.  The  plainer  were 
only  dated  or  initialled  ;  others  were  wondrous  with 
wreaths  and  posies.  A  few  showed  figures  apparently 
allegorical^  and  of  one  of  this  character  I  exhibit  a  draw- 
ing (Plate  III).  It  is  about  17  inches  wide  and  16  inches 
high,  but  unfortunately  a  part  of  the  bottom  has  been 
broken  away,  so  that  the  design  is  not  complete.  This 
consists  of  three  female  nude  figures,  the  centre  one 
standing  and  the  other  two  leaning  or  sitting.  Two  hold 
objects  like  sticks  in  their  hands.  I  cannot  suggest  what 
they  are  meant  to  represent.  Above  the  figures  are  r.^'a., 
and  then  comes  an  ornamented  border  in  a  sort  of  shoul- 
dered arch.  Outside  this  are  festooned  posies  or  fruit 
suspended  from  the  top  by  a  big  bow.  The  top  edge  has 
also  had  scroll  or  foliage  work,  which  has  however  been 
corroded  away  by  the  action  of  fire.  This  example  is  from 
Keen  Ground,  the  residence  of  my  uncle,  Mr.  J.  C.  Cow- 
pcr.  The  house  was  the  original  home  of  the  Rigge 
family  of  Wood  Broughton,  of  whom  the  late  Mr.  H. 
Fletcher  Rigge  was  an  active  vice-president  of  this 
Society.  The  initials  are  record  of  some  of  his  ancestors, 
but  I  am  unable  to  identify  them.  The  design  seems  to 
mark  the  latter  half  of  the  17th  century. 

Though  not  properly  to  be  counted  among  obsolete 
appliances,  I  may  mention  here  the  quaint  cast  iron  door 
weights  that  are  sometimes  to  be  noticed  in  old  fashioned 
houses.  Though  they  are  still  in  use,  and  still  no  doubt 
made,  they  deserve  a  passing  notice,  as  evidence  of  the 
existence  of  old  fashioned  ideas  in  modern  times.  Many 
of  the  most  modem  are  absolutely  without  interest, 
being  ugly  castings  of  floral  or  similar  design  ;  but  here 
and  there  we  find  them  in  the  form  of  figures  in  the  cos- 
tume or  uniform  of  the  early  part  of  this  century,  calling 
to  mind  the  Toby  Fillpot  jugs,  or  the  picture  board  dum- 
mies of  the  early  part  of  the  i8th  century.    One,  of  which 

I 


90  OBSOLBTB  AND  S£MI-OBSOL£TB  APPLIANCBS. 

I  exhibit  a  sketch,  is  in  a  house  at  Heversham,  and 
represents  the  Duke  of  Wellington ;  but  whether  the 
detail  of  his  uniform  is  accurately  represented,  or  whether 
the  door  weight  is  really  of  that  date  I  am  unable  to  say. 
(Plate  IV). 

I  am  unaware  of  any  really  old  examples  of  these  ob- 
jects, nor  do  I  know  if  they  were  ever  made  locally.  The 
fashion  as  I  have  said  still  holds  and  I  recently  saw  a 
chimney  sweep  (brushes  and  all)  occupying  a  position  on 
the  oven  top  in  a  farm  house  in  company  with  a  burly  tax 
collector  with  his  books  under  his  arm. 

A  short  time  since  I  was  shown  in  a  house  in  Ulver- 
ston  two  curious  objects,  the  use  of  which  I  was  then 
unable  to  understand.  The  first  was  a  minute  hand  churn, 
the  total  height  of  which  was  only  lo  inches,  turned  care- 
fully in  beech  wood.  The  other  was  an  equally  small  milk 
pail,  about  5  inches  in  diameter  across  the  top,  carefully 
coopered  in  staves  of  oak,  beech,  ash  and  yew,  and  neatly 
bound  together  with  ashen  hoops.  These  hoops  were  in- 
geniously spliced  in  a  way  unused  by  modern  coopers. 
(Plates  V.  and  VI.) 

These  little  objects  had  the  appearance  of  neatly  made 
toys  :  but  the  owner  assured  me  that  the  first  was 
actually  used  by  his  great-grandmother  (if  not  by  his 
great-great- grandmother)  to  churn  her  own  little  portion 
of  butter  to  breakfast.  The  pail,  which  is  in  the  same 
collection,  was  purchased  by  the  owner's  father  in  Dun- 
nerdale. 

For  some  time  I  was  completely  puzzled  as  to  the 
origin  of  these  pigmy  appliances.  It  hardly  seemed  to 
m%  that  the  churn  could  be  a  toy,  considering  the  expla- 
nation that  was  g^ven.  Neither  did  it  seem  probable  that 
the  primitive  valley  of  the  Duddon  was  a  likely  locality  to 
find  toys  in,  either  ancient  or  modern.  It  occurred  to  me 
as  possible  (thpugh  the  solution  seemed  hardly  satisfac- 
tory) that  they  might  have  had  some  connection  with  the 

dalesmen's 


Plate  IV. 


IRON    DOOR  WEIGHT. 


Plate  V. 


PIQMY  CHURN. 


PlJkTE  VI. 


PIQMY  MILK  PAIL,      the  Scottish  **Coqii. 


OBSOLETE   AND   SEMI-OBSOLETE  APPLIANCES.  9I 

dalesmen's  festivals  called  kurn-winnings«  which,  origin- 
ally harvest  festivals  (corn-winnings)  became  corrupted  to 
kum,  ue.^  chum-winnings,  because  each  member  of  the 
party  was  regaled  with  a  basin  of  cream.*  I  even  con- 
sidered the  possibility  of  their  having  been  used  in  some 
way  for  the  propitiation  of  the  "  hobthrust "  or  brownie  by 
a  present  of  milk. 

Quite  recently,  however,  a  Scottish  friend  has  assured 
me  that  in  Aberdeenshire  (and  no  doubt  in  other  parts  of 
Scotland)  diminutive  coopered  pails  were,  and  still  in  a 
lesser  degree  are,  in  regular  use  for  serving  up  porridge 
in.  The  local  name  for  them  is  "  cogie."  The  example 
from  Dunnerdale  leaves  very  little  doubt  that  the  same 
form  was  in  use  in  Cumberland.  And  when  we  know  that 
porridge  was  eaten  from  pigmy  pails,  we  hardly  need 
doubt  when  we  are  told  that  cream  was  sent  on  to  the 
statesmen's  tables  in  dwarf  churns. 

The  quern,  or  hand  corn  mill,  is  now  quite  obsolete  in 
this  district,  though  it  is  highly  probable  this  primitive 
instrument  was  in  use  in  the  fell  districts  till  a  compara- 
tively recent  period.  Indeed,  the  frequency  with  which 
they  are  turned  up  near  old  farms  points  to  this.  The 
beehive-shaped  upper  stones,  and  disc-like  nether  stones, 
have  been  so  often  described  and  figured  that  it  is  un- 
necessary to  say  much  about  them  here.  I  know  one  farm 
near  Hawkshead  where  three  of  the  nether  stones  have 
been  turned  up  in  ploughing  and  digging,  and  curiously  a 
wood  on  the  farm  close  to  where  they  were  found  is  called 
Mill  Stone  Coppice.  It  would  appear  that  several  querns 
were  worked  at  this  spot  at  some  time. 

A  very  different  sort  of  mill,  but  equally  obsolete,  is  the 
malt  mill  which  is  sometimes  still  to  be  seen  fastened  to 


*"01d  Customs  and  Usages  of  the  Lake  District/'  by  Jno.  Richardson. 
"Transactions  of  the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Association  for  the  Advance- 
"■^t  of  Literature  and  Science,"  vol.  11.,  p..  123. 

the 


92  OBSOLBTB  AND  SBMI*OBSOLBTfi  APPLIANCES. 

the  beam  of  a  bam  in  old  farms.  It  is  like  a  huge  coffee 
mill,  with  a  big  wheel,  and  a  handle  to  turn  it  by. 

The  appliances  in  use  in  former  times  for  securing  the 
doors  and  cupboards  are  now  so  universally  superseded  by 
modem  locks,  that  no  excuse  is  necessary  for  touching  on 
the  subject  here.  Our  late  regretted  vice-president,  Dr. 
Taylor,  has  more  than  once  called  our  attention  to  the 
great  sliding  wooden  bars  by  which  the  front  doors  of  our 
old  manor  houses  were  formerly  secured.  The  proper  key 
lock  which  became  general  at  a  later  period  was  some- 
times adorned  in  the  fashion  of  the  17th  and  i8th 
centuries  with  the  initials  of  the  owner  of  the  house  and 
his  wife.  Such  are  still  occasionally  to  be  observed  in 
manor  houses,  and  farm  houses  which  have  once  been  the 
residence  of  ancient  statesmen  families.  An  example  is  to 
be  seen  in  the  valley  of  Yewdale,  near  Coniston,  marked 
G^A    and  there  are  one  or  more  of  the  same  sort,  I  be- 

1748 

lieve,  in  Troutbeck.  It  is  well  known  that  Anne,  Countess 
of  Pembroke,  used  to  give  to  her  friends  presents  of 
doorlocks  adorned  with  her  initials,  accompanied  by  her 
portrait.  Such  a  one  is  at  Collin  Field,  near  Kendal, 
given  to  her  secretary  Sedgwick.* 

A  curious  padlock  was  found  some  time  ago  in  the 
walls  of  Hawkshead  Hall  (Plate  VII).  Its  construction  is 
simple,  but  ingenious  and  effective.  The  figure  will  ex- 
plain it  better  than  a  description.  In  one  end  of  the 
barrel  (a)  is  a  screw  with  two  holes  in  the  flat  end  (6).  To 
open  the  padlock,  first  remove  the  screw  by  means  of  the 
double  pointed  end  of  the  key  (c).  Into  the  open  end  of 
the  barrel  insert  the  other  end  of  the  key,  which  has  a 
series  of  small  projections  placed  spirally.  Wind  from  left 
to  right  until  this  part  of  the  key  has  passed  through  the 
thread  of  the  female  screw  within.    The  small  projections 


* "  Transactions  of  the   Cumberland   and    Westmorland    Antiquarian   and 
Archaeological  Society,"  vol.  IX.,  p.  191. 

thw 


Plate  VH. 


A  PADLOCK. 


OBSOLETE  AND  SBMI*OBSOLETB  APPLUNCBS.  93 

then  fit  into  and  hold  another  moveable  female  screw. 
At  this  point  the  key  must  be  turned  from  ri^ht  to  left 
which  causes  this  female  screw  to  revolve,  an4  so  forces 
out  the  male  screw,  which  terminates  the  other  limb  of 
the  padlock.  The  two  limbs  are  semi-circles  connected 
by  a  hinge.  To  fasten  the  lock,  reverse  the  process  and 
re-place  the  loose  male  screw  (6). 

It  is  curious  as  showing  how  the  same  contrivances  and 
patterns  were  in  use  all  over  England  at  the  same  date  in 
former  times,  that  the  key  depicted,  which  exactly  fits  the 
lock,  was  bought  in  an  old  iron  shop  in  London,  and  was 
probably  dredged  up  in  the  Thames. 

It  is  also  worth  remarking  how  similar  wants,  under 
similar  conditions  of  culture,  produce  like  results.  There 
are  at  this  day  to  be  seen  in  the  bazaars  of  Bagdad  in 
Turkish  Arabia,  padlocks  of  local  manufacture  of  practi- 
cally the  same  construction  but  of  infinitely  inferior  work. 
No  doubt  if  inquiry  were  made,  this  form  of  lock  would  be 
found  to  be  as  universal  as  the  quern  or  hand  corn  mill 
was,  and  is  still  in  some  countries  where  neither  steam 
nor  water  power  are  available. 

While  on  the  subject  of  domestic  appliances,  I  hope  I 
may  be  excused  for  briefly  mentioning  one  which  cannot 
be  said  to  be  obsolete,  but  merits  at  least  a  passing 
notice.  I  allude  to  the  wonderful  series  of  old  grand- 
fathers' clocks,  which  are  still  to  be  seen  in  the  farms  of 
Westmorland  and  North  Lancashire.  In  spite  of  their 
continually  being  bought  up  by  dealers  and  sold  out  of 
the  district,  these  old  last  century  timepieces  are  still  so 
numerous,  that  it  is  evident  that  the  useful  trade  of  clock 
maker  was  a  most  lucrative  one  some  four  or  five  genera- 
tions back.  I  cannot  help  wishing  that  some  member  of 
this  Society  would  go  into  the  matter  and  by  collecting 
the  names  of  the  different  makers,  and  the  patterns  of  the 
clocks  manufactured,  compile  and  put  on  record  some  sort 
of  account  of  this  once  considerable  and  eminently  artistic 

industry. 


94  pBSOLBTB  AND  SBMI-OBSOLBTB  APPLIANCES. 

industry.  To  mention  a  case  in  point:  It  is  perfectly 
astonishing  to  note  the  amount  of  tall  oak  cased  clocks  in 
North  Lancashire  and  South  Westmorland,  which  bear 
the  name  of  Jonas  Barber  of  Winster.  I  myself  must 
have  seen  dozens.  They  differ  to  a  certain  amount  in 
character,  and  vary,  I  should  think,  in  date  from  some 
time  in 'the  first  half,  to  the  end  of  the  last  century.  The 
earliest  have  but  one  hand,  and  the  ornamentation  of  the 
brass  face  is  comparatively  rude.  After  this  we  find  two 
hands  and  a  more  artistic  dial.  Lastly  the  dial  is  white 
enamelled.* 

Most  of  these  are  simple  twenty-four  hour  clocks  wind- 
ing by  a  chain.  But  Jonas  Barber  sometimes  soared 
higher.  There  are  examples  known  of  eight-day  clocks 
winding  by  a  key  with  quarter  chimes  and  repeating 
movement.  These  efforts  are  of  course  more  elaborate 
throughout  in  detail,  the  face  and  case  being  more  ornate 
than  the  others.  Some  appear  so  much  later  in  date  than 
others  that  I  think  there  may  have  been  father  and  son  off 
the  same  name.  A  Philipson,  of  Winster,  whose  clocks  I 
have  only  seen  with  enamel  faces,  appears  to  have  carried 
on  the  business  after  the  Barbers. 

A  very  remarkable  clockmaker  of  probably  earlier  date 
than  the  Barbers  existed  in  one  Thomas  Ponson,  of 
Kendal.  I  only  know  one  example  of  his  work,  but  it  is  a 
great  curiosity.  It  is  of  the  upright  shape  with  a  brass 
dial  elaborately  engraved,  with  scrolls  and  flourishes.  The 
time  is,  however,  indicated  on  three  dials,  the  long  single 
hand  covering  the  face  marking  the  minutes,  while  the 
two  smaller  dials  (which  are  included  within  the  circum- 
ference of  the  main  dial),  tell,  respectively, — the  upper  the 
seconds,  and  the  lower  the  hour.  It  winds  by  a  key  at  a 
hole  on  one  side  of  the  face,  and  on  the  opposite  side  is  a 


*  I  have  seen  a  Barber  of  Winster  dock  inscribed  G.R.,  1657  in  old  inlay,  but 
I  think  in  this  case  the  maker  most  have  utilised  the  wood  from  an  older  article 
of  furniture. 


dummy 


Plate  VIII, 


THE   PUSH    PLOUGH. 


OBSOLBTB  AND  SBHI-OBSOLBTB  APPLIANCES.  95 

dummy  hole  for  symmetry.  As  a  rule  it  may  be  taken 
that  clocks  winding  by  a  key  are  later  than  those  winding 
by  a  chain,  which  all  the  twenty-four  hour  clocks,  as  far 
as  I  know,  do.  Ponson's  clock,  however,  just  described, 
has  every  appearance  of  being  earlier  than  any  of  Bar- 
bers, and  its  most  remarkable  feature  is  that  when  wound 
fall  up,  it  goes  for  over  a  month.^ 

It  is  somewhat  singular  that  the  push  plough  has 
become  obsolete,  as  it  is  not  quite  evident  that  the  neces* 
sity  for  an  instrument  of  this  sort  is  at  an  end.  Yet 
absolutely  obsolete  it  is,  and  farm  after  farm  and  shippon 
after  shippon  may  be  searched  in  vain  before  one  can  be 
found.  Yet  every  old  farmer  remembers  the  push  plough 
in  use  from  thirty  to  fifty  years  ago,  and  not  a  few  hale 
old  fellows  are  to  be  found  who  were  mighty  **  pushers  " 
themselves  in  their  day. 

The  component  parts  of  a  push  plough  are  (i)  the 
plough  or  iron  part,  the  shape  of  which  is  best  seen  in  the 
sketch  (Plate  VIII).  It  was  about  17  ins.  long  by  16  ins. 
in  greatest  width.  At  one  side  was  a  pointed  upright 
flange  with  a  sharp  edge,  which  was  called  the  **  cock.'*t 
(2)  The  wooden  shaft  called  the  ''pole,*'  which  was 
about  5  or  6  feet  long,  with  an  upward  bend  just  where  it 
left  the  socket,  so  as  to  bring  the  end  on  the  right  level 
for  pushing.  (3)  The  "  crown,"  a  cross  bar  at  the  end 
of  the  pole,  about  3  feet  long.  The  pusher  was  provided 
with  pads  fitted  with  wooden  guards,  which  hung  round 
the  neck  and  protected  the  lower  part  of  the  chest,  which 
pressed  against  the  ''crown"  when  at  work. 

The  use  of  the  push  plough  was  to  break  up  new 


•  The  bracket  clock,  with  hanging  weights,  was  also  locally  manufactured  over 
hrohu^red  years  ago.    There  is  one  of  these  in  Kendal  Museum,  inscribed:— 
The  gift  of  James  Cock,  maior  in  Kendall  165A,  to  the  maior  of  the  same  suck- 
sesivly  Time  runneth  your  work  is  before  you. 

George  Poole  in  S.Ans  Lane  fedt.*' 
t  Or  wing.    It  was  not  always  on  the  same  tide  of  the  plough. 

ground 


96  OBSOLETE  AND  SEMI-OBSOLETE  APPLIANCES. 

ground  for  the  horse  plough.  When  a  new  intake  of  fell 
or  moss  ground  was  to  be  made  arable,  the  pusher  was 
sent  on  to  remove  the  rough  top  turf,  especially  the 
"gale,"*  with  the  push  plough.  First  a  line  was  cut  with 
the  sharp  edge  in  the  turf,  then  the  point  being  inserted, 
it  was  pushed  till  the  turf  covered  the  length  of  the  spade. 
In  doing  this  the  "cock"  cut  the  turf  clear  on  one  side. 
The  sod  was  then  turned  over  by  raising  that  side  of  the 
plough  with  the  "cock."  He  then  proceeded  in  the  same 
way. 

Pushing,  as  may  be  imagined,  was  extremely  hard 
work,  which  probably  accounts,  more  than  anything,  for 
its  disuse.  There  is  no  doubt  that  most  of  the  ploughed 
land  in  the  Lakes,  and  all  those  high  intakes  which  often 
excite  wonder  on  account  of  their  having  been  ploughed 
at  some  time,  have  been  pushed  in  the  first  instance. 

After  the  ground  was  push  ploughed  the  gale  and  turf 
were  burnt,  and  thrown  on  the  land  as  "  till." 

It  does  not  appear  that  the  push  plough  ever  did  the 
work  of  the  horse  plough,  like  the  Highlanders*  "  cas- 
chrom" ;  it  was  intended  solely  for  preparing  the  way  for 
the  latter. 

The  peat  spade,  which  is  still  in  use,  though  of  course 
in  a  minor  degree  since  the  general  use  of  coal,  is  an 
abbreviation  of  the  push  plough.  Like  the  latter  it  has 
the  raised  flange  or  "  cock,"  but  the  handle  is  short,  quite 
straight,  and  is  flat  for  some  distance  from  the  blade,  so 
that  it  could  be  run  under  the  peat  in  cutting  it  (Plate  IX). 

As  our  President  has,  in  a  recent  volume  of  our 
"Transactions,"  given  us  a  vefy  exhaustive  paper  on 
cockfighting,  I  do  not  propose  to  enter  into  any  details  as 
to  the  "  noble"  and  "  delightsome"  science  of  "cocking" 
here.     But  as  I  have  recently  come  across  several  exam- 


*  The  wild  myrtle,  myrica  gale,  which  grows  abundantly  in  some  parts  of  the 
fells. 

pies 


Plate  X. 


9^  .  '%/'■> 


^ 


%^  \m^  1/ 


...y  .,,,,.,„„.,  ^. 


x^ .^C-^ 


''^c^%.„ .a.^^^^- 


"""";.,„«iiw**" 


m/^^Xf^    ^'iMmmmmimiiiKiDn^     ^.rim^nrr^,, 


I  t  I  I 1    ,  I a 


COCKPIT:  8TAINT0N.    FURNE83. 


OBSOLBTrAHD  SBIII-OBSOLBTB  Al>PLliDICBS.         97 

ptes  of  a  form  of  oock  pit,  whidh  is  not  mentioned  in  thdt 
paper,  it  may  be  of  some  interest  ta  allude  to  it  now*    It 
appears  that  the  most  usual  form  of  rural  cock  pit  in  the 
palmy  days  of  the  sport,  was  a  barn,  the  floor  of  which 
was  carefully  sodded  to  form  an  arena*     After  1835,  when 
cock  fighting  was  made  illegal,  these  were  naturally  dis- 
carded, and  the  devotees  of  the  amusement  were  wont  to 
meet  in  the  highways  and  hedges,  places  being  generally 
chosen  where  interruption  was  unlikely.     But  prior  to  the 
Act,  there  was  a  form  of  outdoor  cock  pit  of  somewhat 
elaborate  construction,  where  the  fighting,  I  am  informed, 
sometimes  continued  for  two  or  more  days.    Cock  pits  of 
this  description  in  most  cases  belonged  to  old  schools,  and 
from  those  I  describe  it  will  be  seen  that  they  vary  much 
in  dimensions. 

The  first,  a  very  good  and  typical  example  of  this  sort  of 
cock  pit,  is  to  be  seen  on  the  green  at  Stainton  between 
Dalton-in-Fiimess  and  Gleaston  (Plate  X.)    Its  construc- 
tion is  as  follows:.  A  level  piece  of  ground  has  been  chosen, 
and  a  shallow  circular  ditch  about  8  feet  in  diameter,  and 
about  i^  feet  deep,  has  been  dug,  leaving  in  the  centre  a 
circular  table^like  piece  of  sward  about  17  feet  in  diameter. 
The  material  used  in  making  the  trench  was  thrown  up 
into  a  circular  bank  about  2^  feet  wide  and  i.foot  high  on 
the  outer  edge  of  the  trench^  so  that  when  completed  this 
cock  pit  had  a  total  diameter  of  38  feet,  and  had  a  strong 
resemblance  on  a  small  scale  to  King  Arthur's  round 
table**    When  fighting  was  on,  the  outer  bank  was  the: 
boundary  to  keep  the  spectators  from  getting  in  the  way; 
of  the  birds  and  their  feeders  and  setters,  and  the  central 
level  was  of  course  the  scene  of  bloodshed. 

Several  other  cock  pits  of  this  type  are  known  to  me. 
There  is  one  close  to  a  stile  in  a  field  adjoining  Aulthurst- 


*  Perhaps  this  resemblanoe  sugsrested  to  the  old  school  of  antiquaries  the  idea^ 
that  Kmg  Arthur's  round  table  was  a  sporting  arena. 

:;  side 


98  OBSOLBTB  4MP  SEIII-OBSOUETB  APPLTANCBS. 

side  school  (pronounced  Owlerside)  on  the  road  from 
Woodlands  to  Broughton-in-Purness*    It  measures  only 
31^  feet,  with  an  arena  20  feet  in  width.     When  fighting 
was  going  on,  everyone  who  passed  through  the  stile  was 
blackmailed  of  a   penny   before  he  could   proceed.     At 
Heversham  there  is,  close  to  the  old  Grammar  School  one 
of  enormous  proportions,  measuring  in  total  diameter  55 
feet,  and  the  arena  of  which  is  alone  li  feet  wider  than 
the  whole  of  that  at  Aulthurstside.     The  old  School  is 
closed  and  going  to  ruin,  but  old  inhabitants  tell,  how, 
long  after  cockfighting  was  given  up,  the  glorious  tradi- 
tions of  the  **  cock  pit "  were  continued  in  another  way, 
viz.,  by  the  school  boys  using  it  as  their  milling  ground* 
Another  cock  pit  of  this  sort  is  said  to  exist  close  to 
Ulpha   School  in  the  valley  of  the   Duddon,  and  yet 
another,  near  the  Forge  at  Kirkby  Ireleth.    The  last«  I 
am  informed,  is  probably  destroyed  now.* 

Pursuing  my  investigations  into  this  subject  with  an 
ancient ''  feeder  "  in  the  parish  of  Hawkshead,  I  elicited 
the  most  marvellous  traditions.  The  gentlemen  of  the  sod 
in  this  parish  were  in  the  habit  of  meeting  (after  the 
abolishment  of  the  sport)  at  various  spots  on  the  north 
side  of  the  parish  near  the  Brathay.  The  strategical 
cunning  shown  by  this  was  great,  for  as  soon  as  the  police 
were  reported  on  their  tracks,  they  struck  their  tents, 
bagged  their  cocks,  crossed  the  Brathay,  and  turned  to 
work  again  in  Westmorland.  To  show  the  extent  the 
sport  was  carried  on  in  these  days,  he  enumerated  no  less 
than  eight  or  nine  meeting  places  in  the  north  half  of  the 
parish  alone. 

At  some  of  the  meetings  there  was  in  the  habit  of 
attending,  a  **  gentleman  sort  of  chap,"  with  whom,  as 


^  Stockdale  (Annals  of  Cartmel)  mentions  cock  pits  as  ezistinsf,  or  having 
existed^  at  Carke  (behind  Mrs.  Mackereth's  house)  and  at  Fkx>kborough»  behind 
the  highest  inn,  near  the  bowling  green. 

long 


OBSOLBTB  AND  SEMI-OBSOLfiTB  APPUANCBS,  99 

long  as  he  lost  money,  the  local  patrons  of  the  sod  were 
content  not  to  meddle.  When,  however,  he  had  a  run  of 
lucky  it  was  their  habit  (to  prevent  him,  I  presume,  escap- 
ing with  a  balance)  to  string  him  up  to  the  beams 
immured  in  a  large  basket,  from  which  position  he  was 
permitted  to  back  his  fancy  until  he  was  in  debt,  when  he 
was  lowered  and  released  to  settle  accounts.* 

Apart  fr<yn  betting,  cock  fighting  conducted  on  scientific 
principles  sometimes  proved  decidedly  remunerative.  My 
ancient  feeder  told  me  that  he  once  possessed  a  bird 
which  at  different  meetings  won  for  him  half  a  dozen 
chairs,  a  load  of  meal,  a  quarter  of  beef,  a  watch,  and  a 
chest  of  drawers. 

While  on  sport  and  sporting  appliances,  I  may  mention 
a  very  cruel  instrument  used  for  taking  foxes,  which  I 
recently  saw  at  Cockleybeck  farm  on  Wrynose.  Although 
pre-historic  in  its  simplicity  and  mediseval  in  its  barbarity, 
I  fear  I  cannot  say  with  truth  that  its  use  is  entirely  obso- 
lete in  the  Cumberland  fells.  This  instrument,  which  is 
called  a  fox  screwt  consists  of  a  pole  some  5  feet  long, 
from  the  end  of  which  projects  a  powerful  double  screw, 
of  cork  screw  pattern.  Its  use  was  to  get  a  fox  from  under 
a  stone,  either  at  a  fox  hunt  or  otherwise.  The  screw  was 
forced  under  the  stone  where  the  fox  was  known  to  be, 
and  was  turned  round  until  it  became  fastened  firmly  in 
the  fur  of  the  unfortunate  beast,  which  was  then  dragged 
out,  in  exactly  the  same  manner  as  a  cork  is  drawn  from 
a  bottle.  If  the  fox,  as  sometimes  was  the  case,  gamely 
seized  the  screw  with  its  teeth,  matters  were  even  worse, 
for  the  screwer  screwed  it  into  the  poor  thing's  throat. 
Often,  if  a  fox  was  not  much  hurt  when  extracted,  he  was 
turned  loose  for  another  run. 


*  'rUs  hukel  trick  was  evidentlv  universal.    It  is  suf 
Hogmrth's  picture  of  a  cock  pit.     Hie  Editor  of  "  The 
Mcvaliaed  ^  (London,  1768)  alludes  to  it  as  "a  pnnislinK 


\  suDTgested  by  a  shadow  in 
The  Works  of  Mr.  Hogarth 

'    '     I  -  pnnishnent  inflictnd  on  such  as 

bet  more  »o«ey  than  thiqr  htvt  to  pay." 

There 


100       OBSOLETE  AND  SEMf-OBSOLBTE  APPLIANCES. 

There  are  rtnany  other  obsolete  appliances,  examples  of 
which  are  to  be  found  in  various  out  of  the  way  condi- 
tions, but  of  which  I  have  not  space  to  give  here  more 
than  a  passing  mention.     There  are  the  quaint  old  tinder  • 
boxes  and  warming  pans  in  the  farm  houses,  of  which 
latter,  examples  are  still  common  enough.    In  church 
vestries  and  old  vicarages  can  occasionally  still  be  seen  - 
the  rude  pitch  pipes,  by  which,  in  our  old  parish  churches 
prior  to  the  introduction  of  organs,  the  key  note  of  the . 
psalms  was  given.    They  are  made  of  various  shapes  and 
sizes.    Those  represented  in  the  drawing  (Plate  XI.)  are 
from  Hawkshead  (i  linear)  and  one  from  Cartmell  Pell 
Chapel  (to  a  smaller  scale).    Both  of  these  have  ten  notes 
from  C  to  E,  including  A  and  B  sharp.    The  former  has 
these  engraved  on  a  brass  plate  with  the  date  1764.* 

Among  instruments  of  punishment  may  be  mentioned 
the  cuckstool  and  brank.  The  former,  in  the  ''  Bc^e  off 
Recorde  of  Kirkbie  KendalP't  is  ordained  as  a  punishment 
for  "  every  common  scold,  railer,  or  of  notorious  misde- 
meanour," and  the  latter,  although  not  mentioned  in  that 
interesting  old  compilation  was  evidently  in  use  at  Kendal, 
for  there  are  two  in  the  Museum  of  that  town  at  the 
present  day.  The  brank  was  a  sort  of  iron  cage,  which 
could  be  secured  on  the  head,  with  a  projecting  plate 
which  fitted  into  the  mouth  and  held  down  the  tongue.  It 
was  the  recognised  punishment  in  old  days  for  women 
who  were  addicted  to  scolding,  or  for  immorality.  For 
this  reason  it  was  also  called  the  **  Scold's  bridle,"  or,  as' 
the  Macclesfield  town  records  puts  it,  the  **  bridle  for  a 
curste  queane."t  T^^^  ^i^st  recorded  use  of  it  in  this 
country  is  not  earlier  than  1623,  but  it  was  probably  in 


•  This  Hawkshead  pipe  was  charged  for  in  the  Parish  account  book  7s.  6d.  As 
it  is  entered  in  the  year  1763^  the  instrument  was  post-dated, 
t  Edited  by  Rich.  S.  Ferguson.  M.A.,  LL.M.,  F.S.A.,  for  this  Society  (p.  159). 
:  '« Old  Time  Punishments/'  by  W.  H.  Andreivs,  F.R.H.8.  (1890),  {k  39.  .  . 

use 


Plate  XI. 


7W^ 


<Jj5o 


,<:m 


!l  ■    II    / 


'"Hi''ia 


I 
I 


I 


I   ., 


r. 


PITCHPIPES  FROM   HAWKSHEAD  AND  CARTMELL  FELL. 


*  •  •     •  • 


Plate  XII. 


-••     •  •  •  • 


BRANK3  AT   KENDAL. 


the  fran,e^°!f,"V  '"""P-    The  h^  "  'o««fcened  in 

^y    -^hich  1'°^  t'"'' *''«  nose  ho?  *""''"  Wffh.    On 
*nd  the  nose  h«i   / "  P"' 't  oi,  »  "!  .'^PP*'  Part  can  be 

'•*>»'nd  aadZ'^^^^'  «nd  the' n.    "f ^^  P*^*  ^°"«d  be 

°*^«''--  ne^er?  ^'  '  Padlock  tot'''"'''  ^'^^^  <='-«<» 
**>e  offender  r-V^'"'«'>ove  then  J    u^*'  ''^^P'^  as  in  the 

The  c»^"  ^^'^^  of  scorn  o^^n  ^*  *°*"  o^-tied  to  the 

where     u       *  '^'fe,  was  knrll    ***  ""^^  fo«-  adultery  ot 
yel  a  Jl'^!''  '«3t  obsr^ed^.r^  ^°.  *h«  north   as  3se- 


m.Sfe***^fe'5'««''n8pmebra„k.,r«i;,v         .-  ,         •.    •      • 

"O*  stung  ridintc  ««i.   iJt  ^'^■'^'os'v  c-uxsl-,.        -    v   -iw. 
*   ■**   Mr.  •  Andrew's  "Old -Time    Punitn- 

^raffic. 


102        OBSOLBTB  AHD  SBMI-OBaOLBTB  APPLXANCBS. 

traffic.  Transport  of  goods  by  packhorse  must  have  been 
expensive,  but  in  the  absence  of  railways  or  good  roads 
there  was  no  alternative.  It  is  probable  indeed  that  until 
the  i8th  century  such  things  as  wheeled  vehicles  were  but 
little  known  in  the  Lake  District :  but  how  late  the  pack- 
horse  remained  in  use  is  hard  to  say.  There  is  in  Kendal 
Museum  a  heavy  packhorse  collar  of  leather  fitted  with  five 
brass  or  bronze  bells,  four  round,  and  a  large  hanging  one 
of  the  usual  shape  at  the  bottom  (Plate  XIII.)  A  plate  of 
metal  is  inscribed  **  Robert  Tebay  Kendal/*  and  two  of  the 
bells  are  marked  wiiiAN,  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^  collar  may  have  been 
used  by  the  leader  of  a  string  of  packhorses  between 
Kendal  and  that  town.''' 

The  use  of  bells  with  pack  animals  is  universal  in  the 
East,  and  it  is  possible  that  the  fashion  may  have  origin- 
ally  found  its  way  thence  to  our  own  country.  In  Asiatic 
Turkey  the  leader  of  every  string  of  pack  animals, 
whether  horse,  mule,  or  camel,  is  provided  with  an  im- 
mense pair  of  *'  ujras,'*  or  bells,  some  of  which  are  treble 
or  quadruple, — bells  within  bells,  each  bell  forming  the 
tongue  or  clapper  for  the  bell  within  which  it  hangs.  The 
muleteers  seem  to  have  an  almost  superstitious  reverence 
for  these  bells,  and  refuse  even  to  remove  them  from  the 
animals  at  night,  although  they  are  a  source  of  annoyance 
both  to  animal  and  the  traveller,  as  I  myself  have  experi- 
enced. They  appear  to  have  also  an  objection  to  selling 
them. 


*  At  the  Kendal  Arts  and  Crafts  Exhibition,  iSpi,  there  was  exhibited  in  the 
loan  collection  an  oil  paintingr  dated  R.T.  1757,  of  an  old  bell  mare^  said  to  be 
the  last  which  led  the  pack  train  from  Kenoal  to  London. 


Plate  XIII. 


PACKH0R8E  COLLAR   IN   KENDAL  MUSEUM. 


(103) 


Art.  IX.— TA^  Early  Registers  of  the  Parish  of  Westward. 
By  the  Rev.  Jambs  Wilson,  M.A. 

Communicated  at  Arnside^  Sept.  25,  1893. 

rilHE  first  Register  of  the  parish  of  Westward  is  of  a 
^  nondescript  character  covering  the  period  between 
1605  and  1698.  It  consists  of  four  parts  of  varying 
dimensions,  bound  together  in  very  slovenly  fashion,  and 
appears  as  good  a  specimen  of  neglect  and  ill  usage  as 
can  be  found  elsewhere.  Pages  are  illegible  through  damp 
and  bad  ink  as  well  as  actual  mischief,  nearly  the  whole 
of  what  ma}'  be  called  the  second  portion,  1632-1659, 
having  the  leaves  eaten  with  moths  or  t  )rn  down  the 
middle.  The  early  pages  of  the  first  part,  which  is  a 
quarto  of  nineteen  leaves  in  fairly  good  preservation,  are 
missing,  as  the  first  entry  is  near  the  top  without  intro- 
duction : — 

Item  the  viiijth  of  July  waa  Agnes  the  dowghter  of  John  Peanon, 
baptized  Anno  Domini  1605. 

In  like  manner,  it  would  appear  that  the  last  leaves  are 
also  not  forthcoming,  as  the  following  entry  is  close  at  the 
bottom  of  the  last  page  : — 

Item  the  zxviij  the  of  October  was  Jane  the  dowghter  of  Henrb 
Harreson  of  Heslespring  baptised  Ann®  Dom  i6a7« 

During  the  Commonwealth  the  method  of  entering  bap- 
tisms as  *' borne  and  baptized  "  on  the  same  day  is  almost 
invariable.  *In  that  case  the  minister  would  be  called 
upon  to  administer  the  Sacrament  at  the  houses  of  the 
parents. 

The  second  volume  is  an  upright  parchment,  extending 
from  1699  to  1729,  but  the  first  page,  which  serves  as  a 

cover 


104         RBGISTBRS  OP  THft  PARISH  OP  WESTWARD. 

cover,  is  obliterated.  About  three  inches  from  the  bottom 
the  register  has  been  cut  through  with  a  knife,  an  act  of 
childish  wantonness  which  is  unaccountable*  On  the  last 
leaf  there  is  mention  of  certain  briefs  not  wholly  decipher- 
able. The  third  volume  is  a  narrow  parchment  in  excel- 
lent preservation,  starting  in  1730  and  ending  in  1760, 
beautifully  written  and  arranged.  By  way  of  appendix  I 
have  tabulated  what  appeared  to  me  to  be  the  most 
valuable  or  interesting  contents  of  all  three  volumes  as 
affording  the  handiest  method  for  reference. 

But  besides  those  earliest  of  the  Westward  registers, 
two  other  parish  books  of  some  interest  have  come  Under 
my  notice.  One  of  these,  a  small  square  note  book,  has 
this  entry  on  the  fly  leaf: — 

The  poor  people's  dole 
Book  for  Wigton  Towne  and 
the  parish  of  Westward 
March  25  1728 

Richd  Wilson 

Minister 

On  the  back  of  (he  cover  in  a  later  hatid  t-^  : 

The  Book  of  Francis 
.        ,Barwise!8  Xreg^cy   •  •       .  , 

of  Stank'bahk  to  the  poor  of  i^ 

Westward  &  Wigton  town 

and  on  the  inside  of  the  cover : — 

Trust  oqtof  Mr.  Barwis*s  personal  estate 
charged  in  the  will  of  Mr.  Grainger  upon  his 
freehold  estate  at  Bromfield 

The  little  book  records  the  various  occasions  when  the 
interest  of  the  legacy  was  distributed  in  the  beneficiary 
parishes  with  the  names  of  the  recipients  and  the.amount 
of  the  doles.  The  last  entry  in  the  book  took  place  in 
1821.  Among  its  contents  are  copies  of  the  Francis  Barwise 

brass 


REGISTERS   OP  THE   PARISH  OF  WESTWARD.  I05 

brass  in  Westward  Church,  the  will  of  John  Jefferson, 
extract  from  the  Pape  will  and  some  records  of  smaller 
benevolences.  The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  Jefferson 
will  :— 

In  the  Name  of  God  Amen.  I  John  Jefferson  of  Brackenthwaite 
in  the  parish  of  Westward  in  the  County  of  Cumberland  yeom.  being 
of  sound  and  perfect  mind  and  memory  (praised  be  Almighty  God) 
do  make  this  my  last  Will  and  Testa.n^  in  manner  following  (that  is 
to  say)  first  I  do  give  and  devise  unto  my  Trusty  &  beloved  Friends 
William  Hayton  of  Westward  afores^  Clerk  &  Thomas  Grainger  the 
elder  of  Stoneraise  in  the  parish  of  Westward  in  the  said  County 
gentleman,  All  that  my  freehold  Messuages  &  Tenement  withall  & 
singular  the  Appurtenances  thereunto  belonging  Situate  &  being 
within  the  Township  Territories  &  Townfields  of  Micklethwaite  in 
the  parish  of  Thursby  in  the  County  afores<i  To  have  and  to  hold 
the  said  freehold  Messuage  and  Tenement  with  the  Appurtenances 
unto  them  the  said  William  Hayton  &  Thomas  Grainger  their  Heirs 
&  Assigns  for  ever,  in  Trust  to  &  for  the  Uses  Intents  &  Purposes 
herein  after  mentioned.  That  is  to  say,  To  and  for  the  Use  of  my 
well  beloved  Wife  Jane  Jefferson  for  &  during  her  natural  Life.  And 
my  Will  also  is  that  my  said  Wife  shall  and  may  either  by  her  last 
Will  &  Testam'  or  by  any  other  writing  under  her  hand  &  legally 
attested  charge  the  said  Messuage  &  Tenem<  with  any  Sum  or  Sums 
of  Money  not  exceeding  Sixty  Pounds  in  the  whole,  either  tow^  the 
paym*  of  her  just  Debts  or  to  any  other  Use  or  Purpose  whatsoever 
so  as  such  Debts  are  contracted  &  such  Will  or  other  Writing  pur- 
porting such  Charge  be  made  &  signed  by  my  said  Wife  when  she 
hall  be  sole  &  unmarried.  And  so  as  such  Payment  be  not  to  be 
made  untill  the  space  of  Twelve  Months  next  after  her  Decease. 
And  from  &  after  her  Decease  then  my  Will  is  that  the  said  William 
Hayton  &  Thomas  Grainger  jointly  (if  both  living)  or  the  Survivor  of 
them,  or  if  both  dead  that  their  Heirs  do  sell  &  convey  all  &  singular 
the  said  Premises  either  together  or  in  Parcels  for  the  best  price 
that  can  or  may  be  had.  And  my  Will  is  that  with  the  money  aris- 
ing by  the  sale  thereof  (after  deducting  all  Expenses  and  reasonable 
Allowances  for  their  Time  &  Trouble)  they  do  first  pay  off  and 
discharge  all  such  sum  and  sums  as  shall  be  charged  or  appointed  to 
be  paid  out  of  the  premises  by  my  said  Wife  according  to  my  intent 
&  meaning  hereinafore  mentioned  &  that  the  remaindi"  be  distributed 
amongst  my  Nephews  Isaac  Jefferson  Lancelot  Jefferson  and  my 
Niece  Lettice  the  wife  of  John  Tate  equally  share  &  share  alike  &  if 
any  of  them  die  before  my  said  Wife  or  the  said  Premises  can  be 

sold 


Io6         REGISTERS  OF  THE   PARISH   OP  WESTWARD. 

3old  leaving  lawful  Issue  My  Wiil  is  that  such  Issue  shall  have  the 
share  thereby  intended  their  respective  Parent  amongst  them 
equally.  I  also  g^ve  and  bequeath  unto  my  nephews  Jonathan 
Jefferson  &  Joseph  Jefferson  each  five  shillings.  I  also  give  devise 
and  bequeath  unto  the  s^  William  Hayton  Clerk  Present  Curate  of 
the  said  Parish  of  Westward  &  to  John  Fletcher  Esq'  Thomas 
Grainger  Joseph  Grainger  John  Jefferson  &  Joseph  Jefferson  present 
sidesmen  of  the  said  Parish  and  to  their  Successors  Sixty  Pounds 
to  be  by  them  placed  out  to  Interest  or  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of 
Freehold  Lands  or  Tenem^  &  with  the  yearly  Income  arising 
thereby  My  Will  is  that  the  same  be  applied  towards  the  salary  of  a 
Schoolmaster  to  teach  a  Grammar  School  in  the  said  parish  of 
Westward  for  teaching  a  number  of  children  not  exceeding  six  at  one 
and  the  same  time  belonging  to  the  poor  parishioners — where  of  the 
said  Parish  the  Master  to  receive  the  said  Salary  and  the  Children 
to  be  therefore  taught  to  be  nominated  &  appointed  by  a  majority  of 
the  said  Curate  &  Sidesmen  for  the  Time  then  in  being.  All  the  rest 
of  my  goods  Chattels  and  Personal  Estate  whatsoever  I  do  give  and 
bequeath  unto  my  said  Wife  Jane  Jefferson  whctm  I  do  constitute  & 
appoint  full  &  Sole  Executrix  of  this  my  Will  hereby  revoking  all 
others  by  me  formerly  made  and  declaring  this  only  to  be  my  last 
Will  &  Testament.  In  Witness  whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my 
Hands  &  Seal  this  first  Day  of  April  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  God 
one  thousand  seven  hundred  &  forty  four.  John  Jefferson  his  Mark 
and  Seal  O. 

Signed  Sealed  Published  &  declared  by  the  said  John  Jefferson  to 
be  his  last  Will  &  Testament  in  the  Presence  of  us  :  Jane  Pattinson 
her  mark  Robert  Pattinson  sworn  John  Harrison. 

We  believe  the  above  to  be  a  true  Copy  of  the  Original.  Attested 
this  twenty-sixth  Day  of  July  1767  by  us 

John  Pape,  Minister. 

John  Willison   \ 

Joseph  Ireland  J  Churchwardens. 

John  Bewley 

The  will  of  the  Rev.  John  Pape  is  dated  27th  of  October, 
1778,  of  which  the  following  is  an  extract  as  far  as  it 
relates  to  the  charity  : — 

I  also  give  bequeath  and  devise  to  my  Successors  in  the  Curacy  & 
to  Henry  Fletcher  Esq""  of  Clea  Hall  in  the  parish  of  \Vestward  his 
Successors  or  Administrators  &  the  Sidesmen  of  the  said  Parish  & 
their  Successors  the  sum  of  twenty  Pounds  to  be  by  them  placed  out 

at 


RBGISTBRS  OP  THE   PARISH   OP   WESTWARD.  IO7 

at  Interest  or  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  freehold  Lands  or  Tene- 
ments &  the  annual  Income  or  Produce  thereof  to  be  applied  in 
Augmentation  of  for  &  towards  the  Salary  of  the  Schoolmaster  for 
the  time  being  of  the  School  already  established  &  adjoining  to 
Westward  churchyard  to  be  given  by  my  said  daughter  Ann  at  the 
same  time  8c  after  the  same  Events  as  before  mentioned  (1^.  twelve 
months  after  marriage)  for  teaching  and  instructing  one  poor  child 
of  the  said  parish  such  child  being  nominated  and  appointed  by  a 
Majority  of  the  said  Curate,  Henry  Fletcher  Esq'  &  Sidesmen  for  the 
time  being.     But  my  further  Will  is  &  I  hereby  direct  that  after  the 
Departure  from  the  said  School  or  Death  of  the  Master  teaching 
there  when  first  such  Legacy  shall  become  due  that  the  Interest 
arising  therefrom  be  paid  to  a  Schoolmaster,  who  is  not  in  Orders 
and  to  the  Poor  of  Westward  by  the  Directions  of  the  said  Curate, 
Henry  Fletcher  Esq'  &  Sidesmen  as  beforementioned,  And  when 
any  Curate  of  the  said  Parish  shall  teach   the   said   School,   the 
annual  Interest  arising  from  the  beforementioned  Principal  of  twenty 
pounds  shall  then  be  paid  to  such  Poor  of  Westward  as  shall  seem 
needful  to  the  Curate  thereof  &  his  Successors  &  to  Henry  Fletcher 
Esq*^  his  Executors  &  Administrators  &  the  Sidesmen  for  the  Time 
being  at  the  said  School  adjoining  the  Westward  Churchyard  &  on 
the  first  of  August  annually  &  for  ever :  this  Exception  being  further 
made  i.e,  that  the  four  or  five  first  Years  Interest  or  more  if  needful 
be  first  of  all  reserved  &  secured  as  a  Fund  sufficient  to  purchase  a 
a  Pair  of  three  Guinea  Globes  or  thereabouts  to  be  chosen  for  the 
Benefit  of  the  said  School  of  Westward  as  beforementioned. 

Of  the  smaller  benefactions,  it  is  a  pleasure  to  rescue  the 
names  of  two  or  three  of  the  pious  donors  from  oblivion: 

Betty  Huntington's  legacy  of  Fifty  Shill^*  (of  East  Kirthwaite 
lately  deceased)  to  the  poor  of  Westward  Parish  was  distributed  in 
the  month  of  May  1777 

in  sums  varying  from  eight  shillings  to  one  shilling  to  ten 
poor  people.     Also, 

Distributed  at  Martinmas  1772  &  on  and  about  Lady  Day  1773  the 
Ten  Pounds  the  Legacy  and  Charity  of  the  Rev<l  Mr.  Atkinson  to 
the  following  poor  of  Westward  in  memory  of  his  native  parish. 

Atkinson's  charity  was  divided  into  twelve  sums  and  dis- 
tributed amongst  the  same  number  of  deserving  people. 
The  last  benefaction  I  shall  record  is  the 

Legacy 


lo8         REGISTERS  OF  THE   PARISH   OP  WESTWARD. 

Legacy  of  25«  left  by  Matilda  Jackson  to  the  poor  of  Westward  21 
of  Dec'  1779 

which  was  distributed  in  the  usual  manner.  This  charity 
is  commemorated  upon  a  brass  plate  bearing  this  inscrip- 
tion : — 

Matilda  Jackson  (late  Jefferson)  of  Millbeck,  daughter  of  George 
Atkinson  of  Longwath,  gives  to  the  poor  of  Westward  parish  for  ever 
the  interest  of  £^0  to  be  distributed  by  equal  moieties  on  the  21st 
day  of  December  and  the  25th  day  of  March* 

Feofees  in  Trust     ' 
Curate  of  Westward  -Jointly 
Heir  of  Longwath 

The  first  distribution  was  made  on  the  21st  day  of  December  1778 
Obiit  VII»o  die  Maij  A.D.  MDCCLXXVII. 

The  Vicar  found  this  brass  among  some  old  lumber  and 
intends  to  screw  it  up  on  the  church  wall. 

Some  doubt  has  been  thrown  upon  the  date  of  the  re- 
building of  the  present  church  of  Westward,  which  some 
extracts  from  the  Book  of  Accounts  of  the  Churchwardens 
and  Overseers  of  the  Parish  will  help  to  settle.  Of  these 
the  following  are  the  most  important : — 

At  a  publick  Vestry  held  this  third  day  of  January  in  the  year  of 
our  Lord  1782  in  the  parish  Church  of  Westward  in  the  County  of 
Cumberland  in  and  for  the  said  parish  pursuant  to  publick  notice 
duly  given  in  order  to  take  into  consideration  sundry  Matters  relating 
their  parish  Church — 

Whereas  a  Brief  has  been  obtained  for  raising  Money  towards  re- 
building the  said  parish  church  now  in  a  ruinous  &  uncommodxous 
condition  By  virtue  whereof  the  sum  of  ;f8i  has  been  collected  and 
raised  but  is  greatly  inadequate  to  the  purpose  aforesaid  And 
whereas  a  Petition  hath  this  day  been  signed  by  the  house  and  land 
owners  of  the  said  parish  to  the  Right  Honble.  the  Ear!  of  Egremont 
&  another  like  petition  to  S'  Philip  Musgrave  Baronet  praying  their 
respective  Benefactions  towards  rebuilding  the  said  church  And 
whereas  Henry  Fletcher  Esquire  hath  voluntarily  proposed  that  in 
case  the  Parishion"  of  the  said  parish  will  raise  the  amount  of  one 

hundred 


REGISTERS  OF  THE   PARISH   OF  WESTWARD.  lOQ 

handred  purveys'*'  for  the  above  purpose,  he  the  said  Henry  Fletcher 
will  raise  the  necessary  Moneys  to  compleat  the  same  which  the 
said  Brief  money  and  the  moneys  to  arise  from  the  petitioned  Bene- 
factions may  be  deficient  and  fall  short. 

It  was  resolved  accordingly  that  the  necessary  sum 
should  be  raised  "  with  all  convenient  speed,"  and  "  the 
churchwardens  and  overseers  of  the  poor  do  collect  the 
same."  But  the  matter  was  allowed  to  rest  for  over  three 
years.  In  September,  1785,  another  vestry  was  held  when 
the  re-building  of  the  church  was  brought  to  practical 
issue.  How  the  work  was  done  the  following  resolutions 
will  show : — 

Resolved  that  the  church  be  rebuilt  in  the  present  church  yard  & 
that  the  following  persons  be  appointed  for  assisting  the  church- 
wardens in  collecting  the  100  purveys  in  &  for  the  dif!^  Q^  and  that 
they  pay  the  same  when  received  into  the  hands  of  Sir  Henry 
Fletcher 

Resolved  also  that  the  parish  assist  in  leading  the  principal  mate- 
rials proper  for  repairing  the  said  church  such  as  slate,  wood,  lime, 
sand  &  stones,  such  proportions  as  be  set  out. 

It  is  clear  that  the  church  of  Westward  attained  its 
present  structural  state  at  that  date. 

From  the  accounts  of  the  overseers  settled  before  the 
sidesmen  between  the  years  1770  and  1780,  a  few  extracts 
which  may  be  of  interest  are  given  : — 

By  book  of  Articles  &  churchwardens  dining  at  the 

Visitation  -...  .....  o  17     2 

„    Joseph  Sharp  for  repairing  Church        .....  .....  011     4 

,.    Wm.  Briscoe  for  a  ladder  for  the  Church  .....  040 

„    Surplice  Washing  &  book  keeping         ...»  050 

„    a  lock  for  the  school  house      .....  .....  018 

„    a  soldier's  wife  &  3  children  travelling  to  Sunder- 
land      .....  «...  .....  .....  020 


•The  purvey  for  Westward  was  df  i  6  3  made  up  thus,  Rosley  and  Woodside 
£oZ6,  StoDeraise  and  Brocklebank  Xo  12  6,  Kirthwaite  £0  5  3:  see  "  Hutchin- 
soo's  Cumberland",  vol.  ii,  pp.  H86,  ^687. 

By  John 


no  REGISTERS  OF  THE    PARISH  OP  WESTWARD. 

By  John  Crosthwaite  stone  for  a  Dial  (1773)  ;fo    3  o 

„    some  repairs  in  the  School  forms,  doors,  &c.  ...066 
„     relieving  the  poor  by  consent  of  the  sidesmen  ^^    o  10  6 
„    expenses  of  self  and  horse  attending  Easter  Ses- 
sions 1770,  3  days              .^            ^_    o  13  3 

„    a  Pall  or  Funeral  Cloth  i     i  o 

„    Jane  Scot  funeral  expenses      ^«  ._.    i  10  8 J 

In  1772  the  old  custom  of  farming  the  paupers  of  the 
parish  was  brought  to  an  end  : — 

We  whose  names  are  subscribed  being  the  majority  of  a  vestry  or 
public  meeting  legally  assembled  in  the  parish  church  of  Westward 
this  17th  day  of  June  1773  do  agree  that  all  the  poor  belonging  to 
the  said  parish  be  sent  to  the  Workhouse  at  Hesket. 

It  may  be  said  in  conclusion  that  I  have  refrained  from 
adding  explanatory  notes  or  burdening  the  text  with 
information  which  may  be  found  in  print  elsewhere.  I 
have  to  thank  the  Rev.  G.  M.  Tandy,  the  venerable  vicar 
of  the  parish,  my  good  friend  and  neighbour,  for  many 
acts  of  kindness  of  which  access  to  his  parish  chest  is  but 
an  inconsiderable  part.  It  has  been  a  great  regret  to  him 
that  his  parish  books  have  suffered  so  much  in  the  past 
and  that  there  is  so  little  to  record.  Now,  at  all  events, 
every  care  is  taken  for  their  preservation. 


Appendix  L 
ecclesiastical  entries. 

Item.  Upon  the  same  day  (the  second  day  of  if ebruarie,  1619)  did  Mr.  Row- 
land Dacre,  p*son  of  Newbtgginge  make  and  preache  a  sermon  att  Westward 
here  wth  this  text,  who  so  dothe  these  things  shall  nev'  fall,  Psalmes  the  15, 
verse  last. 

Item.  The  nth  of  May  was  SrCuthbert  Tyffine,  Clarke,  minister  at  West- 
ward and  Jane  Jackeson  of  Brig  end  laite  of  Wigdon  wedded  at  Westward 
Anno  Dom :  1620. 

Item.  The  xxth  of  August  was  Mabell  dowghter  of  Sr  Cuthbert  TyfHne 
minister  of  Westward  baptized  Anno  Dom :  1620. 

Item.  The  xth  of  ffebruarie  was  John  the  sonne  of  Cuthbt  Tiffine.  mtni^ter  of 
Westward  baptized  Anno  Dom  :  162 1. 

Item.  The  xxviijth  of  March  was  John  yo  sonne  of  Cuthbert  Tiffine,  minister 
of  Westward  buryed  Anno  Dom  ;  1622. 

Item 


REGISTERS  OF  THE   PARISH  OF  WESTWARD.         Ill 

Item.  The  xxih  of  July  was  Cuthbert  the  sonne  of  Cuthbert  Tiffine  darke, 
minister  of  Westward  baptized  Ann©  Dom  1623. 

Item.  The  vith  of  fFebruarie  was  Richard  the  sonne  of  Cuthbert  Tiffine, 
minister  of  Westward  baptized.  Anno  Dom  :  1625. 

Januaire  was    Marie  the  dowghter  of  Cuthbert  Tiffine 

darke    ....     1634. 

Item.  The  23  of  October  (164S)  was  Cuthbert  Tiffine,  minister  of  Westward 
buried. 

(In  1656  there  is  a  marriagfe  where  the  leaf  is  cut  off)  by  James  Stewart  a 
minister. 

1664.    The  18  of  September  was  Robert  ffisher,  minister,  buried. 

1669.    The  14  day  of  January  Mr  James  Stewerd  vicar  of  Westwd  buryed. 

167 1.  Elizabeth  the  c^aughter  of  Mr.  Will:  Robinson  Curate  of  Westward 
bap :  Aug.  24th,  nat :  2  day  id :  mensis. 

1703.    Joseph  son  of  Tho :  Holme  Curate  of  Westward  bap :  September  30th. 

1 7 14.  Mr.  Richard  Wilson  minister  of  this  parish  &  Mrs  Margaret  Ballentine 
of  Crookedake  were  married  October  ye  26th. 

Mr.  Thomas  Holme  late  minister  of  Westward  was  buryed  December  ye  5th 
1711. 

1738.  The  Revd  Mr.  Hayton  Curate  of  Westmd  &  Eliz:  Key  December 
y«  18th  (married). 

1752.  The  Revd  Mr.  Willm  Hayton  clerk.  Westward,  Decembr  ye  27th 
(buried). 


Appendix  II. 

BARWISE    ENTRIES. 

Item.    Upon  the  same  day  (July  20)  was  John  Barwis  and  Elizabeth  wood 
wedded  1606. 

Item.    The  xxviiio  of  November  was  Grace  daughter  of  Mr.  Anthony  Barwis 
Esquir  baptized  1609. 

Item.    The  xxxio  day  of  November  was  ffrancis  sonne  of  Mr.  Richerd  Barwis 
buryed  1610. 

Item.    The  viiio  of  September  was  Mabell  the  daughter  of  Mr.   Richerd 
Barwis  of  Hylde-Kirk  baptized  1611. 

Item.    The  viiio  of  June  was  John  the  sonne  of  Mr.  John  Barwis  of  Hylekirk 
baptized  1612. 

Item.    The  xxviiio  of  Marche  was  John  the  sonne  of  Mr.  Anthony  Barwis  of 
Hyldkirk  baptized  1613. 

Item.    The  xxxth  of  Marche  was  the  said  John  sonne  of  Mr.  Antho :  Barwis 
of  Hyldkirk  buryed  1613. 

Item.    The  ffirst  of  Aprill  was  Anthony  the  sonne  of  Mr.  Richard  Barwise  of 
Clcsey  baptized  16 13. 

Item  the  xxviiith  of  Jane  was  sonne  of  Richerd  Barwis  shomaker  base 

begotten  buryed  1613. 

Item.    The  2th  of  Januarie  was  William  the  sonne  of  Mr.  John  Barwis  of 
Clesey  baptized  anno  Dom  :  16 13. 

Item 


112         REGISTERS  OP  THE   PARISH   OP  WESTWARD. 

Item.  Ihe  vth  of  July  was  Mr.  Anthony  Brawas  of  Hildkirke  Esquir  buryed 
at  newekirk  Anno  Dom:  1616. 

Item.  The  xxvith  of  Julye  was  Mrs.  Grace  Barwis  the  wife  of  Mr.  Anthony 
Barwis  of  Hyldkirke  Buryed  Anno  Dom  :  1616. 

Item.  The  xth  of  Marche  was  Doritie  the  dowg^her  of  Mr.  Lancelote  Denton 
of  Hyldkirke  baptized  Anno  Dom  :  1617. 

Item.  The  ffirst  of  Aug^uste  was  ffrancis  dowghter  of  Mr.  Lancelote  Denton  of 
Hyldkirke  baptized  Anno  Dom :  1619. 

Item.    The  xxth  of  Augfust  was  ffrances  Barwis  buryed  anno  Dom  :  1623. 

Item.  The  xth  of  October  was  Robert  the  base  beg-otten  sonne  of  William 
Barwis  and  Jane  harreson  (?)  of  Heslespringe  baptized  Anno  Dom  :  1623. 

the  daughter  of  Anthonie  Barwis  baptized  Anno 

Dom  :  1634. 

rd  Barwis  of  brigbanke  within    the  pish,  of 

Wigdon  and 1634. 

daughter  of  Thomas  Barwis  of  ye  ff 

baptized  1640. 

Item.  The  xiitth  of  ffebruarie  was  Richard  Barwis  of  llekirk  Esquire  buried 
164*. 

1660.    The  20  of  December  was  John  Barwis  the  son  of  Antho :  buried. 

1669.  The  1 1  day  of  July  Antho :  Barwis  of  Street  buryed. 

1670.  ffrancis  the  daughter  of  Wm.  Barwis  of  Street  baptized  ye  13  day  of 

Richard  Barwis  son  of  Mr.  Richard  Barwis  of  llekirk  bapt :  Novemb  :  29th 
1671.  nat:  Novemb  :  yc  7  day  eiusdem  mensis. 

Richard  son  of  Rich  :  Barwis  bap  March  (?)  1671. 

Elizabeth  daughter  of  Will :  Barwis  bapt :  November  14  (1672). 

ffrancis  daughter  of  Mr.  Rich  :  Barwis  bapt  Jan :  the  6  (1672). 

Susan  daughter  of  Will :  Barwis  bapt  1673  (or  4). 

Mrs.  Mary  Musgrave  of  Clea  and  Mary  Barwis  was  {sic)  buryed  Decemb 
220  1675. 

Tho :  son  of  Mr.  Rich  :  Barwis  was  bur :  Jan  :  the  6,  1676. 

Willm  Barwis  bapt  July  S,  1677. 

Thomas  son  of  John  Barwis  bapt:  October  ye  9  (16S0). 

Richard  ffil:  willim  Barwis  bapt :  November  ye  4,  i6Su 

Alice  filia  John  Barwis  was  bapt :  January  19  i6Si(-2). 

Catherine  filia  Mr.  Rich  :  Barwis  was  bapt:  Jan:  the  12,  i6Si(-2). 

Maryfil:  Rich:  Barwis  bapt:  Sept:  28,  1683. 

ffrancis  Barwis  bur  :  idem  dies. 

Sarah  fil:  Will:  Barwis  was  bapt :  July  21  16S4. 

Mary  (orMarg:)  Barwis  bur:  Decemb:  10,  1684. 

Grace  fil:  Will:  Barwis  bapt:    ....  16S7. 

Will :  fil :  Will :  Barwis  bapt :  March  3,  1692. 

Mr.  Kirkby  and  Mrs.  Frances  Barwis  were  marryed  June  the  6th  1700. 

John  Featherstonhaugh  Esquire  and  Madam  Anne  Barwis  were  marryed 
November  the  2Lst  1700. 

Anne  the  wife  of  Willm  Barwis  bury'd  Jan  :  31st  i702(-3). 

1703.     Grace  Barwis  buryed  May  ye  3d. 

1705.    Mrs.  Frances  Barwis  was  buryed  November  ye  12th  1705. 

1708.    Madam  Featherstonhaugh  dyed  7ber  ye  i9thy  duryed  here  7ber  ye  2is€ 

170^ 


RBGISTBRS  OP  THE   PARISH  OP  WESTWARD.         XI3 

1713.    Susan  Barwis  buried  October  yo  4^  1713. 

17 16.    Anthony  Barwis  and  Elizabeth  Wood  mar :  May  ye  15th. 

(171 7).    Thomas  son  of  Anthony  Barwis  ffebrua*  ye  i  ith  171^  (baptized). 

1719.    Willm  Barwis  December  25  (buried). 

1730.    John  son  of  Anthony  Barwtse  November  iSth  (born)« 

1722.    A  child  of  Anthony  Barwise's  Septemb:  26  (buried). 

172S.    Anthony  Barwiss  July  27  (buried)f 

i72S(-9).     Elizabeth  Barwise  March  12th  (buried). 

1730.    Willm  son  of  Wm  Barwise  Aug-ust  y^  2  (baptized). 

1732.  John  son  of  Wm  Barwise  July  ye  6th  (baptized). 

1733.  Wm  son  of  Wm  Barwise  June  ye  14th  (buried). 
>733«    Jobn  son  of  Wm  Barwise  June  ye  28th  (buried). 

1737-  Agnes  dauehtrof  Wm  Barwise  April  ye  ist  (baptized). 

I737«  John  Barwise  &  Eliz :  Briscoe  of  Langfrigf  June  ye  i6th  (married). 

1739*  Alines  daughtr  of  Willm  Barwise  May  ye  10  (buried). 

1739.  William  Barwise  of  Greenrig  August  ye  29th  (buried). 

1740.  Willm  Barwtse  &  Mary  Edmison  Octobr  ye  23d  (married). 
1743.  Martha  daughtr  of  Thomas  Barwise  June  ye  22d  (baptized). 
4744.  Joseph  Harden  &  Jane  Barwise  Decemb>  y«  27th  (married). 
>744(-5)'    Mary  daughter  of  Thos :  Barwise,  Street.  March  ye  6th  (baptized). 


Appendix  III. 

BRISCO    ENTRIES. 

Item.  The  xxth  of  October  was  Henrie  Willimson  and  Mabell  Briskoe  of 
this  ptsh  wedded  1605. 

Item.    The  xxiio  of  December  was  John  sonne  of  Guye  Briskoe  baptized  161 1. 

Item.  The  viitith  of  Januarie  was  Marie  the  dowghter  of  Guy  Briskoe  bap- 
tized Anno  Dom  :  16 15. 

Item.  The  vith  of  Deceml^r  was  Agnes  the  dowghter  of  John  Briskoe  of 
Cooningegarthe  baptized  Anno  Dom  :  161S. 

Item.  The  xiiijth  day  of  Januarie  was  Marie  the  dowghter  of  John  Briskoe  of 
Cunning  garth  Anno  Dom  :  1620. 

Item.  The  xviiith  day  of  May  was  Guy  Briskoe  of  Cunningegarth  younger 
baryed  Anno  Dom :  1621 . 

Item.  The  xxvth  day  of  May  was  Katheran  dowghter  of  Guy  Brisskoe  of 
Cunningegarth  Buryed  Anno  Dom  162 1. 

Item.  Th;  xxiiird  of  September  was  Elizabeth  Briskoe  wedowe  of  Cunning 
garth  buried  Anno  Dom :  1623. 

Item.  The  ijth  of  ffebruarie  was  Marie  the  dowghter  of  Guy  Briskoe  of  Cun- 
ning garth  baptized  Anno  Dom  i622(-3). 

Item.  Ye  xxzith  of  Januarie  was  John  Sanderson  &  Jane  Briskoe  wedded 
anno  Dom :  1625. 

Anthony  the  Sonne  of  Guy  Briskoe  Buryed  (?)  1627. 

the  Sonne  of  Robert  Briskoe  of  Cunning  garth  baptized 

1634 


114         REGISTERS  OP  THE   PARISH  OF  WESTWARD. 

1634. 

the  daughter  of  Robert  Briskoe  of  Cunning  garth  bap- 
tized 1640. 

Item.     The  xxxith  of  May  was  Anne  the  base  begotten  dowghter  of  Anthonie 

.     .     .     ;    and    ....     Briskoe  of  Cunning  garth  within  this  pish  was 
baptized. 

Item.    The  20th  of  March  was  Robert  Briscoe  of  Cunning  garth  buried  164S. 
was  Jane  the  dowghter  of  Robert  Briskoe  baptized 
164S. 

The  12  of  November  was  Edward  Rowland  and  Essabell  Briscoe  mariied  1659. 

1661.    The  3  of  October  was  Essabell  the  daughter  of  John  Briscoe  baptized. 

1664.    The  21  of  August  was  Susana  the  daughter  of  Jo :  Briscoe  of  Cunning 
garth  baptized. 

1664.  The  26  of  August  was  Susana  the  daughter  of  Jo :  Briscoe  buried. 

1665.  The  29  day  of  November  was  Elizabeth  daughter  of  John   Briscoe 
baptized. 

1666.  The  19  of  September  was  Thomas  Briscoe  of  Cunyearth  buried. 
1666.    The  8  of  August  was  Christopher  B(  P)arker  and  Mary  Briscoe  weded. 
166S.    The  21  of  Apritl  was  John  Harqson  and  Jane  Briscoe  weded. 

1668.    The  14  of  November  was  Mary  the  daughter  of  John  Briscoe  baptized. 

1668.  The  12  of  februarie  was  Mary  the  daughter  of  John  Briscoe  buried. 
i668.    The  26  of  februarie  was  Susana  the  daughter  of  John  Briscoe  buried. 

1699.  The  4  of  June  was  John  Lambley  and  Jane  Briscoe  weded. 

1669.  John  Briscoe  ye  son  of  John  Briscoe  of  Cunninge  garth  bapt  ye  23  of 
June. 

1670.  John  the  son  of  Antho :  Briscoe  of  Breckinwhaite  bapt  ye  6  of  June  (?) 
1672.    Gawin  son  of  John  Briscoe  buried  June  ye  26. 

1680.  Lucy  filia  John  Briscoe  was  bapt  Decern b  :  >e  26. 

1682.  Jane  Briscoe  wid :  off  Cumgarth  was  buried  June  the  first. 

16S3.  Georg  Moore  of  Jurrenhen  (?)  pish  &  Isabell  Briscoe  of  this  by  license 
mar:  ffeb  :  21. 

1686.  Rub  :  Jefferson  &  Jane  Briscoe  mar:  Octob  :  23  16S6. 

1700.  John  Briscoe  and  Anne  Atkinson  were  marryed  June  ye  15th. 
1702.  Mary  daughter  of  John  Briscoe  bapt  Aug  ye  2d. 

1702.  John  Hodgson  and  Sarah  Briscoe  were  marryed  Augt  ye  3d. 

1705.  John  son  of  John  Briscoe  baptized  July  ye  13th. 

171 1.  Lucy  Briscoe  was  buryed  Jan :  ye  24. 

1 712.  Luce  daughter  of  John  Brisco  baptized  July  ye  3a 

1 713.  Dennis  Briscoe  buried  Aprill  ye  21. 
173?.  John  Briscoe  January  ye  21  (buried). 
I73t*  A""  Briscoe  March  ye  (buried). 

173?.  Jon  Briscoe  &  Jane  Asbridge  Febry  ye  4tli  (married). 

I73I'  Joseph  Harden  &  Mary  Briscoe  Septembr  ye  2id  (married). 

1731.  Anne  daughtr  of  John  Briscoe  Decembr  ye  22  (baptized). 

1733.  John  son  of  Jno  Briscoe  Septembr  ye  13th  (baptized).  * 

1735.  Jane  Briscoe  April  ye  2d  (buried). 

1736.  Margaret  daughtr  of  Jno:  Briscoe  Decemb  :  ye  220  (baptized). 

1737.  John  Barwise  81.  Eliz  :  Briscoe  of  I^ngrig  June  30  16th  (married). 

1738.  Lucy  Briscoe  January  ye  12th  (buried). 

173^*    Joseph  son  of  Jno  Briscoe  March  ye  22d  (baptized). 

>74t 


RBQISTBRS  OP  THB  PARISH   OP  WESTWARD.         IZ5 

1741.  Willm  SOD  of  Jno  Briscoe  of  Brackte  Novembr  ye  12th  (baptized). 

1743*  Jane  wife  of  Jno  Briscoe  May  ye  29th  (buried), 

1744.  John  Briscoe  &  Maitha  Folder  August  ye  2d  (married). 
i74l>  John  Briscoe  of  Brackinthwaite  February  ye  24th  (buried). 

I74f.    5)arah  daughtr  of   Jno :    Briscoe  Brackinthwaite  February    ye    24th 
(baptized;. 

1745.  Joseph  son  of  John  Briscoe  Brackinthwaite  July  ya  ist  (buried). 
1756.    7th  Feby  Sarah  Brisco  of  Old  Cariisle  spinster  (buried). 

1760.     March  19th  John  son  of  John  Brisco  of  Heslespring  (baptized). 


Appendix  IV. 

FLETCHER    ENTRIES. 

1660.  The  26  of  Januarie  was  Ann  the  daughter  of  Richard  ffletcher  baptized. 

1662.  The  6  of  December  was  William  the  son  of  Richard  ffletcher  buried. 

1666.  The  17  of  March  was  John  the  son  of  Richard  ffletcher  baptized. 

166S.  The  7  of  Aprill  was  Richard  the  son  of  Rich  :  ffletcher  baptized. 

1670.  Isaac  ffletcher  ye  son  of  Mr  Richard  ffletcher  bapt :  ye    .... 

17 15.  Mrs  Mary  ffletcher  of  Cleah-Hall  was  buried  October  ye  24th 

1717.  Philip  son  of  Mr  John  ffletcher  of  Cleah  Novbr  21  (baptized). 

1719.  John  son  of  Mr  John  ffletcher  of  Clea  bap :  May  30th. 

1721.  James  son  of  Mr  John  ffletcher  of  Clea  May  24  (under  Births). 

1733.  George  son  of  Mr  John  Fletcher  April  4th  (baptized). 

1725.  Grace  dau'  of  Mr.  John  Fletcher  High  Sheriff  was  baptized  April  2ist. 

1726.  Mr  James  Fletcher  April  22d  (buried). 
17^7.  Lowther  ye  son  of  JoQ  Fletcher  May  loth. 

1 729.  Harry  son  of  Jno  Fletcher  Esq  Octobr  2  (baptised). 

1731.  Charles  son  of  John  Fletcher  Octobr  ye  2ist  (baptized). 

i73|.  Elizabeth  Fletcher,  Clea,  February  ye  15th  (buried). 

1734.  Jane  daught'  of  Jno  Fletcher  August  ye  9th  (baptized). 
174^.  Philip  Fletcher  of  Qea,  Major,  March  ye  12  (buried). 
1745.  Mr*  Elizabeth  Senhouse  of  Clea  Decembr  ye  17th  (buried). 

171^.  Anthony  Fletcher,  Penrith  &  Mary  Firsaker,  Caldbeck  January  yo  6th 
(married). 

175}.  Mr.  Thomas  Benson  &  Mrs.  Jane  Fletcher  March  ye  12th  (married). 

1754.  William  Taylor  &  Miss  Grace  Fletcher  Jany  22nd  (married). 

1756.  John  Fletcher  Esqr  of  Qea,  Augst  2i8t  (buried). 


Appendix  V. 

MISCELLANEOUS    ENTRIES. 

Item.    The  viith  of  Marche  was  Jehutha  sonne  of  Adam  hodgeson,  baylife. 
baptized  1612. 

Item.    The  xth  of  November  was  John   Robinson  of  the  Hight  alias  halt 
Robinson  buryed  1613. 

Item 


Il6         REGISTERS  OF  THE   PARISH   OF  WESTWARD. 

Item.  The  iiijth  of  August  was  Atnbros  Wiflson  alias  Stamp  of  the  pish  of 
Wigton  and  Alyce  Dowthwaite  of  the  pish  of  Westward  wedded  Anno  Dom  : 
1616. 

Item.  The  iiijth  of  October  was  Robert  the  base  begotten  Sonne  of  William 
Asbrig^  alias  Lord  Willie  and  Annas  Holme  buryed  16 16. 

Item.  The  xixth  of  Januarie  was  Adam  the  sonne  of  Adam  hodgeson,  bay- 
life  of  Westward  baptized  Anno  Dom:  16 16. 

Item.  The  xxviijth  day  of  ifebruaire  was  Christopher  My  rehouse  of  Myre- 
houses  buryed  Anno  Dom  1616. 

Item.  I'he  xiijth  of  Januarie  was  John  Wiltimson  of  willthorne  myre  old 
baylife  buryed  Anno  Dom  :  1619. 

Upon  the  same  day  (August  6)  was  Jane  the  daughter  of  John  Malcing-e  a 
traveller  in  ye  countrie  buryed  Anno  Dom  :  1620. 

Item.    The  xvth  of  Marche  was  Margaret  alias  nurse  buryed  Anno  Dom  1621. 

Item.  The  xxith  of  July  was  John  Tiffin  of  wysey  alias  ded  Tiffin  buryeJ 
Anno  Dom  :  1623. 

Itkm.  The  xth  of  Marche  was  Doritie  the  daughter  of  Mr  Lancelot  Denton  of 
Hyldkirke  baptized  Anno  Dom  1617. 

Item.  1  he  xxvth  of  October  was  John  Armeror  of  the  pish  of  Holme  Coltru* 
and  Katteren  Musgrave  of  this  pishe  wedded  Anno  Dom  :  1618. 

Item.  The  23  of  December  was  the  wife  of  John  Robinson  of  the  hight 
buryed  1605. 

Item.  The  xxviijth  of  November  was  John  Robinson  of  fifosterfould  buryed 
1607. 

Item.  The  xixth  of  Marche  was  John  son  of  John  Robinson  of  G>lepitts 
baptized  1608. 

Item.    The  xth  of  June  was  Symon  Robinson  of  Howerigg^  buryed  1639. 

Item.  The  vth  of  December  was  Jane  dowghter  of  Christopher  Robinson 
buried  1649. 

1669.    The  4th  day  of  November  Margaret  Robinson  of  Woodside  boryed. 

Willm  fit :  Mr.  Willm  Horslay  bapt  ffebr :  the  9  16S1. 

Mary  fil :  Mr.  Willm  Horslay  bapt :  Jan  :  26  1694. 

166S.  Item.  The  4  of  October  was  Jo  the  son  of  John  Lowrance  milner  at 
Ilekirk  baptized. 

John  Youn^  &  Jane  Musgrave  was  (sic)  mar :  May  3 1  1684. 

John  Wood  of  Warton  and  Barbara  Stalker  of  this  parish  were  marryed  Aprill 
ye  20th  1700. 

Cuthbert  Atkinson  of  Warton  and  Frances  Grainger  of  Stoneraise  were 
marryed  May  ye  i6th  1700. 

1716.    John  Nixon  &  Margaret  Crookdake  October  ye  14. 

1700.  Elizabeth  Robinson  of  Colehole  was  buried  July  ye  i8th. 

1701.  John  son  of  Mr.  John  Robinson  of  Stoneraise  was  baptized  July  ye 
37th. 

1701.  Thomas  and  Mary  son  &  daughter  of  John  Robinson  of  Woodside  were 
baptized  September  ye  14th. 

Item.  The  xxvth  of  Januaire  was  Marie  the  doughter  of  John  harreson 
junior  called  Cuthbt  John  of  Heslespring  baptized  Anno  Dom  1623. 

was  ffrances  the  dowghter  of  Mr  Thomas  Lamplewghe  of 

.    .    .    .    ed  Anno  Dom :  1634. 

....  Februaire  was  Elizabeth  the  dawghter  of  John  Threlkerd  baptized 
1634.  16^8 


A 


REGISTERS  OF  THE  PARISH   OF  WESTWARD.  II7 

1658.    iTm.    Thefintof  June  was  Robert  Musg^ave  and     .    .    (married). 

1621.  Item.  The  viith  of  October  was  Agnes  the  dow^hter  of  Runyand  bell 
baptized  Anno  Dom  :  1621. 

1717.    John  Blamire  &  Mary  Nicolson  were  married  June  ye  15th  p  License. 

Anne  daug^hter  of  Mr  William  Horseley  junr  was  baptized  July  ye  6tb  1707* 

William  son  of  Mr  William  Horseley  was  baptized  December  ye  6th  1709. 

Frances  dauf^hter  of  Mr  Horseley  bapt  May  2d  171 1. 

1 7 19.     Mr  William  Horseley  March  12  (buried). 

1725.  John  Wilson  of  Graing^er  Houses  and  his  son  Thomas  both  buried  in 
one  grave. 

1728.     Mrs  Horseley  October  iSth  (buried). 

1733.     Mary  Pearson,  Quaker,  July  ye  ist  (baptized). 

1731*    Josiah  Harrison,  Quaker,  January  ye  ist  (baptized). 

1737.     Mary  daug-titr  of  Wm  Hinde  Sojour  May  ye  19th  (baptized). 

1737*     Georji^e  Bell  sojourner  April  ye  19th  (buried). 

1741.     Anthony  Sharpe,  clerk  &  Eliz  :  Piele  April  ye  2d  (married). 

1741.     Mary  daughtr  of  John  Stanwix  August  ye  26th  (baptized). 

1744.  John  Jefferson  of  Brackinthwaite  vul :  diet:  old  carrier  May  ye  Sth 
(buried). 

1 745-    John  Sanderson  pensioner  Decembr  ye  38th  (bur.) 

1744.     Martin  Salkeld  &  Esther  Wilson  September  ye  24th  (married). 

1749.  John  Thomlinson,  Gill  &  Grace  Liddle  Moorehouse  November  ye 
2d  (married). 

1754.  Bernard  Barton  &  Mary  Porter  from  the  parish  of  Dalston  Jany  13 
(married). 

I JS7-    Xber  4th  Guy  Dalston  of  Broadmoor,  said  to  be  104  years  old  (buried). 


(ii8) 


Art.  X.—Pre-Norman  Cross-Shaft  at  Heversham. 
By  the  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverlby,  F.S.A. 

Read  at  Heversham,  Sept.  25,  1893. 

TIEVERSHAM,  a  parish  some  eight  miles  long  and 
■'-'"  three  wide,  and  containing  several  townships,  is 
mentioned  in  Domesday  by  the  name  of  Eversham,  Euer 
being  possibly  the  name  of  an  early  owner  whose  patrony- 
mic, we  are  told,  was  not  extinct  in  the  district  in  1777. 

The  church  stands  near  to  the  Roman  road  from 
Chester  to  Carlisle,  and  between  Lancaster  (where  all 
the  western  traffic  which  was  not  destined  to  follow 
the  tedious  roads  around  and  across  the  aestuaries  of 
Morecambe,  and  Duddon,  must  strike  northwards)  and 
Kendal,  at  which  place  the  road  to  the  head  of  Winder- 
mere,— the  camp  at  Ambleside, — into  the  very  heart  of 
the  mountains,  and  over  Hardknott  into  the  Coupland 
district  to  Ravenglass  and  Whitehaven,  turned  a  little  to 
the  westward. 

About  a  mile  to  the  north-east  of  the  church  and  within 
the  parish  is  the  village  of  Hincaster.  The  name  seems 
to  point  to  a  Roman  camp  or  fort.  Whether  there  are 
traces  of  a  Roman  colony  or  settlement  here  I  have  not 
ascertained,  but  that  a  considerable  degree  of  Christian 
culture  had  been  attained  in  the  immediately  succeeding 
centuries  appears  to  be  attested  by  the  existence  of  the 
cross  at  Heversham,  and  by  records  written  in  the  early 
days  after  the  Norman  conquest.  Unfortunately  the  dedi- 
cation of  the  original  church  of  Heversham  is  not  known, 
and  there  has  been  some  confusion  of  the  names  of  St. 
Mary  and  St.  Peter.  A  well  200  yards  north-west  of  the 
church  was  known  as  St.  Mary's  Well,  and  may  have  led 
to  the  supposition  that  the  ancient  dedication  was  to  St. 

Mary 


l>RB-NORMAN   CROSS-SHAPT  AT  HEVERSHAM,  llQ 

Mary.  On  the  other  hand,  the  names  of  St.  Peter  and  St. 
Mary  may  have  been  allowed  to  supplant  as  far  as  pos- 
sible the  name  of  the  patron  saint  of  the  original  church 
of  the  British  period  or  of  the  time  when  the  Teutonic 
settlers  had  embraced  the  faith,  and  after  the  first  Norman 
baron  of  Kendal,  Ivo  de  Talebois,  had  p^ranted  the  church 
to  the  Abbey  of  St.  Mary  at  York,  which  grant  was  con- 
firmed to  the  Abbey  by  the  name  of  the  Church  of 
Eversheim  by  Gilbert  son  of  Roger  Fitz-Reinfred  in  the 
reign  of  Richard  I. 

The  Manor  of  Heversham  was  formerly  held  by  Tosti, 
Earl  of  Northumbria,  who  fell  fighting  against  his  brother 
Harold  Goodwinson  the  English  King,  at  Stamford 
Bridge,  where  also  fell  Harold  Hardraada  or  Harold 
Sigurdson,  on  the  eve,  as  it  were,  of  the  battle  of  Hast- 
ings. (Something  of  the  story  of  Tosti  is  told,  I  believe, 
on  the  Crosses  at  Halton,  at  which  place  he  probably  had 
a  residence,  and  concerning  which  I  had  the  honour  of 
reading  a  paper  before  the  Royal  Archaeological  Insti- 
tute at  their  meeting  at  Edinburgh  two  years  ago.) 
Domesday  book  states  that  Earl  Tosti  had  held  amongst 
other  lands  two  carucates  at  Hennecass^r^,  two  at  Euere- 
shaim,  two  at  Levens,  &c.,  which  lands  are  now  held  for 
purposes  of  taxation  by  Roger  of  Poictou  and  a  certain 
Priest  under  him.  "In  Biedun  habuit  comes  Tosti,  six 
carucatas  terrse  ad  geldum ;  Nunc  habet  Rogerum  Pista- 
viensis  et  Eruvin  presbyter  sub  eo.  In  Jalant  4  car., 
Fareltun  4  car.,  Prestun  3  car.,  Berewic  2  car.,  Henne- 
castre  2  car.,  Evershaim  2  car.,  Lefuenes  2  car.,"  Domes- 
day. The  manor,  as  well  as  the  church,  passed  through 
the  hands  of  the  Barons  of  Kendal  into  those  of  the  Abbey 
of  St.  Mary  at  York,  and  was  after  the  dissolution  of  the 
monasteries  granted  to  different  persons,  one  of  whom, 
Richard  Bowskell  (whose  arms  1601  were  in  the  east 
window  of  the  south  aisle  of  the  church)  bought  out 
several  of  the  others,  excepting  certain   tenements  in 

Rowell 


120  PRE-NORMAN   CROSS-SHAFT  AT  HBVERSHAM* 

Rowell^  Leesgill,  WoodhousCy  Aughtinwaite^  Milnthorpe,  and 
Eversham^  names  which  serve  to  remind  one  of  the  anti- 
quity and  comparative  independence  of  the  holdings,  as 
does  the  clause  in  the  inquisition  reserving  to  the  owner  a 
right  to  •*  all  the  works  of  the  tenants  of  the  said  manor 
called  bond  days^**  if  any  such  appertain  thereto. 

Heversham  presents  a  fair  specimen  of  the  history  of 
parochial  and  church  property  from  early  times.  Seized 
by  the  Conqueror  and  given  to  his  friends,  by  the  year 
1459  it  had  been  appropriated  to  the  Abbey  of  St.  Mary, 
the  Archbishop  reserving  a  portion  for  a  Vicar.  This 
portion  was  set  out  next  year  as  one  third  of  the  Mill  at 
hfilnthorpe  anciently  belonging  to  the  Church,  tithes  of 
demesne  lands,  one  quarter  of  the  tithes  of  the  people, 
&c.  The  vicar  was  to  find  bread,  wax,  wine  for  the 
church,  pay  io6s.  8d.  to  the  Abbot  and  convent,  repair 
the  chancel  and  bear  Archiepiscopal  and  Archidiaconal 
charges.  The  residue  was  alienated  from  the  parish  to  be 
eventually  swallowed  by  the  Crown  at  the  dissolution. 
There  are  two  chapelries  within  the  parish  which  deserve 
attention,  Crosscrake  and  Crossthwaite.  Whether  crosses 
ever  stood  at  either  place  is  not  known,  but  Stainton^ 
one  of  the  townships  of  Crosscrake,  is  older  than  the 
conquest,  being  named  in  Domesday  as  belonging  to  Gile- 
Michel,  and  its  chape!  was  endowed  by  Anselm  de 
Furness,  son  of  the  first  Michel  le  Fleming,  about  the 
time  of  Richard  I.  The  name  of  the  "  tun  "  appears  to 
point  to  some  stone  pillar  or  cross  of  much  earlier  date 
than  Domesday,  whilst  the  name  of  the  other  township  of 
the  chapelry.  Sedge-wick^  leads  us  back  to  a  like  period. 
Crossthwaite  chapel,  five  miles  north-west  from  the  Parish 
Church,  stands  upon  an  ancient  foundation,  though  it  had 
been  allowed  to  fall  into  decay  before  1556,  when  the 
Bishop  of  Chester,  on  petition  of  the  inhabitants,  granted 
a  license  that  Mass  should  be  said,  the  canonical  hours 
rehearsed,  the  sacraments  administered  by  a  priest  ap- 
proved 


PRB-NORMAN  CROSS-SHAPT  AT  HBVBRSHAM«  I2t 

proved  by  the  Vicar  of  Heversham  without  prejudice  to 
the  mother  church.  This  license  was^  to  be  produced 
every  three  years  by  the  chaplain  and  read  in  the  Parish 
Church  on  the  second  day  after  Pentecost. 

In  1580  an  award  was  made  on  certain  disputes  between 
the  inhabitants  of  the  chapelry  and  other  inhabitants, 
which  award  was  destroyed  when  the  parish  church  was 
burnt  down  in  160X9  whereupon  a  reproduction  was  made 
as  nearly  as  possible  Trom  memory,  setting  forth  that  the 
inhabitants,  by  their  churchwardens  and  sworn  men, 
should  yearly  upon  New  Year's  Eve  make  their  accounts 
and  reckonings  at  Heversham  Church  and  pay  what  fell 
due ;  also  that  they  should  pay  a  certain  share  of  the 
stipend  of  the  parish  clerk ;  also  3s.  4d.  for  every  corpse 
buried  above  the  quire  wall  in  Crosthwaite  Church  ;  also 
one  fourth  share  of  repairs,  &c.,  of  the  parish  church ; 
also  they  should  appoint  two  men  to  serve  as  church- 
wardens at  Heversham  Church  from  their  hamlet,  and  six 
others,  to  be  sworn  men,  as  assistants,  to  make  up  the 
number  of  twenty-four  sworn  men,  the  said  churchwardens 
and  sworn  men  to  join  with  the  other  churchwardens  and 
sworn  men  in  all  things  needful  and  necessary  to  the  said 
church,  and  always  to  be  appointed  on  New  Year's  Eve, 
and  to  take  their  oaths  on  the  5th  day  of  January,  being 
the  twelfth  even,  at  the  Church  of  Heversham  according 
as  hath  been  accustomed.  It  seems  to  me  that  we  have 
here  an  indication  of  a  reversion  to  the  Mark  or  Mearc^Mot, 
an  institution  which,  as  Mr.  Kemble  says,*  lay  at  the 
basis  of  Teutonic  society.  "  The  Mark  contained  within 
itself  the  means  of  doing  right  between  man  and  man  ;  it 
had  its  principal  officer  or  judge,  and  its  priest  and  place 
of  religious  observance."  At  the  great  religious  rites 
thrice  in  the  year  the  Markmen  assembled  unbidden.  On 
emergencies  summonses  issued  to  a  bidden    ''Thing." 


*  *'  Tbe  Saxons  in  England." 

"The 


122  PRB^NORMAN   CROSS-SHAPT  AT  HBVBRSHAMS 

"  The  MArk  was  a  voluntary  association  of  free  men,  who 
laid  down  for  themselves  and  strictly  maintained  a  system 
of  cultivation  by  which  the  produce  of  the  land  on  which 
they  settled  might  be  fairly  and  equally  secured  for  their 
service  and  support ;  and  from  participation  in  which  they 
jealously  excluded  all  who  were  not  born  or  adopted  into 
the  association.  It  was  a  union  for  the  purpose  of  admin- 
istering justice,  or  supplying  a  mutual  guarantee  of  peace, 
security,  and  freedom  for  the  inhabitants  of  the  district." 

The  use  of  the  lands,  the  woods,  and  the  waters  was 
made  dependent  upon  the  general  will  of  the  settlers,  and 
could  only  be  enjoyed  under  general  regulations  made  by 
all  for  the  benefit  of  all.  The  principle  was  retained  and 
acted  upon  in  the  relations  of  the  hamlets  towards  each 
other  and  towards  the  parish  church. 

It  is  peculiarly  interesting  to  find  the  remains  of  a  very 
beautiful  piece  of  sculpture  of  pre-Norman  date  upon  the 
very  site  upon  which  it  was  first  set  up,  amidst  so  many 
evidences  of  the  state  of  the  country  about  the  time  of  its 
erection,  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  dedications  to  St. 
Patrick,  St.  Oswald,  St.  Wilfrid  and  of  such  varied  work 
as  may  be  seen  at  Heysham,  Lancaster,  Halton,  Melling, 
and  other  churches  at  no  great  distance. 

The  fragment  now  standing  in  the  porch  of  Heversham 
Church  is  of  a  coarse-grained  sandstone,  4  ft.  7  in.  high, 
13  inches  wide  and  8  inches  thick  at  the  bottom,  and  11 
wide,  by  7I  inches  thick  at  the  top.  Portions  have  been 
broken  away  and  a  considerable  part  of  one  edge  knocked 
off,  so  that  it  is  difficult  to  ascertain  what  may  have  been 
the  exact  measurement  of  the  original  block.  There  is  a 
sun  dial  of  the  same  kind  of  stone  fixed  in  the  solid  socket 
stone  of  two  steps  placed  upon  slabs  of  limestone  in  the 
churchyard,  which  appears  to  be  a  part  of  the  original 
cross.  The  stem  of  the  dial  has  been  cut  away  from  the 
thickness  of  9I  in.  to  6  in.,  and  from  a  width  of  13^  in.  to 
7^  in.  at  the  bottom,  so  that  all  calling  has  disappeared 

from 


m 


Rv' 


K< 


J 


U 


•^' 


CROSS    SHAFT    AT    HEVERSHAM. 


PRB-NORMAN   CROSS-SHAFT  AT  HEVERSHAM.  I23 

from  this  portion  of  the  cross,  if  such  it  were.  At  Haltoh/ 
the  date  of  the  cutting  down  is  known,  and  we  learn  that 
a  monument,  the  h'ke  of  which  does  not  exist,  and  one 
bearing  upon  an  important  factor  in  our  national  history,, 
after  weathering  the  storms  of  six  hundred  years,  fell 
before  the  infatuation  of  the  seventeenth  century.  The 
Heversham  dial  is  dated  1690.  The  carving  upon  the 
fragment  in  the  porch  is  of  that  kind  which  appears  on 
the  crosses  of  Ruthwell  and  Bewcastle,  having  spirals, 
fruit  clusters  and  foliage,  with  animals,  but  this  stone  is 
not  so  massive  as  either  of  the  two  mentioned,  and  two 
fruit  and  leaf-bearing  stems  rise  and  gracefully  intertwine 
upon  the  broader  face  of  the  stone,  whereas  one  main  stem 
only  appears  on  those  parts  of  the  Bewcastle  and  Ruth- 
well  crosses  which  show  animals  and  birds  amidst  the 
foliage. 

The  eifect  of  this  double  vine  stem,  with  its  tendrils, 
clusters  and  leaves,  and  with  the  bodies  and  limbs  of  the 
animals  curving  and  interlacing  with  the  more  delicate 
work  of  the  design,  must  have  been  very  beautiful  in  its 
original  inception.  Enough  of  it  remains  to  arouse  our 
interest  in  the  search  for  other  works  of  the  kind  which 
may  lie  hidden  in  walls  and  buildings  near  our  ancient 
churches  or  in  the  foundations  of  the  churches  them- 
selves, and  which  may  be  exposed  during  the  progress  of 
repairs  or  alterations.  A  couple  of  years  ago  the  founda- 
tion of  St.  Andrew's  Church  (Scotland)  revealed  the  stems 
of  two  great  crosses,  possibly  of  the  time  of  Benedict 
Biscop,  whose  influence  over  Christian  art  may  have  been 
felt  through  the  more  eastern  coasts  in  some  such  manner 
as  we  believe  that  of  St.  Wilfrid  to  have  been  exercised 
here.  What  may  have  been  carved  upon  the  parts  of  the 
cross  now  lost  we  need  not  conjecture,  but  I  do  not  know 
of  any  design  so  pure,  so  free  apparently  from  the  possi- 
bility of  any  admixture  of  legend  amongst  any  of  our 
recent  discoveries.    I  should  expect  to  find  only  Scripture 

subjects 


124         PRB-NORMAN   CROSS-SHAFT  AT  HBVERSHAM. 

subjects  at  most  as  the  compliment  of  this  rich  portrayal 
of  the  vine  of  life,  if  indeed  the  whole  cross  shaft  were  not 
covered  with  similar  work,  varied  by  elaborate  interlacing 
patterns  on  one  of  the  faces. 

An  examination  of  the  outside  walls  of  the  church  on 
the  day  of  our  excursion  was  rewarded  with  the  discovery 
of  a  fragment  of  one  arm  of  the  cross  showing  that  the 
head  of  the  cross  itself  was  adorned  with  the  leaves  and 
tendrils  of  the  all-pervading  Christ  Vine. 

I  am  indebted  to  Canon  Cooper  and  his  son,  Mr. 
Edward  Cooper,  for  valuable  drawings  and  photographs, 
the  procuring  of  which  cost  both  of  these  gentlemen  a 
considerable  amount  of  trouble. 


(123) 


Art.  XI. — Westmorland  Parish  Registers.     By  the   Rev. 
Henry  Whitehead,  M.A.,  Vicar  of  Lanercost. 

A  CLAUSE  in  the  Census  Act  of  1830  ordered  the 
vicars  and  churchwardens  of  every  parish  to  make  a 
return  of  all  their  then  extant  registers  of  earlier  date 
than  1813  ;  and  a  printed  summary  of  the  returns,  known 
as  the  Parish  Registers  Abstract,  was  presented  to  Parlia- 
ment in  1833. 

This  Abstract,  having  now  become  very  scarce,  is 
difficult  to  obtain,  and  therefore  is  little  known.  It  would 
be  well,  then,  if  each  Archaeological  Society  were  to  re- 
publish in  its  Transactions  the  summary  of  the  returns 
from  the  parishes  of  the  county  or  counties  with  which  it 
is  concerned,  supplementing  them^  wherever  possible, 
from  other  sources  of  information. 

At  present  few  persons  but  their  custodians  know  what 
registers  are  extant.  Often  the  custodians  themselves 
know  nothing  at  all  about  them.  Neglect  and  ill  usage  are 
responsible  for  much  injury  to  them.  Leaves  gradually 
disappear,  the  covers  having  become  loose.  Sometimes 
a  whole  volume  is  found  to  be  missing.  Perhaps  it  has 
been  lent,  and  never  returned.  Or  a  vicar  dies  suddenly, 
or  is  seized  with  a  mortal  illness,  takes  to  his  bed,  and 
never  again  enters  his  study.  After  his  death  away  go  all 
his  books  and  papers,  and  with  them  sometimes  any 
parish  documents  that  do  not  happen  to  be  in  the  chest. 
The  place  thereof  knows  them  no  more. 

One  of  the  best  means  of  preventing  such  mishaps  is 
publicity,  of  the  same  kind  as  was  provided  for  the  church 
plate  of  this  diocese  by  the  now  well-known  book  devised 
by  the  editor  of  these  Transactions,  which  has  led  to  the 

publishing 


126  WESTMORLAND   PARISH    REGISTERS. 

publishing  of  similar  books  in  half  the  dioceses  throughout 
the  country  ;  and  it  is  in  the  hope  that  a  like  result  may 
eventually  be  secured  on  behalf  of  the  registers  that  I 
contribute  this  paper  to  our  Transactions. 

I  would  have  liked,  in  this  work^  to  begin  with  the 
county  of  Cumberland,  both  because  I  have  copied  the 
Cumberland  returns  from  the  original  MSS,  preserved  in 
the  British  Museum,  of  which  the  Abstract  is  an  abbre- 
viated summary,  and  because  I  am  well  acquainted  with 
the  contents  of  many  Cumberland  registers.  But  for  that 
very  reason  it  is  better  to  deal  with  the  summary  of  the 
Westmorland  returns,  as  they  will  afford  me  less  occasion 
for  digressions  which  might  extend  this  paper  to  a  length 
that  might  try  our  editor's  patience.  Moreover  there  are 
fewer  parishes  in  Westmorland  than  in  Cumberland. 

I  have  personally  examined  only  one  Westmorland 
register ;  and  the  authorities  on  whom  I  depend  for  in- 
formation about  the  rest  sometimes  differ  from  one 
another.  When  they  agree  we  may  presume  they  are 
correct ;  and,  even  when  they  differ,  as  they  were  not 
contemporaneous,  we  may  occasionally  learn  something 
from  their  discrepancies. 

The  available  authorities  are  (i)  the  Abstract,  the 
Westmorland  portion  of  which  I  shall  quote  in  full,  (2) 
Whellan,  who  in  his  history  of  Westmorland,  published 
in  i860,  often  notices  the  registers,  but  only  for  the  most 
part  to  record  the  date  at  which  each  is  alleged  to  begin, 
evidently  not  obtaining  his  information  from  the  Abstract, 
but  probably  from  the  vicars  of  his  time,  (3)  some  papers 
in  these  Transactions,  and  (4)  Bishop  Nicolson's  Miscel- 
lany Accounts  of  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle y  which,  however, 
embrace  only  the  parishes  included  in  the  ancient  diocese, 
and  do  not  always  mention  the  registers. 

We  might  have  expected  much  information  about  the 
registers  from  Nicolson  and  Burn,  especially  as  Dr.  Burn 
was  Chancellor  of  the  diocese  from  1765  to  i7&s.    But,  as 

Mr, 


WESTMORLAND   PARISH  RBGISTBRS.  X27 

Mr.  J.  Holme  Nicolson  said  in  a  paper  read  at  Orton  on 
July  3>  1890,  "  Dr.  Burn,  the  historian  of  the  county,  and 
vicar  of  Orton  from  1738  to  1785,  makes  no  mention  of 
the  registers ;  indeed  he  curiously  enough  seems  to  have 
ignored  such  records  all  through  his  history  of  Westmor- 
land "  {ante,  xi,  251-2). 

It  is  still  more  curious  that  Chancellor  Waugh,  when 
preparing  in  1749  his  famous  "form  of  a  proper  terrier  ", 
which  he  hoped  would  be  "of  great  use  to  posterity", 
demanded  no  account  of  the  registers,  and  does  not  men- 
tion them  in  his  manuscript  annotations  to  Bishop 
Nicolson's  Miscellany  Accounts,  though  he  had  himself 
visited  many  of  the  parishes. 

Nor  is  it  without  surprise  that  we  find  no  reference  to 
the  registers  in  the  Westmorland  Note  Book,  published  in 
1888-9  as  a  "  repository  for  interesting  notes  and  jottings 
from  all  quarters ;  in  short,  intended  to  comprise  every- 
thing that  may  add  to  our  information  on  local  history  ". 

The  Abstract  deals  separately  with  the  four  ancient 
wards  of  Westmorland,  arranging  the  parishes  of  each 
ward  in  alphabetical  order.  But  I  here  arrange  them 
chronologically,  and  in  three  periods,  viz.,  those  which 
have  registers  beginning  (i)  in  the  i6th  century,  (2)  in  the 
17th  century,  and  (3)  between  the  years  1700  and  1813. 

The  abbreviations  in  the  following  lists  are  Bp.  N.  for 
Bp.  Nicolson,  W.  for  Whellan,  R.  for  Rectory,  V.  for  Vic- 
arage,  C.  for  Curacy,  P.C.  for  Perpetual  Curacy,  Bap.  for 
Baptisms,  Bur.  for  Burials,  and  Marr.  for  Marriages. 

The  first  paragraph  under  the  heading  of  each  parish  is 
copied  from  the  Abstract. 


It  will  be  seen  that  22  Westmorland  parishes,  nearly  a  third  of  the 
whole  number  in  the.  county,  were  reported  in  1833  as  having  regis- 
ters dating  from  the  i6th  century.  Nearer  the  Border  the  proportion 
of  ancient  registers  still  extaot  is  considerably  less.    North  .of  an 

imaginary 


128  WESTMORLAND  PARISH   REGISTERS. 

imaginary  line  passing  through  Hesket-in-the- Forest  from  east  to 
west  across  the  county  of  Cumberland  there  are  only  three  i6th 
centur}'  registers  remaining,  and  not  more  than  five  others  of  earlier 
date  than  1640. 

KiRKBY  LoNSDALB  V. — Nos  I-III  (parchment)  contain  baptisms 
and  burials  1538-1812,  marriages  1538-1766.  Nos  IV-VI  marriages 
1767-1812;  including  baptisms,  burials,  and  marriages,  of  the  chapel- 
ries  of  Middleton,  Barbon,  Hutton-Roof,  Mansergh,  Firbank,  and 
Killington. 

Whellan  (p.  887)  says  that  the  Kirkby  Lonsdale  registers  **  com- 
mence in  1530**;  which  is  obviously  incorrect,  as  parish  registers 
were  not  instituted  until  1538. 

Bishop  Ware  (in  vol  i,  pp  200-2,  of  these  Transactions)  says  they 
begin  in  1538,  but  are  blank  from  1556  to  1560  and  from  1566  to  1570. 

The  reporter  in  1831-3  either  overlooked  the  blanks  or  thought 
them  not  worth  mentioning. 

Act  26  George  II,  c.  33,  A.D.  1753,  commonly  called  Lord  Hard- 
wicke*s  Act,  ordered  all  marriages  to  be  thenceforth  registered  in  a 
separate  book ;  but  it  appears  from  the  Abstract  that  compliance 
with  this  order  was  delayed  at  Kirkby  Lonsdale  for  11  years.  In 
some  parishes,  as  we  shall  presently  see,  the  delay  was  much  longer, 
and  in  others  was  prolonged  to  1812. 

LowTHER  R. — No  I:  bap,  bur,  1539-1812;  mart  1539-1753.  No 
II :  marr  1754- 181 2. 

Bishop  Nicolson  in  his  Miscellany  Accounts  (p.  72)  says:  "The 
Register- Book  commences  A^  32  Hen  8,  A.D.  1540*'. 

W.  (p.  798) :  ••  The  Registers  commence  in  1540  ". 

Here,  as  with  few  exceptions  throughout  the  county,  we  find  the 
order  for  a  separate  marriage  register  book  at  once  obeyed. 

MoRLAND  V. — I  (parchment) :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1539-1743.  II  &  III 
(parchment):  bap,  bur,  1744-1812;  marr  1744- 1753.  IV:  mam754- 
18 1 2. 

W.  (p.  802):  "The  registers  commence  in  1638" ;  which  is  doubt- 
less a  mistake,  as  Canon  Simpson  (anU^  i,  17)  says  they  "  commence 
about  1538". 

Kendal  V.— I:  bap,  bur,  marr,  1558-1561,  1570-1587.  II:  bap, 
buri  marr,  1591-1599.  HI:  bap,  bur,  marr,  1606-1631.  IV-VII : 
bap,  bur,  1 679-1768;  mam679-i753.  VIII-X:  l>ap,  bur,  1769-1812. 
XI-XV :  marr  1754-1812. 

Mr.  G.  E.  Moser  (anU^  iii,  50)  says :  "  Between  the  ycATB  2558  and 

1679 


WESTMORLAND   PARISH   RBGISTBRS.  129 

1679  the  registers  for  58  years  are  entirely  wanting,  and  amidst 
the  existing  entries  are  frequent  notes  to  the  following  or  like  effect : 
•The  rest  of  the  entries  for  this  year  are  wanting*.  The  whole 
register  book  between  163 1  and  1679  is  missing.  Some  wag  had 
suggested  that  the  lost  register  might  have  found  its  way  into  a 
lawyer's  office,  and  never  been  returned  ". 

It  may  also  be  suggested  that  on  the  death  of  some  vicar  it  may 
have  Happened  not  to  be  in  the  parish  chest,  and  was  carried  away 
with  his  books  and  papers. 

Brough  V. — I  (parchment) :  bap  1559-1695,  bur  1556-1690,  marr 
1560-1695.  II:  bap,  bur,  marr,  1695-1705.  Ill  (parchment):  bap, 
bur,  1706-1769 ;  marr  1706-1753 ;  including  baptisms  of  Stainmore 
Chapel  1 708- 1769.  IV  &  V  :  bap,  bur,  1770- 181 2.  VI :  marr  1790- 
1812. 

Here,  also,  if  the  above  return  is  correct,  a  whole  book  is  missing, 
viz.,  the  marriage  register  for  1754-1790. 

Crosby-Garrett  R.— I  &  II:  bap  1570-1580,  1590-1812 ;  bur, 
i559-i73o»  1736-1812;  marr  1559-1670,1672-1752.  Ill:  marr  1755. 
1812. 

Bp.  N.  (p.  41) :  '*The  Register  Book  begins  at  1559,  and  has  been 
neatly  enough  preserved  ". 

Great  Musgrave  R. — I:  bap,  bur,  marr,  1562- 1697 ;  interrupted 
by  No  II,  bap,  bur,  marr,  1684-1707.  Ill  &  IV:  bap,  bur,  1707-1812; 
marr  1707-1812  ;  marr  1707-1753.     V:  marr  1754-1812. 

Bp.  N.  (p.  46) :  "  The  Register  Book  begins  in  1559**. 

There  appear  to  be  duplicate  entries  here  for  the  period  1685-1697, 
perhaps  owing  to  the  condition  of  the  concluding  leaves  of  No  I 
being  such  as  rendered  it  necessary  or  advisable  to  transcribe  their 
contents  into  Noll. 

Ormeside  R. — I  (parchment) :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1562-1725,  imper- 
fect and  almost  illegible.  II  (parchment):  bap,  bur,  1726-1812; 
marr  1726- 1 753.    111:1574-1812. 

Shap  V. — I :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1563-1619.     II  (imperfect) :  bap,  bur, 
marr,  1620-1759.     Ill :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1760-1812, 
Bp.  N.  (p.  75) :  "The  Reg'  Book  begins  at  Oct.  1559". 
No  separate  book  for  marriages  reported  here. 

Cliburn  R. — I  (parchment,  loose  sheets) :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1565- 
1654.  II  &  III  (parchment):  bap,  bur,  1662-1812;  marr  1662-1755. 
IV  (parchment) :  marr  1756-1812. 

W.  (p.  790) : 


130  WESTMORLAND   PARISH    REGISTERS. 

W.  (p.  790) :  •*  The  registers  commence  in  1565". 

It  would  seem,  as  the  gap  from  1654  to  1662  exactly  corresponds 
with  the  period  of  civil  registration,  instituted  by  the  Barebones 
Parliament,  that  during  that  period  a  separate  register  book  was 
used  at  Clibum,  which  was  not  given  up  to  the  rector  at  the  Restora- 
tion. 

AsKHAM  V. — I :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1566-1723,  deficient  16^-1627. 
II:  bap,  bur,  1524-1783;  marr  1724-1753.  Ill:  bap,  bur,  1784-1812. 
IV:  marr  1754-1812. 

Crosby  Ravensworth  V.— I-IV:  bap  1570-1812 ;  bur  1570- 1691, 
1692-1812;  marr  1570-1753.    V:  marr  1754-1812. 
W.  (p.  792) :  "The  register  commences  in  1570". 

DuFTON  R. — I :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1570-16 16.  II :  bap,  bur,  marr, 
1619-1672.  Ill:  bap,  bur,  marr,  1679-1733;  interrupted  by  No  IV, 
bap,  bur,  1729-1812,  marr  1729-1753.    V  :  marr  1754-1812. 

W.  (p.  738) :  "The  register  commences  in  1570". 

For  probable  cause  of  "  interruption  "  see  note  on  Great  Mus- 
grave. 

Grasmerb  R. — Hap,  bur,  marr,  1571-1812. 

W.  (p.  824) :  "  The  register  commences  in  1570'*. 

There  may  have  been  only  one  book  here ;  but  it  should  have  been 
stated  if  such  was  the  case.  The  same  remark  applies  to  the  returns 
from  Asby,  Natland,  Underbarrow,  and  Selside. 

Ravenstonedale  P.C. — I  &  II :  bap,  bur,  1571-1812;  marr  1571- 
1753.    Ill:  marr  1754-1812. 

Bp.  N.  (p.  43)  :  "The  Parish  Register  begins  at  June  12,  1577". 

W.  (p.  767) :  "The  registers  commence  at  1570*'. 

The  present  vicar,  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Metcalfe,  has  undertaken  the 
praiseworthy  and  laborious  task  of  transcribing  the  Ravenstonedale 
Registers  for  publication.  No  I,  covering  the  period  1571-1710,  is 
already  in  print,  and  may  be  obtained  from  the  publisher  of  these 
Transactions.  It  is  the  only  Westmorland  register  as  yet  printed. 
No  one  who  has  not  attempted  a  similar  work  can  have  any  idea  of 
the  labour  it  involves.  Mr.  Metcalfe  in  his  Introduction  says  of  the 
oldest  volume:  "It  has  suffered  from  neglect  and  ill-usage,  which 
have  combined  to  render  portions  almost  illegible.  The  pages,  in 
particular,  recording  the  burials  from  1648  to  1655,  are  so  much  dis- 
coloured from  the  effects  of  damp  or  some  other  causes  as  to  add 
considerably    to   a    transcriber's    difficulties".     Unfortunately  the 

transcripts 


WESTMORLAND   PARISH    REGISTERS.  13! 

transcripts  at  Carlisle  for  that  period  are  not  extant,  or  they  would 
have  annihilated  his  difficulties.     He  says :  "  The  forwarding  of  the 
Ravenstonedale  duplicates  does  not  seem  to  have  been  commenced 
antil  the  year  1667 ;  at  least  none  of  an  older  date  are  in  existence. 
From  this  year,  however,  the  transcripts  are,  with  but  few  excep- 
tions, continuous,  and  have  proved  invaluable  in  supplying  gaps 
caused  presumably  by  the  corresponding  page  of  the  register  having 
first  become  loose  and  then  lost".    The  transcripts,  in  this  diocese, 
were  certainly  forwarded  to  Carlisle  before  1667,  though  none  of 
earlier  date  than  the  Restoration,  except  a  couple  of  leaves,  one 
(dated  isSg-isgo)  belonging  to  Dalston  and  the  other  (1587-1588)  to 
Langwathby,  are  as  yet  known  to  be  extant ;  on  which  subject  see  a 
paper  by  the  Rev.  J.  Wilson  {ante,  xi,  238-249).     Bishop  Nicolson's 
statement  that  the  register  begins  June  12,  1577,  which  is  seemingly 
at  variance  with  the  Abstract  and  \VheIlan,  becomes  intelligible 
when  we  find   on   the  flyleaf  a  memorandum   to  this  effect :   "  A 
register  book  of  all  wedings  chrestnings  and  buryalls  beginning  tlie 
rzthofjune  1^77  and  so  continewing  until  the  loth  of  Janewarye 
1398  with  as  manye  more  as  co^rld  be  fownde  in  the  same  church  of 
Rajrvinstondall  before  the  sayde  day".    This  memorandum  was  of 
course  written  by  some  one  complying  with  the  Elizabethan  injunction 
of  1597  to  transcribe  the  contents  of  the  then  existing  paper  registers 
into  a  parchment  book;   and  Bishop  Nicolson,  accepting  the  tran- 
scriber's statement  that  the  book  began  June   12,    1577,   did   not 
examine  the  book  to  see  whether  it   contained   any   entries   that 
"cowld  be  fownde  before  the  sayde  day  '\ 

Newbigoin  R. — I  (parchment]^:  bap,  bur,  1572-1812;  marr  1572- 
1755.    II '  marr  1756-1812. 

Troutbeck  C. — I-IV:  Registers  1572-1650,  1668-1758,  1762-1810. 

W.  (p.  881)  :  •*  The  registers  commence  in  1585  '*. 

Here,  and  at  Betharo,  Martindale,  and  Mallerstang,  the  contents 
should  have  been  specified. 

Where,  as  here  and  at  some  other  places,  Whellan  gives  a  later 
date  than  the  Abstract  does  for  the  commencement  of  a  register,  it 
ii  possible,  as  he  wrote  27  years  after  the  completion  of  the  Abstract, 
and  leaves  may  have  disappeared  in  the  interval,  that  each  of  the 
two  dates  may  have  been  correctly  recorded.  But  we  have  seen  at 
Kirkby  Lonsdale  and  Morland  that  Whellan 's  informants  were  not 
ahrays  accurate. 

Crosthwaitb  and  Lyth  C— I-III  :  Registers  1579-1627,  1698- 
iSiz.    IV:  marr  1754-1812. 

Appleby, 


132  WESTMORLAND   PARISH   REGISTERS. 

Appleby,  St.  Michael  (otherwise  Bongate)  V. — I  &  II  (parch- 
ment rolls) :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1582-1596,  1616-1677,  1691-1709.  Ill  & 
IV:  bap,  bur,  1710-1799;  marr  1710-1753.  V:  bap,  bur,  1800-1812. 
VI  &  VII :  marr  1754-1812. 

Kirkby-Thore  R. — I :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1593-1729.  II :  bap,  bur, 
1730-1812.    Ill :  marr  1754- 181 2. 

The  Rev  R.  Bower  {anU,  iv,  372-3)  says :  **  The  Rev  T.  Machell 
(rector  1677- 1699)  "^ust  upon  his  institution  to  the  living  have  found 
an  old  dilapidated  parchment  register;  and,  from  the  style  of  writing, 
he  at  once  employed  a  clerk  to  copy  into  the  existing  one  the  entries 
which  were  in  danger  of  being  lost.  .  .  From  November  1598  to 
September  1602  the  registers  are  evidently  lost,  for  we  have  the  fol- 
lowing :  *  Here  wants  a  great  deal,  see  Parchment  Register  * .  •  . 
In  the  parchment  alluded  to  before  were  also  the  entries  from  1609 
to  1643.  This  book,  now  lost,  seems  to  have  been  in  good  condition 
in  ^achell's  time.  After  passing  over  a  few  blank  leaves  we  read  : 
*  The  old  Register  Book  breaks  off  at  June  4,  1643.  This  Supple- 
ment begins  1646;  so  ye  3  years  are  lost'". 

It  appears,  then,  that  the  existing  book  No  I  has  at  least  two  gaps, 
viz,  1598-1602  and  1609-1646,  which  escaped  the  notice  of  the  rector 
who  made  the  return  in  1 831-2.  Probably  he  had  never  examined  the 
register,  and  supposed  it  was  complete.  Some  of  his  predecessors 
since  Machell's  time  may  have  been  under  the  same  impression,  and 
therefore  did  not  care  what  became  of  the  ''  old  dilapidated  parch- 
ment register**  which  Machell  transcribed  and  of  the  book  *'in  good 
condition  in  MachelPs  time"  containing  the  entries  from  1609  to 
1643. 

But  where  are  the  marriage  entries  1730-1753  ? 

Orton  v.— I  :  bap  1 596- 1646  ;  bur  1595-1646 ;  marr  1596-1646 
(very  imperfect).     II  &  III  (parchment) :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1654- 181 2. 

W.  (p.  763) :  "The  registers  commence  in  1596'*. 

Bp.  N.  (p.  44) :  *•  The  Register-Book  begins  the  28  of  Mar.  1654, 
which  is  said  to  be  A«  6^  Car  2.  And  so  it  goes  on,  1655  A°  7®  &c, 
Mr  Fothergill,  a  true  Cavalier,  being  then  Vicar'*. 

Mr  J.  H.  Nicholson  (C.  &  IV.  Arch.  Trans,  xi,  252)  says:  **The 
bishop  seems  only  to  have  been  shown  the  volume  then  in  use,  and 
to  have  been  ignorant  that  there  was  a  still  earlier  one  in  existence. 
Probably  when  he  was  in  Orton  it  was  a  loose  collection  of  paper  and 
parchment  leaves.  In  its  present  form  it  consists  of  both  paper  and 
parchment  leaves  much  intermixed". 

Bishop  Nicolson's  "  true  cavalier"  had  superseded  one  Alexander 
Featherstonehaugh,  a  chaplain  in  the  puritan  army,  who  was  insti- 
tuted 


WESTMORLAND   PARISH   REGISTERS.  I33 

tuted  in  1643.  The  landowners,  who  claimed  the  right  of  appoint- 
ment, **  filed  a  bill  in  equity,  and  at  length  Mr.  Fothergill  was 
established".  Nevertheless  *'  in  1662  he  was  ejected  by  the  Act  of 
Uniformity,  but  afterwards  conformed,  and  was  presented  to  the 
living  of  Worsop  in  Nottinghamshire"  (Nicolson  and  Burn,  i,  4S4). 

It  is  not  clear  from  the  Abstract  whether  or  not  there  was  a  sepa- 
rate marriage  register  book  at  Orton.  It  may  be  that  No  III  is  such 
a  register,  containing  only  marriages  1754- 1812.  One  would  expect 
to  find  it  so,  seeing  that  the  vicar  of  Orton  when  Lord  Hardwicke's 
Act  was  passed  in  1753  was  Chancellor  of  the  diocese. 

Warcop  V. — I  &  II :  bap,  bur,  1597-1784;  marr  1597-1753.  Ill : 
bap,  bur,  1785-1812.     IV  :  marr  1754-1812. 

Bp.  N.  (p.  46):  "The  Reg'  begins  at  1597". 

Mr.  G.  W.  Braithwaite,  in  his  Handbook  to  Kirkhy  Stephen,  Appleby, 
6'C.,  A.D.,  1884,  says  (p.  62):  "The  Warcop  parish  registers  com- 
mence  in  1597.  In  an  old  book  in  the  registry  chest  are  many 
curious  entries,  and  some  Jacobite  songs". 

Mr.  Braithwaite,  in  his  useful  handbook,  should  have  told  us 
something  about  the  registers  of  other  parishes  in  or  near  Appleby. 
The  Bongate  "parchment  roils",  for  instance,  must  be  a  curiosity. 

II 

Heversham  V. — I :  bap  1601-1697,  bur  1604-1685,  marr  1605-1688. 
II  &  III  (parchment):  bap,  bur,  1691-1812;  marr  1691-1778.  IV: 
marr  1779- 181 2. 

W.  (p.  829) :  "  The  registers  commence  in  1600.  The  church- 
wardens' book  also  commences  at  the  same  time". 

Separate  marriage  register  not  adopted  here  for  26  years. 

Bbtham  v.— I-IV:  Registers  1608-1641,  1662-1812.  See  a«/^,  note 
on  Troutbeck. 

Patterdale  C. — I  (parchment)  :  Register  161 1 -1642,  in  parts 
illegible.  II  &  III  (parchment):  1653-1755,  1763-1812.  IV:  marr 
1754-1812.     , 

Windermere  R. — I-III :  bap  1617-1625,  1670-1762,  1776-1812  ; 
bur  1617-1625,  1670-1812;  marr  1617-1625,  1670-1812. 

W.  (p.  876) :  "  The  registers  commence  in  1670  ". 

The  gap  between  1625  and  1670  was  probably  caused  by  the 
gradual  disappearance  of  end  leaves  from  a  coverless  book ;  and,  if 
Whellan  is  correct,  the  few  leaves  (1617-1625)  remaining  in  1833 
were  missing  in  i860. 

KiLLINGTON  C. 


134  WESTMORLAND    PARISH    REGISTERS. 

KiLLiNGTON  C. — I-III :  bap,  bur,  marr,  i6i9-i&i2. 

W.  (p.  894) :  *'  The  registers  commence  in  1619". 

Here,  and  in  the  return  from  Windermere,  nothing  can  be  inferred 
about  a  separate  marriage  register. 

For  an  interesting  account  of  this  chapelry,  and  of  the  relations  of 
such  chapelries  to  the  mother  churches,  see  papers  by  Bishop  Ware 
and  Canon  Simpson  {ante,  xiii,  93-119). 

Martindale  C. — I :  Register  1633-1749.  II  :  1750-1767.  Ill : 
1768-1808. 

W.  (p.  784) :  *•  The  chapel  is  supposed  to  have  been  rebuilt  in 
1633.  The  registers  commence  in  1633.  All  the  rites  of  the  Church 
are  performed  here,  except  the  solemnization  of  matrimony". 

Bampton  V. — I  :  bap,  bur,  marr  1638 — ,  much  decayed,  termina- 
tion illegible.  II :  bap,  bur,  1720-1766;  marr  1720-1753.  Ill  &  IV: 
bap,  bur,  1767-18x2.    V  :  marr  1754-1812. 

Ambleside  C. — I-III  (parchment  rolls):  bap,  bur,  marr,  1642- 
1754.  IV:  bap,  bur,  marr,  1755-1791.  V:  bap,  bur,  1792-1812.  VI: 
marr  1792-1812. 

These  "parchment  rolls"  are  the  only  Westmorland  register 
which  I  have  seen.  They  were  shown  to  me  when  I  lectured  at 
Ambleside  four  years  ago  on  "  Parish  Registers".  I  made  a  note  of 
them,  which  I  cannot  now  find.  But  I  remember  remarking  that  they 
did  not  seem  to  have  been  originally  *'  rolls  ".  The  leaves,  I  thought, 
had  been  cut  out  from  the  register  book,  and  pasted  together  length- 
ways.   Anyhow  I  considered  it  a  most  inconvenient  arrangement. 

The  Abstract  shows  that  the  adoption  of  a  separate  book  for  mar- 
riages was  postponed  here  for  39  years. 

KiRKBY  Stephen  R. — I-III:  bap,  bur,  1647-1659,  1676-1773;  marr 
1647-1659,  1676-1753.  IV  &  V:  bap,  bur,  1774-1812;  marr  1754- 
1812. 

Staveley  C. — I:  bap,  bur,  1651-1663,  1677-1812;  marr  165 1- 1663, 
1677-1755.    II :  marr  1756-1812. 

Burton  V.— I  &  II:  bap,  bur,  1653-1809;  marr  1654-1753;  in- 
cluding bap,  bur,  1704-1715,  1730-1755,  and  marr  1704-1714,  1747- 
1758,  of  Preston  Patrick.  Ill  &  IV:  bap,  bur,  18x0-1812.  V:  marr 
1754-1812. 

AsBY  R. — Bap,  bur,  marr,  1657-181^. 
See  ante,  note  on  Grasmere. 

Bolton  C» 


WESTMOftLAND   PARISH    RBCISTBRS.  1 35 

Bolton  C— I  &  II :  bap,  bur,  1669-1812  ;  marr  1665-1753.  Ill  : 
inarr  1754-1812. 

Temple  Sowerby  C— I :  bap,  bur,  1669-1812  ;  marr  1665-1753. 
II :  marr  1754-1812. 

W.  (p.  756):  "The  first  legible  entry  in  the  registers  occurs  in 
1678". 

It  perhaps  may  not  be  a  mere  coincidence  that  the  '*  first  legible 
entry"  occurs  in  a  year  in  which  the  then  newly  appointed  rector  of 
Kirkby  Thore,  the  Rev  T.  Machell,  issued  precise  instructions  to  the 
chapel-wardens  of  Temple  Sowerby  and  Milburn,  townships  of 
Kirkby  Thore,  concerning  the  registration  of  burials  in  woollen  ; 
"which  registry,"  he  said,  "must  begin  on  the  i^t  of  August  1678" 
{ante,  iv,  379). 

LoNGSLEDDALB  C. — One  book:  bap  1670-1712  ;  bur  1712-18x2; 
marr  1679- 181 2. 

W.  (p.  864):  "The  chapel  was  erected  in  1712,  when  the  burial 
ground  also  was  consecrated.     The  registers  commence  in  1670  ". 

No  separate  marriage  register  here. 

WiTHERSLACK  C. — I  (parchment) :  bap,  bur,  i670-i8i2.  II :  marr 
1670-1753.     Ill  (parchment) :  marr  1754-1812. 

W.  (p.  822) :  "  The  registers  commence  about  163 1  '*. 

Discrepancy  here  of  39  years  between  Whellan  and  the  Abstract, 
and  of  a  kind  which  does  not  admit  of  our  supposing  that  each  of 
them  was  correct  for  the  time  being. 

Burton  V. — I:  bap,  bur,  1676-1803;  marr  1676- 1753.  II:  bap, 
bur,  1804-1812.     Ill:  marr  1754-1812. 

Clifton. — I :  bap,  bur,  1676-1788;  marr  1676- 1753,  defective  until 
1680.     II ,  bap,  bur,  1789-1812.     Ill  &  IV  :  marr  1754-1812. 

W.  (p.  791):  "The  registers  commence  in  1675". 

The  late  rector,  the  Rev  W.  Keys-Wells,  when  the  Cumberland  and 
Westmorland  Archaeological  Society  visited  Clifton  on  July  10,  1879, 
"exhibited  the  oldest  register,  dating  back  to  1675"  {Transactions, 
iv,  541)- 

Bishop  Nicolson,  who  visited  Clifton  on  August  30,  1703, says:  "I 
saw  not  the  Registers  of  Brougham  and  this  Parish :  But  the  Rector 
(at  whose  House  they  are  kept)  assures  me  that  they  are  each  above 
100  years  old,  and  that  the  former  gives  a  particular  ace'  of  King 
James  the  First  entertainment  (hunting,  &c)  at  the  Castle,  as  he 
returned  this  way  from  Scotland  '\ 

The  rector  of  Clifton  and  Brougham  in  1703  was  the  Rev  Rowland 

Burrowea 


136  WESTMORLAND   PARISH    REGISTERS. 

Burrowes,  who  died  in  1707  ;  and  if,  when  he  died,  the  ancient  regis- 
ters of  both  parishes  were  still  at  his  house,  instead  of  being  in  the 
parish  chest,  it  is  probable  that  it  was  then  that  they  disappeared 
(see  anU,  note  on  Kendal). 

The  existing  register  at  Clifton  records  on  December  19,  1745,  the 
burial  of  **  ten  dragoons  killed  by  ye  Rebells  in  ye  skirmish  between 
ye  Duke  of  Cumberland's  army  and  them  at  ye  end  of  Clifton  Moor 
next  ye  Town";  and  Chancellor  Ferguson,  in  his  paper  on  the 
**  Retreat  of  the  Highlanders  through  Westmorland  in  1745 '\  says  '- 
<*  I  have  been  told  that  before  the  English' dragoons  were  buried 
'  the  clerk*s  wife  stripped  their  holiand  shirts  from  them  ;  and  that 
woman  never  did  a  day's  good  after'  "  ante,  x,  212). 

MiLBURN  C. — I  (very  imperfect):  bap,  bur,  marr,  1678-1718.    II  : 
bap,  bur,  1719-1812;  marr  1719-1753.     Ill:  raarr  1754-1312. 
See  ante,  note  on  Temple  Sowerby,  concerning  the  date  1678. 

Brougham  R. — I:  bap,  bur,  1681-1788;  marr  1681-1771.  II: 
bap,  bur,  T789-1812.     Ill:  marr  1772-1812. 

The  rector  who  in  1617  recorded  in  the  register,  now  missing,  the 
visit  of  James  I  to  Brougham  Castle,  was  the  Rev  Cuthbert  Bradley. 
In  those  days  rectors  and  vicars  wrote  Mhat  they  pleased  in  the 
registers,  on  which  account  the  loss  of  an  ancient  register  is  the 
more  to  be  regretted.  Mr  Bradley  was  not,  like  Mr  Burrowes,  rector 
both  of  Brougham  and  Clifton.  Nor  has  any  one  except  Mr.  Bur- 
rowes ever  been  rector  of  both  those  parishes  ;  which  makes  it  the 
more  probable  that  the  two  old  registers  disappeared  at  the  time 
I  have  conjectured  {ante,  note  on  Clifton).  There  is  no  harm  in  a 
rector  keeping  the  registers  in  his  house  if  he  also  keep  the  parish 
chest  there,  and  the  registers  in  the  chest.  But  if  the  chest  is  in  the 
church,  and  the  register  in  the  rector}',  the  register  is  then  in  danger 
of  being  lost  when  the  rector  dies ;  which  danger  was  of  course  all 
the  greater  in  the  bygone  days  of  pluralities. 

Separate  marriage  register  here  postponed  for  18  years. 

Mardale  C. — One  book :  bap,  bur,  marr,  1684-1812. 

W.  (p.  809) :  '*  The  registers  commence  in  1684.  All  the  rites  of 
the  Church  of  England,  with  the  exception  of  marriage,  are  per- 
formed here". 

Whellan  and  the  Abstract  are  at  variance  here,  unless  marriages 
have  been  discontinued  since  1812. 

Appleby  (St.  Lawrence)  V. — I:  bap,  bur,  1694-1812;  marr  1694- 
1753.    II  &  III :  marr  1754-1812. 

W.  (p.  715.) : 


WESTMORLAND   PARISH   REGISTERS.  I37 

W.  (p.  715) :  "The  parish  registers  commence  in  1654". 

Whellan,  as  at  Kirkby  Lonsdale  and  Morland,  is  incorrect  in 
giving  an  earlier  date  than  the  Abstract  does  for  the  oldest  register. 
The  present  vicar,  Canon  Matthews,  says:  "The  earliest  extant 
begins  in  1694.  A  considerable  portion  of  the  bottom  of  each  page, 
nearly  all  through,  ha5»  been  damaged  by  the  water  of  a  great  flood 
which  got  into  the  church  (date  unknown)  so  that  many  entries  are 
hardly  decipherable*'  (ante,  vol.  viii,  403). 

The  transcripts  of  the  registers  of  this  parish,  preserved  in  the 
episcopal  registry  at  Carlisle,  have  been  arranged,  mounted,  and 
bound  in  a  volume;  and,  as  all  the  existing  transcripts  of  the  ancient 
diocese  begin  soon  after  the  Restoration,  the  lost  entries  of  the  St 
Lawrence  register  for  about  30  years  previous  to  1694  can  be  re- 
covered. By  the  same  means  it  would  be  possible  to  recover  the 
lost  entries  of  all  post-Restoration  registers  in  the  ancient  diocese  of 
Carlisle  (see  ante,  note  on  Ravenstonedale).  The  transcripts  of 
registers  belonging  to  the  parishes  which  were  added  to  this  diocese 
in  1856  are  at  Chester.  They  should,  one  would  think,  be  transferred 
to  Carlisle.  I  do  not  know  how  far  back  they  extend,  or  what  is 
their  condition. 

Ill 

Of  the  23  places  in  this  list  all  but  one  (Long  Manon)  are  chapel- 
ries,  viz.,  12  in  the  parish  of  Kendal,  5  in  Kirkby  Lonsdale,  2  in 
Kirkby  Stephen,  i  in  Burton,  i  in  Brough,  and  i  in  Heversham. 
Most  (if  not  all)  of  the  chapels  are  of  ancient  foundation.  Mr  G  £ 
Moser  {ante,  vol.  ii,  52)  says:  "The  parish  of  Kendal  is  a  very 
large  one,  and  includes  many  townships ;  and  until  Lord  Blandford's 
Act  the  various  solemnizations  of  rites,  if  they  did  not  take  place 
in  the  parish  church,  were  transmitted  from  the  various  chapelries 
to  the  Kendal  registry."  Lord  Blandford's  Registration  Act  was 
passed  in  1812 ;  before  which  date  it  appears  from  the  Abstract  that 
most  of  the  registers  of  the  Kirkby  Lonsdale  chapelries  were  trans- 
mitted to  Kirkby  Lonsdale  church.  But  the  Abstract  does  not  shew 
that  transmission  of  chapel  registers  to  the  parish  church  was  to 
the  same  extent  the  rule  in  Kendal  parish.  It  is  not,  however,  made 
quite  clear  in  the  Abstract  what  are  the  real  facts  conrcerning  some 
of  the  chapelry  registers. 

Kentmbre  C. — One  register,  1701-1812. 
One  Register  of  what  ? 

Preston  Patrick  C— I  &  II:  bap  1704-1750;  bur  1703-1745;  marr 
1704-1753,    II.-IV:  b»p,  bur,  1751-1812.    V:  marr  1755-1812. 

Also 


138  WESTMORLAND    PARISH    REGISTERS. 

Also  included  for  the  years  17041758  in  the  return  from  Burton. 
Was  there  then  a  duplicate  of  the  register  for  those  years? 

Stainmore  C. — One  book:     Bap  1708- 1812. 

Also  included  (duplicate?)  for  the  years  1708-1769  in  the  return 
from  Brough. 

Mallerstang  C. — Registers,  1714-1753,  1756-1812. 

W.  (p.  750):  "The  chapel  is  licensed  for  burials  and  baptisms. 
The  burial  ground  was  consecrated  in  1813.  The  registers  commence 
in  1730'*. 

This  chapel,  according  to  an  inscription  in  the  porch,  "after  itt 
had  layne  runious  and  decayed  some  50  or  60  years,  was  newe 
repayred  by  the  Lady  Anne  Clifford,  Countisse  Dowager  ol  Pembroke, 
in  the  year  1663."     (Nicolson  and  Burn,  i,  563.) 

Leaves  of  register  from  17 14  to  1729  lost,  if  the  Abstract  and 
Whellan  are  both  correct,  between  1833  and  i860. 

BuRNESiDE  C. — One    book:    bap,   marr,    1717-1812.      No   burial 
ground  until  1826. 
W.  (p.  817) :  "  Registers  commence  17x7  ". 

Long  Marton  R. — I  (parchment):  bap  1717-1720,1733-1794;  bur 
1733-1794;  mar  1733-1753.  H  (parchment):  bap,  bur,  1795-1812. 
Ill:  marr  1754-1812. 

WiNSTER  C. — One  book:  bap,  bur,  marr,  1720-1712. 
W.  (p.  874) :  "  Registers   commence  1720.      Burial   ground   con- 
secrated 1721  ". 

Grayrigg  C. — I:  bap  1724-1730;  bur  1724-1729.  II:  bap,  bur, 
1730- 1756.     Ill:  Register,  1757-1799.     IV:   1800-1812. 

Nicolson  and  Burn  (i,  144) :  "  Chapel  rebuilt  in  1708,  and  soon 
after  made  parochial." 

Helsington  C. — Registers,  bap,  marr,  1728-1812,  deposited  in  the 
church  of  Kendal. 

Whellan  (p.  862):  "Chapel  erected  1726.  All  the  rites  of  the 
Church  are  performed  here  *'. 

Burials  here  since  1812  ? 

Hugil  or  Ings  C— I:  bap  1732-1775.  II:  bur  1732-1775 ;  from 
which  period  baptisms  and  burials  have  been  imperfectly  kept  on 
scraps  of  paper.     Ill:  marr  1775-1812. 

W.  (p.  863) :  "  Chapel  rebuilt  1743.  All  the  registers  previous  to 
1813  have  been  lost". 

If  so,  they  must  have  been  lost  between  1833  and  i860. 

Natland  C. 


WESTMORLAND   PARISH   REGISTERS.  I39 

Natland  C. — Bap.  marr,  1735-1812,  deposited  in  the  parish  church 
of  Kendal. 

W.  (p.  865):  '•  Registers  commence  1777''. 

Nicolson  and  Burn  (i,  105):  "At  the  time  of  Mr.  MachePs  survey 
there  was  at  Natland  a  ruinated  chapel.  About  the  year  1736  the 
inhabitants  rebuilt  the  same.'* 

Underbarrow  C. — Bap,  marr,  1735. 1812.     No  burials  prior  to  1813. 
W,  (p.  873):  "Chapel  re-erected  1708.    Registers  commence  1735." 

Crook  C. — Bap,  marr,  1742-1812.  Earlier  registers  entered  in 
those  of  the  parish  church  at  Kendal.  Burials  do  not  take  place  at 
this  chapel. 

W.  (p.  858) :  **  Registers  commence  1742  '*. 

Selside  C. — Bap,  bur,  marr,  1753-1812. 
W.  (p.  868) :  "  Registers  commence  1752  ". 

Barbon  C. — One  Book,  entering  bap  1790-1812.  Other  registers 
included  with  those  of  Kirkby  Lonsdale. 

W.  (p.  Sgd):  "  Register  of  baptisms  commences  1813,  of  marriages 
1839,  of  burials  1848*'. 

Old  Hutton  C. — I:  bap  1793-1812.  II:  marr  1754-1812.  No 
burial  ground  until  1822. 

W.  (p.  867):  "Chapel  erected  1628,  re-built  1699.  Burial  ground 
consecrated  1822." 

Croscrake  C. — I  &  II:  bap  1796-1812.     No  burial  ground  until 
1822. 
W.  (p.  836):  "Chapel  in  decay  till  1757.      Registers  commence 

1755." 

Evidently  either  Whellan  or  the  Abstract  very  incorrectly  reports 
the  commencement  of  this  register. 

New  Hutton  C. — One  book,  bap,  bur,  marr,  1808-1812. 
Nicolson  and  Burn  (i,  108):  "Chapel  built  in  the  year  1739." 
W.  (p.  866):  "  Register  commences  1741." 

Same  remark  about  commencement  of  register  applies  here  as  at 
Croscrake. 

SoULBY  C. — There  are  no  registers  prior  to  1813. 

W.  (p.  751):  "Chapel  erected  1665.     Registers  commence  1813." 

Hutton  Roof  C. — Registers  included  with  those  of  Kirkby  Lons- 
dale. 

W.  (p.  893) : 


140  WESTMORLAND    PARISH    REGISTERS. 

W.  (p.  893) :  "  The  chapel  is  of  very  ancient  foundation.  Present 
small  chapel  built  1757.     Registers  commence  1796." 

Bishop  Ware  (ante,  i,  203)  says :  "  Hutton  Roof  had  a  chapel  in 
1692  at  all  events,  even  if  the  chapel  which  existed  there  prior  to  the 
Reformation  had  been  lost  for  a  time." 

FiRBANK  C. — Registers  included  in  those  of  Kirkby  Lonsdale. 
W.  (p.  892) :  "  Chapel  re-built  1742." 

Mansergh  C— Registers  included  in  those  of  Kirkby  Lonsdale 
prior  to  1813. 
W.  (p.  894) :  "  Chapel  erected  1726." 

MtDDLETON  C. — Registers  included  with  those  of  Kirkby  Lonsdale 
prior  to  1813. 

W.  (p.  895):  "  Chape!  erected  1624.  re-built  1813." 

Nicolson  and  Burn  (i,  260):  *' Chapel  built  in  1634;  made  parochial 
in  1671.'* 

Bishop  Ware  (ante,  i,  193)  says  :  "  The  Middleton  chapel  or  chantry 
was  founded  Oct.  20,  i486.  ...  All  the  chantries  were  sup- 
pressed in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI." 

Doubtless  there  was  a  chantry  in  almost  every  one  of  these 
Westmorland  townships,  and  when  resuscitated  as  chapels  in  post- 
Reformation  times  they  were  until  the  i8th  century  often  served  by 
lay  readers.  Bishop  Nicolson  mentions  the  five  chapelries  in  the 
parish  of  Crosthwaite  (Keswick)  as  so  served  in  1703  (Miscellany 
Accounts  of  the  Diocese,  p.  98.)  The  earliest  reader  of  whom  there  is 
any  account  in  a  Crosthwaite  chapelry  was  Anthony  Bragg,  appointed 
to  Newlands  in  1630,  and  the  first  ordained  minister  of  Newlandswas 
the  Rev.  Joseph  Fisher,  licensed  in  1731,  in  whose  time  the  chapel 
was  rebuilt.  Bishop  Ware  says  that  "  in  1717  it  appears  from  the 
Kirkby  Lonsdale  registers  that  Mr.  Park  was  *  reader '  at  Hutton 
Roof  chapel"  ;  and  he  has  *'  heard  it  said  that  a  lay  reader,  licensed 
by  the  bishop  of  Chester,  officiated  at  Barbon  chapel  in  the  last 
century  "  (ante,  i,  203.)  The  bearing  of  these  facts  on  the  matter  in 
hand  is  this.  Doubtless,  during  the  time  of  the  readers,  the  rites  of 
baptism,  marriage,  and  burial,  were  all  performed  and  registered  at 
the  parish  churches ;  and  in  some  cases,  even  after  the  appointment 
of  ordained  ministers,  the  registering  at  the  parish  churches,  as 
shown  by  the  Abstract,  continued  until  1S12.  It  roust  not  then  be 
inferred,  from  the  fact  of  the  chapelry  registers  with  few  excep- 
tions beginning  as  late  as  the  i8th  century,  that  earlier  registers  have 
been  lost.     Only  the  curate  of  Crook  seems  to  have  recognised  the 

importance 


WESTMORLAND   PARISH    REGISTERS.  141 

importance  of  recording  in  his  return  in  1833  that  "  earli&r  registers 
were  entered  at  Kendal  parish  church.**  Other  curates  should  have 
made  a  similar  return,  as  the  loss  of  earlier  registers,  supposing  any 
such  to  have  been  lost,  is  not  due  to  carelessness  on  the  part  of  the 
chape]  authorities. 

I  only  profess  to  have  given  in  the  foregoing  paper  an 
approximate  account  of  the  present  condition  of  the 
Westmorland  registers.  The  Abstract  was  compiled  in 
1833,  ^^^  Whfcllan  wrote  in  i860.  Nor  were  the  clergy 
who  supplied  the  information  in  those  years  always  cor- 
rect in  their  returns.  A  new  Abstract,  correct  to  present 
date,  should  now  be  made,  and  in  these  archaeological 
days  there  are  doubtless  Westmorland  antiquaries  both 
able  and  willing  to  take  up  the  subject  where  I  leave  it. 


(  142) 


Art.  XII. — Brasses  in  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle.    By  the  Rev. 
R.  Bower,  M.A.,  Vicar  of  St.  Cuthbeif  s,  Carlisle. 

Read  at  Appleby,  July  4,  1893. 

THE  monumental  brasses  of  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle 
having  figures  of  some  kind  upon  them  and  not  mere 
inscriptions  are  fourteen  in  number.  There  are  memo- 
rials to  two  Bishops  (Bell  and  Robinson),  one  doctor  of 
law  (Dr.  Whelpdale),  two  priests  (Ouds  and  Blythe),  the 
latter  a  palimpsest,  five  knights,  three  civilians,  five  ladies. 
Ten  are  in  Cumberland,  two  in  Westmorland,  and  one  in 
Lancashire.  At  Edenhall,  Crosthwaite,  and  Ulverston 
husband  and  wife  are  engraved  side  by  side.  The  accom- 
panying plates  have  been  produced  by  lithography  from 
rubbings  made  by  the  writer  of  the  paper  or  by  various 
clergymen  and  other  friends,  to  whom  he  would  now 
publicly  give  his  grateful  thanks.  The  order  of  the  des- 
criptions cf  the  plates  has  been  suggested  by  a  book  on 
Monumental  Brasses,  written  by  the  Rev.  H.  W.  Mack- 
lin,  whose  work  has  been  freely  quoted  in  the  paper  and 
whom  the  writer  also  thanks  for  very  much  kind  help. 
The  inscriptions  on  the  brasses  in  memory  of  William 
Stapleton  and  John  Whelpdale  are  printed  in  full.    . 


Plate  L— A.D.  1458. 

WILLIAM  STAPLETON,  Esq.,  AND  HTS  WIFE  MARGARET, 
EDENHALL,  CUMBERLAND. 

Position, — In  the  floor  of  chancel. 

Component  Parts.  -Two  figures ;  length  of  male  36  in.,  of  female 
27^  in.     A  black  letter  inscription  of  three  lines. 

Description, — A  man  in  full  armour  with  a  slightly  pointed  helmet, 
a  gorget  or  collar  of  mail,  fluted  coudidres  with  escalloped  edges.  A 
skirt  of  mail  with  tuilles  is  seen  below  the  tabard,  which  is  charged 
on  the  body  and  on  the  sleeves  with  the  armorial  bearings  of  the 


PLATE   I. 


maiiam  Stavteton  anO  WBUU,  1458, 
SBmlNdlf  ftiimberlaiili* 


PLATE  II. 


Biftlov  Sen,  1496, 
ftarlinlr  ftat^eOralt  ftmiiiiertaiili* 


BRASSES   IN    THE   DIOCESE   OF   CARLISLE.  I43 

famlHes  of  Stapleton  (dexter  side)  and  Veteripont  (sinister).  Al  the 
knees  are  genouillieres  small  and  plain,  while  the  feet  are  covered 
with  sollerets  (sharp  toed).  The  long  sword  is  broken  and  the  hilt 
of  the  dagger  seen  on  the  dexter  side. 

His  wife's  robe  is  plain,  but  the  head  dress  is  that  called  **  horned" 
a  development  of  the  **  crespine,'*  **  In  the  latter  the  hair  is  fastened 
in  a  net,  often  jewelled,  on  the  top  of  the  head  with  a  bunch  or  knob, 
also  netted  above  each  ear.  The  whole  coiffure  is  kept  in  position  by 
a  jewelled  band  or  fillet,  and  partially  covered  with  a  light  veil, 
which  hangs  down  the  shoulders.  Gradually  the  side  nets  increased 
to  a  ver3'  large  size,  so  as  to  form  a  pair  of  stiff  horns.'* — Macklin, 

P-  73- 

Inscription, — 

Hie  Jacet  Willielmus  Stapiltonus  Armiger  quondam  dominus  de 
EdenhallquiobiitXXVlodie  |  Augusti  Anno  Domini  MoCCCC°LVIII*> 
et  Margareta  uxor  ejus  que  erat  filia  et  heres  |  quondam  Nicholaii 
de  Veteriponte  et  domina  de  Aldeston  mor  Quorum  animabus 
propicietur  deus. 


Plate  II.— A. D.  1496. 
BISHOP  RICHARD  BELL,  CARLISLE  CATHEDRAL. 

Position. — In  the  centre  of  the  floor  of  the  choir. 

Component  P«r^s.— Figure  (4  ft.  8^  in.  long),  under  triple  rich 
Gothic  canopy  (9  ft.  5  in.  long).  A  marginal  fillet  of  brass  with  black 
letter  inscription.     Plate  with  four  line  inscription  below  figure. 

A  bishop  in  full  eucharistic  vestments  with  amice,  alb,  stole, 
maniple,  chasuble,  tunicle  and  dalmatic,  which  both  reach  to  the 
knee.  The  tunicle  richly  embroidered  and  fringed  is  rather  longer 
than  the  dalmatic.     The  stole  is  beneath  the  dalmatic  and  tunicle. 

Other  episcopal  insignia  are  seen  in  the  mitre,  gloves,  and  pastoral 
staff.  The  left  hand  holds  the  staff  and  the  right  a  book  with  this 
inscription,  "  Haec  spes  mea  in  sinu  meo."  A  scroll  at  the  head 
says:  "Credo  quod  redemptor  meus  vivit,  &c.,'*  under  his  feet,  a 
tablet  with  four  hexameters. 

Hac  Marmor  Fossa  Bell  praesulis  en  tenet  ossa. 
Duresme  dudum  prior  hie  post  pontificatum 
Gessit  sed  reunit,  Christum  super  omnia  querit 
Despiciens  mundum,  poscendo  premia  fratrum. 

On 


144  BRASSES   IN   THE   DIOCESE  OF  CARLISLE. 

On  the  marginal  fillet  are  the  words  : 

Hie  jacet  Reverendus  Pater  Ricardus  Belt  quondam  Episcopus 
Karliolensis  qui  ab  hac  luce  migravit  videlicet  vicesimo  quarto  die. 
....    Anno  Domini 

omnium  ffidelium  defunctorum  per  misericordiam  dei  requiescant 
in  perpetua  pace.    Amen. 


Plate  III. — A.D.  1500. 

THOMAS  OUDS,  PRIEST,  GREAT  MUSGRAVE, 
WESTMORLAND. 

Position. — On  the  south  side  of  the  floor  of  the  chancel. 

Component  Parts, — A  figure  13^  in.  long,  and  two  medallions.  The 
higher  i  ft.  9  in.  above  the  figure  ;  the  lower  2  ft.  6  in. 

A  priest  in  eucharistic  garments,  viz.,  amice,  alb,  stole,  maniple, 
and  chasuble.  Around  the  breast  are  the  words :  '*  Reposita  est 
haec  spes  mea  in  sinu  meo.**  The  medallions  have  emblems  of  St. 
Matthew  and  St.  Mark.  Nicolson  and  Burn  say :  '*  In  four  roundels, 
one  at  every  comer  an  angel  with  the  label  Mercy  Jesu**.  Bishop 
Nicolson,  in  his  Visitation  Notes,  says  :  "  There  is  at  foot  the  follow- 
ing epitaph.  Orate  pro  Aia  Mri.  Thomse  Ouds  quondam  Rector 
Dnorum  epi  et  archidiacor.i  Carliol  Official  qui  obijt  XXII " 

This  has  now  disappeared. 


Plate  IV.— A.D.  1551. 
RICHARD  NEWPORT,  GREYSTOKE.  CUMBERLAND. 

Position. — On  the  floor  of  the  south  aisle. 

Component  Parts,— Ont  figure  (11 J  in.  long)  with  black  letter  in- 
scription of  four  lines,  upside  down  on  the  plate,  but  legible  to  the 
person  kneeling  on  the  figure  and  looking  eastwards. 

Description. — A  civilian  with  long  hair,  and  dressed  in  a  long 
fur-lined  gown,  open  in  front  and  turned  back,  so  as  to  show  the  fur 
from  the  neck  to  the  feet. 

Inscription. — Of  your  charite  pray  for  the  soule  of  Rychard  |  New- 
port that  was  buryed  under  thys  Stone  |  and  Deptyd  the  vij  day  of 
August  in  the  yere  of  |  our  Lorde  God  MCCCCCLI.  whose  soule 

Jhu  pdon. 
Plate  IV. 


PLATE   ni. 


«rrat  i^Mgratoe,  8Be)$tmorIanO« 


""•  ^  *  -*^  -e" '  **  'J  r    *  y, 


PLATE    IV. 


m 


Kftfiarg  Kttot>ort, 

1551, 


CuiRbtrlanO. 


•r.  9«|tt  imeiylMle,  1526. 


PLATE    M 


Of  .na^dmr  iti  mTtiji^  ttif  m[£  Qf#  '^m  mMpj^^^^ 


u  toi  of  frtaifirn  anllD'  aVmy J?  ^kta  rmiif  itiu  toff  iro 


Sir  9o|in  matelff  onO  ttlffe,  1547. 


BRASSES  IN  THE   DIOCBSB  OF  CARLISLE.  I45 

Plate  IV.— A.D.  1526. 
JOHN  WHELPDALE,  GREYSTOKE,  CUMBERLAND. 

Position. — Figure  6}  in.  long,  on  the  floor  of  the  south  aisle.'^ 

Component  Parts. — Half  length  figure  (6}  in.),  four  line  inscription, 
and  two  coats  of  arms. 

Description. — Half  length  figure  of  a  doctor  of  laws,  clad  in  a  fur 
tippet  with  long  pendents  (very  like  an  almuce)  over  the  gown.  To 
the  sinister  and  dexter  of  inscription  are  the  arms  of  De  Whelpdale, 
Arg.  3  greyhounds,  current  in  pale,  gules  collared,  or. 

Inscription. — 

Orate  pro  anima  Johannis  whelp  |  dall  legum  doctoris,  magistri 
CoIIegii  I  de  graystok,  et  rectoris  de  caldebek  |  qui  Obiit  viii<^  iulii 
anno  domini  1526. 


Plate  V. — A.D.  1527. 

SIR  JOHN  RATCLIFF  AND  DAME  ALICE  HIS  WIFE, 
CROSTHWAITE,  CUMBERLAND. 

Position.South  aisle,  near  east  end. 

Component  Parts. — Two  figures  each  about  23I  in.  in  height),  a 
black  letter  inscription  of  three  lines  and  four  coats  of  arms. 

Description. — The  knight  is  represented  in  a  complete  armour  of 
plate.  A  gorget  and  cuirass  cover  the  throat  and  body.  Rerebraces 
and  vambraces,  with  pauldrons  and  coudi^res,  encase  the  arms, 
shoulders,  and  elbows,  while  taces  with  dependent  tuilles  cover  the 
skirt  of  mail  beneath.  The  shins  are  protected  by  jambs,  the  thighs 
by  cuisses,  and  the  knees  by  genouilliSres,  while  on  the  feet  we  find 
broad  toed  sabbatons.  A  strong,  straight,  cross-handled  sword  hangs 
behind  the  figure  in  a  sloping  condition,  and  the  small  misericorde 
or  dagger  on  the  right  is  slung  in  the  opposite  direction.  The  head 
is  bare,  and  the  hair  flows  in  tresses  behind.  Round  the  gorget  is 
a  chain  with  a  tau  cross  hanging  from  it,  resting  upon  the  cuirass. 

The  lady  is  Dame  Alice,  daughter  to  Sir  Edmund  Sutton  de 
Dudley,  Lord  of  Dudley  in  Warwickshire,  by  Maud,  his  second 
wife,  daughter  to  Thomas  Lord  Clifford  of  Westmorland.  On  the 
head  is  the  pedimental  head  dress  worn  by  females  in  the  time  of 
Henry  VII.  and  Henry  VIII.      It  is  very  stiff"  and   entirely  hides 


*  "  On  the  east  side  of  the  south  transept  under  the  floor  of  a  seat  used  by  the 
Castle  servants,"  says  the  late  Rev.  Thomas  Lees. 

the 


Z46  BRASSES   IN   THB   DIOCBSB  OP  CARLISLE. 

the  hain  Frontlets  of  velvet,  elaborately  embroidered,  meet  over 
the  forehead,  making  a  sharp  and  decided  angle,  Thene  hang  down 
in  lappets  on  either  side  of  the  head.  A  high  close-bodied  gown  fklls 
in  long  ample  folds  from  the  waist,  where  it  is  secured  by  a  girdle 
clasped  in  front  with  an  ornament  composed  of  three  roses  or  quatre- 
foils,  from  which  suspended  by  a  chain  reaching  almost  to  the  ground 
is  another  ornament  of  a  globular  form,  intended  to  contain  a 
pomander  or  other  perfume. 

An  under  garment,  with  embroidered  collar,  is  seen  at  the  throat 
and  at  the  wrists.  A  chain,  with  a  tau  cross  similar  to  Sir  John's,  is 
round  the  neck,  and  both  figures  have  the  hands  in  an  attitude  of 
prayer. 

Above  the  head  of  the  knight  is  a  shield  charged  with  : — Argent, 
a  bend  engrailed,  sable,  the  bearing  of  the  Ratcliffes ;  and  at  his  feet 
another : — Or,  two  lioncels  passant,  azure,  the  arms  of  the  Suttons  de 
Dudley. 

Over  the  lady  is  her  shield  and  below  that  of  the  Ratcliffes,  with 
the  additional  charge  of  a  ro^e  or  cinquefoil  in  the  sinister  chief  (a 
due  reference  to  the  younger  house  from  which  he  sprung).* 

Inscription, — 

Of  yo'  Charite  pray  for  the  Soule  of  S'  John  Ratclif  knight 

&  for  the  state  of  Dame  Alice  his  Wyfe  which  S'  John  dyed  ye 

ii  day  of  february  an  di  m.d.xxvii  O  whoos  Soule  Jhu  have  mcy. 


Plate  VI.— A.D,  1547. 
SIR  HUGH  ASKEW,  KNIGHT,  BOOTLE,  CUMBERLAND. 

Position. — On  an  oak  board  on  the  south  side  of  the  chancel ;  size 
of  figure,  16  in.  high. 

Component  Parts, — A  knight  and  black  letter  inscription  of  four 
lines. 

Description, — Sir  Hugh  is  in  full  armour.  The  pauldrons  and 
genouilH^res  may  specially  be  noticed.  Also  skirt  of  mail  and  1am- 
boys.f    The  hair  is  cut  short,  and  the  head  rests  on  a  helmet. 


•  NoTR  BY  The  Editor.— The  head  of  the  knight,  and  the  four  coats  of 
arms  are  a  restoration  of,  probably,  the  beginning  of  the  i8th  century .»Sce  Proc. 
S.A.,  2nd  series,  vol.  II.,  p.  191. 

t  The  skirt  of  taces  has  now  disappeared,  and  instead  appendages  called 
tassets  or  lamboys  are  seen,  buckled  immediately  to  the  cuirass.  These  are  a  de- 
velopment of  the  tuilles  but  consisted  of  many  plates,  of  which  the  lowest  were 
rounded  off.    Sometimes  they  reached  to  the  knee  plates. — See  Kendal  brass. 

Inscription^ 


PLATE 


\ » (Tf  IndlilMmjitir  .^IKrtlt  bnaljt  Iwh^irf  ttif  srl/rr  in 
Kinior  t^n»limiY}!]'r  \'\^  iiiJnrl]  Pumil)  «mg  lUHiiJiynip 


Sb«  Urngli  9liiitrto»  1562, 
Soofle,  CtunbrrUnQ. 


>r  i.  "  '^ '-  :  <  •".-  '^  •> 


PLATE    VH. 


aBtnifrOl  Netoportt  1547, 
Crestttolie,  eambertatiO. 


-*»  -•**• 


««  •  1  ,'* I* i 


^iiu.nii.iitBi|iiiii.a)inoiJ|fliiiiiiioi(iiiiii;w 


Jfameft  JKore^iis  anU  SKt^,  1540, 
ffiresntotte,  CttmberlanO* 


BRASSES  m  THE  DIOCBSE  OP  CARLISLE.  I47 

Inscription. — Here  lyeth  S'  Hughe  Askew  Knight  late  of  the  seller 
to  I  Kynge  Edward  the  VJ  which  S'  Hugh  was  maid  knyght  |  at 
Moskelbrough  felde  in  y*  yere  of  o'  Lord  1547  and  dyed  |  y*  second 
day  of  Marche  In  the  yere  of  oure  Lord  God  1562. 


Plate  VII.— A.D.  1547. 
WINIFRID  NEWPORT,  GREYSTOKE,  CUMBERLAND. 

Postion. — In  south  aisle. 

Component  Par^s.— Female  figure  (7^  in.),  with  black  letter  inscrip- 
tion of  four  lines. 

Description, — ^The  lady  has  for  a  head  dress  the  French  bonnet, 
a  close  linen  cap  with  a  horse-shoe  shaped  front.  The  hair  down 
the  back  shows  she  was  unmarried.  The  collar  of  the  dress  is 
turned  down  so  as  to  show  the  partlet  or  linen  garment  drawn 
together  round  the  neck.    The  sleeves  are  puffed  at  the  shoulders. 

Inscription  (upside  down). — Of  your  charite  pray  for  y«  soule  of 
Wenefride  |  Newport  whose  bones  lyeth  under  this  stone  |  whiche 
deptyd  the  IX  daye  of  Decemb'  Anno  |  dni  MCCCCCXLVIJ  whose 
soule  Jhu  perdon. 


Plate  VII. — About  1540. 

JAMES  MORESBY  AND  MARGARET  HIS  WIFE. 
GREYSTOKE,  CUMBERLAND. 

Position. — Now  in  vestry.    The  matrix  is  in  nave,  not  far  from 
chancel  arch. 

Component  Parts. — Female  figure  (13!  in.)  and  inscription,  with 
black  letter  inscription  of  two  lines. 
Inscription, — 

Of  yo  charite  pray  for  y  soules  of  James  Morisby  and 
Margaret  his  wyf  on  whose  soules  Jhu  have  mcy  ame. 
Description. — The  lady  is  attired  in  the  dress  of  the  time  of  Henry 
VII.  The  headgear  is  of  the  kind  called  pedimental,  ante  pp.  145, 
146.  The  dress  has  tight  sleeves,  with  fur  cuffs,  and  is  cut  square 
at  the  neck*  The  skirt  is  trimmed  with  fur.  A  large  embroidered 
belt  is  buckled  loosely  round  the  waist,  and  the  end  hangs  down 
to  the  ground. 

Plate  VIII. 


148  BRASSES   IN   THE    DIOCESE   OF   CARLISLE.' 

PLATE  VIIL— A.D.   1577. 

ALAN  BELLINGHAM,  KENDAL,  WESTMORLAND. 

Position. — In  Bellingham  Chapel  N.  1888,  but  formerly  in  an 
adjoining  pew. 

Component  Parts, — Male  figure  (19^  in.),  black  letter  inscription  of 
nine  lines. 

Description, — A   man  in  armour,  like  that  of  Sir  Hugh  Askew, 
Bootle.    Tassets  reach  to  the  knee  plates. 
Inscription, — 

Here  lyeth  the  bodye  of  Alan  Bellingh'm  Esquier, 
who  maryed  Catheryan  Daughter  of  Anthonye 
Ducket  Esquier  by  whome  he  had  no  children 
after  whose  decease  he  maryed  Dorothie  daughter 
of  Thomas  Sanford  Esquier  of  whom  he  had  VII 
sonnes  &  eight  daughters  of  which  5  sonnes  and  7 
daughters  with  ye  said  Dorothie  ar  yeat  lyving.     he 
was  thre  score  &  one  yares  of  age  &  dyed  ye  7  of  Maye 
A®dnL  1577.    (ABD).* 
The  following  description  of  the  Arms  is  taken  from  Mr.  Bellasis* 
book  "  Monumental  Inscriptions  of  Westmorland  ". 

Arms. — I. :  4  ly,  i  &  4  ar.  3  bugle  horns  stringed  sa  (Bellingham) ; 
2  &  3,  ar  3  bendlets  on  canton  gu.  lion  rampant  of  field,  (Burneshead). 
11. — The  same  impaling  4  ly,  i,  per  chevron  sa,  and  erm,  in  chief 
2  boars*  heads  couped  or  (Sandford);  2.  gu.  3  lioncels  rampant  ar. 
(English) ;  3  or,  on  chevron  between  3  mullets  pierced  az.,  as  many 
fleurs-de-lis  of  field  (Crackenthorpe) ;  4.  ar,  2  bars  on  Canton  gu,  lion 
rampant  or  (Lancaster). 
Motto, — Ains  y  V  est. 

The  first  Alan  Bellingham  of  Levens  Hall  was  Deputy  Warden  of 
the  Marches  and  Treasurer  of  Berwick  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VII. 
This  Brass  is  either  in  memory  of  the  son  or  grandson  of  the  first 
Alan. 


Plate  IX.— A.D.  1606. 

MYLES  DODDING,  AND  MARGARET,  HIS  WIFE, 
S.  MARY'S,  ULVERSTON,  LANCASHIRE. 

Position. — Oh  the  south  wall,  near  the  east  end  of  the  south  aisle 
in  the  Braddyll  Chapel. 

*The  exact  form  of  this,  the  engraver's  monogram,  will  be  seen  on  Plate  VI 1 1. 

Component 


PLATE    Vin. 


ijftr  1  nftlj  tlif  Mm  oiAlm  HipRmpliiii  Cfmiu'r 
\lil)fl  murjJtH  ffatiiniitm  iimalUiTotRiirtiminr 
aiulu-ti^ftpiif  r  Ijjt  Uiluniif  lirliHi)  nil  i\Mm 
unrrliihnif  Omatf  liPtiifltnfi)  t^mattnrOfluelrtn 
iif  ?l)0iii95  5BnfeK^ri]uin-irf<l)bottif  Ivf  !i«iJ  iJiJ 
imm\  nulit  Dauijdm-ij.uf  iMuii.i  Mim\  .7  ■ 

i)Hiii![)1fDjU)it()irfeiS5;jjaHufarjiraf.lpi)ni9;lir 


Alan  ISeningtmrn,  1577, 


r 


PLATE    IX. 


HtRE  BE f ORE  1,Y.ETH  BVRIED  THl  BODIES  OF  MVLES 
DODJJINC  lli-q^  TQ;^HCWEt  His  wife  who  UlEDIN  TtC 
\EAREOF  d  LOUD  l6o6.AETERTVtYHADLIVtDM\BiED. 
4)  YEAJIESA  HAD  ISSVE  TENVE  CHILDREN  OF  WHOM  E 
THERE  WLVSVRVlVEDTKlM^MYLESDODDtNG  StHENtVYE. 


JKslen  SoDDtog  attD  WBLiUf 


PLATE    X. 


Valimpftnit 


Jfofin  lSl8t|e,  1565, 

Aim  part  of  Itnigit  anO  Sbnn  on  utiOer  nOie* 
Zarlp  I6t|  Centnrp. 


BRASSfiS   IN   THE    DIOCESE   OF  CARLISLE.  I49 

Component  Paris, — Male  and  female  figures  (22!  in.).  Below  is  a 
five-line  inscription  in  Roman  capitals* 

Description. — A  civilian  clothed  in  long  gown,  almost  hiding  the 
doublet  and  hose  except  in  the  sleeves  and  in  front.  The  cloak  has 
long  open  ornamental  sleeves  which  sometimes  hang  nearly  to  the 
ground.  It  may  be  fur-lined,  but  the  ruff  round  the  neck  is  some- 
what against  it.    The  hair  is  cut  short. 

The  female  figure  has  the  French  cap,  but  considerably  depressed, 
and  the  black  lappet  turned  over  upon  it.  The  skirt  of  the  dress  is 
gathered  up  at  the  waist,  and  stuffed  out  by  a  large  fartingale  (the 
precursor  of  the  crinoline).  The  sash  has  now  been  given  up,  and 
the  bodibe  become  a  long  waisted  peaked  stomacher. 
Inscription. — 

Here  before  lyeth  bvried  the  bodies  of  Myles 
Dodding  Esq :  &  Margaret  his  wife  who  died  in  the 
Yeare  of  o'  Lord  1606.  after  they  had  lived  Maried 
43  yeares  &  had  issve  tenne  children  of  whome 
there  only  svrvived  them,  Myles  Dodding  &  Henrye. 


Plate  X. — A.D.  1562. 

JOHN  BLYTHE,  VICAR,  MORLAND,  WESTMORLAND. 

Position, — Loose  m  vestry.     Size,  20J  in.  by  5J  in. 
Component  Parts,— Iht  only  palimpsest  brass  in  the  diocese.     On 
the  one  side  is  a  four  line  black  inscription  as  follows : — 

John  Blythe  lyved  here  Vycar  of  this  Churche  by  the 
space  of  XXXV.  yeres  &  iiii  dayes  and  Departyd  this 
lyfif  the  XVI.  day  of  January  in  theyere  of  our  Lorde 
God  MCCCCCLXII.  on  whose  soule  Jhii.  have  mcy  ame. 

John  Blythe  (says  Mr.  Lees)  was  vicar  in  1538,  when  the  Register 
commences.  This  is  a  fine  specimen  of  post- Reformation  use  of 
Prayers  for  the  departed  as  allowed  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  time. 

But  a  more  ancient  brass  has  been  demolished  to  provide  Blythe 
with  a  memorial,  for  on  the  other  side,  cut  sharp  and  clear,  is  a 
figure  of  a  knight  in  full  armour,  and  the  shoulders,  elbows,  and  legs 
of  another  larger  knightly  figure ;  perhaps  it  was  executed  in  remem- 
brance of  a  father  and  son.     The  inscription  below  in  black  letter  is 

Orate  pro  an 
et  Sybille  ux. 

This  is  supposed  to  have  been  cut  forty  or  fifty  years  earlier. 

Plate  XL 


X50  BRASSES  IN   THE  DIOCESE  OP  CARLISLE. 

Plate  XL— A.D.  i66i. 

HENRY   ROBINSON,   BISHOP   OF  CARLISLE   AND 
PROVOST  OF  QUEEN'S  COLLEGE. 

Position, — In  the  north  wall  of  north  aisle  of  Carlisle  Cathedral. 

Size. — 22J  in.  by  16  in. 

He  was  a  native  of  Carlisle,  and  was  consecrated  Bishop  on  July 
23rd,  1598.  He  died  at  Rose  Castle  on  June  19,  1616,  and  was 
buried  on  the  north  side  of  the  high  altar,  where  was  put  over  his 
grave  by  his  brother,  the  vicar  of  Crosthwaite,  an  engraved  and 
gilded  brass  plate,  copied  from  the  original  in  the  chapel  of  Queen*s 
College,  Oxford.  He  is  said  to  have  been  *'  a  Pious  Christian,  Charit- 
able to  the  Poor,  and  a  great  Benefactor  to  Queen's  College.  He  fell 
a  victim  to  the  Plague  whidh  raged  with  great  virulence  in  Cumber- 
land in  the  summer  of  1616.*' 


Platb  XII.— A.D.  16^8. 
RICHARD  BARWISE,  WESTWARD,  CUMBERLAND. 

Position, — On  west  wall  of  church. 

Size, — 25  in.  by  21  in. 

Inscription, ---Four  lines  of  Roman  capitals.    *' A  memorative  epi- 
taph for  the  excellently  |  accomplisht  Gentleman  Richard  Barwise  | 
late  of  Ilekirk  Esq".    He  dyed  the  13  of  Febr.  |  1648  in  the  47th 
year  of  his  age." 
This  is  followed  by  ten  lines  of  Roman  capitals : — 

Belowe  good  Barwise,  Clos'd  in  bodye  lyes, 
Whose  saintly  sovle,  loyes  Crown'd  above  y*  Skyes 
Cyties  wise  gvide  Covntries  cheife  Ornament 
In  grace  and  natvr's  gifts,  most  eminent 
Grave  prvdent,  piovs  stord  with  vertves  best 
Exchanginge  life  for  death  by  death  lives  blest 
Of  whome  tis  sayd  none  here  lived  more  approved 
None  dyed  more  mist,  none  mist  was  more  beloved 
Whose  vertvovs  wife,  in  sable  thovghts  doth  movrne 
Her  tvrtles  loss,  till  layd  neere  to  his  vrne. 

Beneath  this,  four  lines  in  Roman  small  letters:— 

Oh  pittye  great  soe  choyse  a  Couple  fhould 
without  Grand  ifsue  be  reduced  to  mould. 
Nor  can  they  well  while  here  they  leaue  a  name 
fhall  them  furuiue  till  they  reuioe  a  gaine* 

Roman 


PLATE    XI. 


HKNKICO  &OlilJ>'  S  (JN  0  CMlLEOLENSl .  SS  *  THE  Ol. .  D  OCTOKI .  C  OL  L  EG  JI  KE  Gl  N.^. 
flOeONL^  FRJtPO&no  PRDVlDI5SmO,  T^DKMC^  mW5  ECCLESl^,  PEJt  ANOS  XVIff 
EPtSCOPO  MGlLANTlSSlMD.AJS'^CALCND.IVLn  ANO  AR\RTV  VWtOJVLS  MfiVwi 
JlLT\r,  SVJ^  LXJnj'.  PIE  JN  DOTo  OimOfLMlENn.  BERN-^fiJ)'  RQB1N.S0.V\.S  Ffc\TF:« 
AC  U,€.R£S  HOC   qmLECVNQ^  MNMMEJON  AAidRiS  TK.S7TW(J^IVW    rCX.I.{>i  AVIT 


Btei^op  Kobmnon,  1598, 
Catltele  CatfieDralt  tf ttnriifrlanO. 


PLATE   XII. 


j     AMEMORATIVE  EPtTAPH  FORTH:  EXCELLENTLY 

AccoMPLisHT  Gentleman  RtcH arb  Barwise 

LATE  OF  ILEK1RK£  ESQ^  He  DYED  JUL  Ij'^Ot  FtBR 
164^    IN  THE    4  7^*'yEAKF  OF  HIS  AGE. 

Belowe  good  BARwtsE,  Clos'd  in  bodye  lyes 
Whose  saintly  sovleJoyls  Crown b  above  y sky es 

CYTIES  WISE  GVFDE  COVNTI^IES    CHEU  t  ORNAMENT 
[N   GRACE  AND   NATVRS  GIFTS    MOST    EMINENT-  \ 

Gb  AVE  FRVDENT,  PIUVS  5T0RD  WITH  VEBTVE**  BEST 
EXCHANG^NGELlFE  FOR  DEATH  BY  DEATH  LI  VtS  BLEST 
OF^^^HOMETISSAYD  NONf.  HERE  LIVED  MORE  APPROVED 

None  dyed  \fORE  mist,  none  mist  was  more  beloved 
Whose  vertvovs  wife  inmble  THOvaHTSnoTHMOVprt 

HfcRTVRTLES   loss,  till  LAYD  NEERE  to  HIS  VRNL 

^0  oil  pittye  great  soe  choyse  a  Couple*  IhoulJ  4 
,f  vvirhnuf  Grand  ifsuc  he  reduced  to  mould,  |';' 
11^  Nor  can  the \utI1  wtiile  here  rhev  leaue  d  name  ;s 
|\  (hall  rhem  iuruiue  till  thej^  reiiiue  a  gainc       ,1;^ 

^         DEATH    iS  S  WOL I O  WED  VP  iN  V/C  TOR  K      £i 
^^x        VtVlT   l^OST    FVNERA   VIRTVS.    ^^^ 


PVTH 


.FAMF. 


Hirl^avD  Bartaiter,  1648, 
SKeKtiDAvD,  CttmberlatiD. 


•  •  ♦     •  , 

»•     *   •/  •  , 


:-'-:•*•-, 


. •  •        •     •• 


BRASSES  IN   THE   DIOCESE  OP  CARLISLE.  I5X 

Roman  capitals : — 

Death  is  swollowed  vp  in  victory. 
Vivit  post  Fvnera  virtvs. 

Below  on  the  dexter  side  is  a  figure  emblematical  of  Truth,  with  a 
fillet  with  the  words :  '*  Tryed,  honord,  loved,  from  this  world  he*s 
gone." 

On  sinister  side  a  similar  figure  representing  Fame,  with  the 
words :  "  Where  he  left  scarce  soe  just  wise  good  a  one.** 

Richard  Barwise  was  descended  from  Anthony  Barwise,  who 
bought  the  property  from  Thomas  Dalston.  He  was  a  man  of 
colossal  stature  and  amazing  strength.  A  stone  is  to  be  seen  at  Ile- 
kirk  called  Barwise*s  stone,  of  prodigious  size.  It  is  asserted  that  he 
could  throw  it  the  length  of  his  courtyard,  but  few  men  could  raise  it 
from  the  ground.  He  was  called  the  Great  Barwise,  and  his  moral 
character  held  in  estimation. 


(152) 


Art.  XIII. — Some  Signatures  of  Carlisle  Notaries.     By  the 

Rev.  Jambs  Wilson,  M.A. 
Communicated  at  Arnside^  Sept.  25,  1893. 
rpHE  first  use  of  Notaries,  it  would  seem,  was  to  take  in 
writing  the  whole  process  of  the  heathen  judges 
against  the  Christian  martyrs,  what  questions  were  put  to 
them,  what  answers  they  made  and  whatever  passed 
during  their  trial  and  suffering.  Its  first  institution  as  a 
standing  office  is  ascribed  to  the  time  of  the  Decian  per- 
secution after  which  it  is  said  that  an  order  of  men  was 
appointed  in  every  church  to  make  a  faithful  collection  of 
the  acts  of  the  martyrs  and  to  preserve  them  as  authentic 
memorials  for  the  example  and  encouragement  of  future 
generations.  Afterwards  these  Notaries  were  employed 
in  writing  the  acts  of  synods  and  councils,  taking  notes  of 
the  debates  and  reading  instruments  or  petitions  or  what- 
ever else  of  that  nature  was  to  be  offered  or  read  in 
council.* 

In  England  we  find  the  name  of  Notary  at  a  very  early 
period  connected  with  the  drawing  up  and  the  authentica- 
tion of  important  documents  of  various  kinds,  though  the 
office  as  we  know  it  was  not  recognised  as  a  general  or 
effective  institution  till  several  centuries  later.  There  can 
be  no  doubt  of  the  existence  of  some  phase  of  this  office 
during  the  Anglo-Saxon  period.  It  is  true  that  civil  and 
ecclesiastical  rulers  thought  that  the  signum  venerandce 
cruets  appended  to  their  signature  was  sufficient  testimony 
to  certify  the  validity  of  their  acts.  But  with  the  progress 
of  society,  the  necessity  of  guarding  the  modes  of  inter- 


*  Bingham's  Origines  Ecclesiastics,  vol  i,  bk  III,  cap  xiti,  sect  5.  Moreri's 
Dictionaire  Historique  under  the  word  fiotaires  de  Rome,  vol  iv.,  p.  38,  should 
also  be  consulted. 

communication 


•I   3J-vnd 


SOMB   SIGNATURES   OF   CARLISLE   NOTARIES.  1 53 

communication  became  more  imperative.  It  was  cus- 
tomary for  several  witnesses  to  attest  grants  of  privilege 
or  deeds  of  transfer,  but  in  many  cases  the  presence  of  a 
disinterested  notary  was  required.  There  is  ample  oppor- 
tunity for  studying  the  early  methods  of  authenticating 
documents  by  reference  to  the  series  of  charters  belonging 
to  the  Saxon  period  of  our  history  printed  with  much 
industry  by  Thorpe  :*  in  some  of  these  the  Notarius  is  not 
only  present  but  his  function  is  recognised  as  that  of 
writing  the  deed  and  countersigning  it  in  Dei  nomine 
feliciter. 

Whatever  may  have  been  the  precise  nature  of  the 
notary's  office  in  England  during  the  period  covered  by 
tliese  charters,  it  had  fallen  into  desuetude,  at  all  events 
to  some  extent,  after  the  Norman  conquest,  and  though 
it  was  an  operative  institution  in  continental  states,t 
there  is  a  strong  presumption  that  its  use  was  not  general 
at  home.     This  is  what  Sir  Henry  Spelman  says: — 

Legi  (sed  locum  nescio)  Notarios  publicos  build  papali  hie  in 
Anglid  institutos  esse  tempore  Regis  Ric.  2.  sed  hos  fort6  in  re 
Ecclesix.^ 

But  it  is  bad  policy  to  trust  to  the  memory  even  of  a 
great  scholar.    There  is  evidence  that  the  office  had  fallen 


•  Diplomatarium  Anglicum  Aevi  Saxonici,  pp.  xxiii,  406,  414,  et  passim.  The 
same  information  may  be  gathered  from  ICemble*s  Codex  and  the  intricate 
volumes  of  Haddan  and  Stubbs.  Upon  the  early  history  of  signatures  a  trust- 
worthy French  writer  says : — 

Avant  que  les  sceaux  fussent  reconnus  n^cessaires  pour  donner  autorit^ 
k  un  acte  quelconque,  les  parties  int^ress^es  se  contentaient  de  tracer  une 
croix  {signum  cruets)  devant  leur  nom  et  d'y  mentionner  un  nombre  de 
temoins.  Mais  au  xiie  si^leles  sceaux  suppl^^rent  aux  seings  ou  signatures 
composies  d'une  simple  i{(  pT^6d€e  du  mot  signum.  Ce  ne  fut  qu'au  xvie 
siccle  que  la  signature  en  toutes  lettres  fut  exig^  pour  donner  aux  litres  la 
sanction  n^essaire  (M.  Chassant's  PaUographit  des  Charles,  p.  no,  Paris, 
1885). 
t  See  the  interesting  paper  by  the  Rev.  Joseph  Hirst  on  the  Signs-Manual  of 
some  Italian  Notaries  in  the  Antiquary  of  March,  1893. 

J  This  is  his  explanation  of  the  word  woteriiw  in  the  Glossarium  Archaiologi- 
cum,  but  he  goes  on  to  say  that  he  found  mention  of  the  office  in  certain  charters 
of  Edward  the  Confessor.    One  or  two  of  these  he  has  printed  in  the  Concilia,  ^ 
vol  i,  pp.  628-632,  edition  1639. 

into 


154         SO^^   SIGNATURES  OP  CARLISLE   NOTARIES. 

into  disuse  at  the  date  of  the  Legatine  constitutions  of 
Otho  in  1237  where  it  is  stated  in  two  consecutive  articles 
that  there  was  at  that  time  a  greater  necessity  for  sealed 
instruments  in  partibus  Anglicants  ubi  publici  Notarii  non 
existunt*  but  it  is  only  right  to  say  that  John  of  Athon,  the 
annotator  of  these  Constitutions,  who  was  almost  a  con- 
temporary of  Otho,  flourishing  in  1290,  interprets  the  non 
existunt  as  raro  existunt,  thus  preserving  the  continuity  of 
the  ofiice  in  this  country.  From  this  date  we  find  it  in 
operation,t  to  the  time  of  the  Reformation.^ 

When  Henry  VIII  was  re-adjusting  the  national  policy 


•  These  constitutions  with  Athon*s  notes  are  found  in  Lyndwood,  Provinciafe 
part  II,  pp.  6S'S,  edition  16^9:  also  in  Johnson's  Collection  of  Ecclesiastical 
Laws,  vol  li,  in  loco,  1237,  ^irtides  27  and  28,  edition  1720,  and  in  Bishop  Gibson's 
Codex  Juris  Ecclesiastici  Anfrlicani,  vol  ii,  p.  1056,  edition  17 13,  The  office, 
falling^  into  abeyance  at  this  period,  is  only  of  a  piece  with  the  treatment  of  other 
Saxon  offices  and  customs,  which  had  g^dually  ^own  obsolete  and  forgotten. 

t  There  are  three  very  notable  instances  in  well-known  statutes  where  the 
office  is  mentioned,  vis,  tne  Act  of  Provisors  of  Benefices  in  the  25  ^according  to 
the  printed  copies  of  the  statute  but  according  to  Bishop  Gibson  \Codex,  vol  i, 
75-6  the  35)  Edward  iii,  st  6,  sect.  4 :  the  act  otPremunire  27  Edward  iii,  cap  i, 
sect,  i,  and  the  Act  of  Premunire  for  purchasing  bulls  from  Rome,  16  Rich  ii,  c 
5,  sect.  2.  It  was  the  languagre  of  the  latter  statute  probably  that  induced  Spel- 
man  to  conjecture  that  the  office  originated  there. 

X  It  may  be  well  to  supply  a  few  more  references  to  show  the  office  in  opera- 
tion in  this  country  at  the  time  spoken  of  and  the  methods  by  which  it  was 
exercised.    For  considerations  of  space  a  bare  summary  must  be  sufficient : — 
(i)  Notarial  exemplification  of  two  assi^^nments  made  by  the  prior  and  convent 
of  Lewes  and  subscribed  with  sign-manual  by  "Johannes  Northwyk, 
Clericus,  Wygorniensis  diocesis,  oublicus  auctoritate  apostolica  nota- 
rius."  and  bearing  date   1411   (Sir  George  Duckett*s  Charters  and 
Records  of  Cluni,  vol.  I,  214-219.) 
(3)  Notarial  inspeximtts  of  two  ancient  records  of  the  priory  of  St.  Pancras  by 
"  Thomas  Edynghara,  clericus  Cantuariensis  diocesis,  publicus  auctori- 
tate apostolica  notarius  "  in  the  year  1417  {Ibid,  1, 46-56). 

(3)  Notarial  exemplification  of  the  official  appointment  of  Robert  Amicel,  the 

well-known  prior  of  l^wes,  as  vicar-general  of  the  Cluniacs  in  England, 
Scotland,  and  Ireland  with  the  notarial  emblem  of  "  Johannes  Gooidman 
de  Lewes,  clericus  Cicestrensis  diocesis,  publicus  auctoritate  apostolica 
notarius,"  of  date  January,  1434.  Other  acts  of  Prior  Amicel  are 
attested  by  this  Notary  (Itid,  11,  45-52). 

(4)  Public  instrument,  date  1446,  testifying  to  the  non-acceptance  of  the  priory 

of  Lewes  by  Nicholas  Benet  on  the  xleath  of  Amicel  with  notary's 
emblem  and  attested  by  "Johannes^  Wybbery  clericus  Exon.  diocesis, 
publicus  auctoritatibus  apostolica  et  imperiali  notarius"  {Ibid  II,  69). 
From  the  same  volume  >  may  be  gathered  many  examples  of  foreign  notaries, 
but  their  procedure  differs  in  no  perceptible  respect  from  that  of  their  English 
contemporaries.    The  continental  office  received  its  authority  from  papal,  impe- 
Aal  or  royal  sources  just  like  the  office  in  England.    The  international  recogni- 
tion of  the  office  is  interesting. 

of 


SOME   SIGNATURES  OP  CARLISLE  NOTARIES.         I55 

of  the  English  Church,  the  Act  of  1533,  25  Henry  VIII, 
commonly  called  "the  Act  of  Peter  Pence  and  Dispensa- 
tions," freed  his  subjects  from  the  exactions  of  foreign 
ecclesiastics  and  invested  the  Kin^  with  the  power  of 
granting  faculties  which  had  been  previously  usurped  by 
the  Bishop  of  Rome.  As  a  necessary  outcome  of  this 
legislation  a  new  court,  called  the  Court  of  Faculty,  was 
originated,  which  came  within  the  sphere  of  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  to  whom  the  appointment  of  nota- 
ries was  delegated,  and  in  whose  hands  it  has  remained 
ever  since.*  From  this  time  forward  the  use  of  notaries 
had  sprung  into  prominence  and  their  duties  were  en- 
larged and  defined.  In  the  celebrated  but  abortive  Refor^ 
matio  Legum  EccUsiasiicarum,  attempted  in  the  reigns  of 
Henry  VIII,  Edward  VI,  and  Elizabeth,  the  Notary  came 
in  for  his  share  of  official  reconstruction,  a  whole  chapter 
of  twenty-one  articles  having  been  devoted  to  his  edifica- 
tion. In  the  article  concerning  the  modus  conficiendi 
instrumental  technical  directions  are  given  not  only  for  the 
peculiar  phraseology  of  the  instrument  but  for  the  use  of 
the  sign-manual — Notarii  quoque  obsignatio  cum  subscrip- 
tiane  ac  propria  signo  in  fine  adjiciatur.f 

The  number  of  notaries  increased  and  multiplied  during 
the  reign  of  Elizabeth  and  occasions  for  their  intervention 
were  created  by  the  variety  of  causes  placed  within  their 
jurisdiction.  In  1603,  as  a  testimony  to  the  repute  in 
which  the  office  was  held,  their  signature  was  imposed  as 
a  warrant  for  the  good  faith  of  *' deans,!  archdeacons, 
prebendaries,  parsons,  vicars,  and  others,  exercising 
ecclesiastical  jurisdiction  who  claim  liberty  to  prove  the 


*  Buni*s  Ecclesiastical  Law,  vol  iii,  p.  2,  4th  edition,  1781. 

t  Cardfrell's  Reformatio  Legum,  &c,  p.  233,  Oxfoid  edition.  After  the  futile 
attempt  to  give  le&^al  effect  to  some  such  body  of  ecclesiastical  and  civil  laws  in 
the  Parliament  of  13  Elizabeth,  157 1,  the  subject  dropped  (Strype's  Parker, 
book  iv,  chap.  5»  P-  323,  folio  1711). 

t  Canon  cxxvi,  English  edition.  The  precaution  was  necessary  for  a  proper 
lecofd  of  Wills  in  the  Bishop's  Registry. 

last 


156         SOME   SIGNATURES   OP   CARLISLE    NOTARIES. 

last  wills  and  testaments  of  persons  deceased  within  their 
several  jurisdictions".  Nowadays  notaries  are  for  the 
most  part  confined  to  seaport  towns  or  reckoned  among 
the  officials  of  bishops,  their  duties  consisting  chiefly  of 
certain  diocesan  work  or  of  shipping  and  mercantile 
matters.  Notarial  practice  is  largely  guided  by  custom 
and  some  acts'''  of  parliament  passed  during  this  century. 
It  is  thought  that  the  palmy  days  of  the  office  are  over. 

A  most  curious  feature  of  the  notarial  office  was  the 
sign-manual  or  special  mark  which  was  used  to  supple- 
ment the  signature  of  the  name  and  render  it  more  diffi- 
cult of  imitation.  It  was  of  the  nature  of  a  heraldic  device 
to  characterise  the  peculiarity  of  the  office  and  was  largely 
used  in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries  in  attest- 
ing deeds  and  documents  belonging  to  cathedral  and 
collegiate  authorities.  Several  of  these  signatures  have 
come  under  my  notice,  the  most  distinctive  and  interesting 
of  which,  as  far  as  they  relate  to  the  diocese  of  Carlisle, 
are  reproduced  in  illustration  of  this  paper.  It  may  be 
observed  that  on  inquiry  I  can  find  no  trace  of  the  office 
of  a  public  notary  among  the  muniments  of  the  Corpora- 
tion of  Carlisle,  so  that  all  the  fruits  of  local  research  are 
confined  to  the  registries  of  the  Bishop  arid  the  Dean  and 
Chapter.  From  this  it  may  be  concluded  that  the  office, 
at  the  time  under  consideration,  was  more  or  less  ecclesi- 
astical, as  may  be  understood  from  the  authority  which 
makes  it  effective.  Of  the  signatures,  all  but  one  are  found 
in  the  first  volume  of  the  post-Reformation  registers  of 
the  See  of  Carlisle,  the  solitary  exception  being  that  of 
the  Chapter  clerk  of  1570.  The  first  I  meet  with  was 
used  by  Bernard  Aglionby,  registrar  to  the  Bishop  when 
the  series  of  episcopal  registers  is  resumed  An^  dni  1561 


*  Some  of  the  more  recent  statutes  for  reg-ulating*  the  functions  of  notaries  may 
be  mentioned  : — 41  George  III,  c.  ^9  as  amended  by  3  and  4  William  IV,  c.  70 : 
6  and  7  Victoria,  c.  90:  the  Shipping  Acts  of  18  and  19  Victoria,  c.  iii,  as 
amended  by  25  and  26  Victoria,  c,  63 :  33  and  34  Vict.  c.  2S,  and  52  Vict.  c.  10. 

29  Septembris, 


Plate  IL 


^-^zLo-nJb^^ 


SOME   SIGNATURES   OF   CARLISLE    NOTARIES.         I57 

29  Septembris.  He  continued  in  his  office  till  February 
1576,  after  which  his  signature  disappears.  During  this 
time  the  style  of  the  device,  whenever  it  occurs,  does  not 
vary,  so  that  it  cannot  be  considered  a  mere  haphazard 
flourish  without  any  definite  purpose.  Of  the  two  dozen 
signatures  made  by  Aglionby  during  the  episcopates  of 
Bishops  Best  and  Barnes,  the  balloon-shaped  device  is 
employed  no  less  than  eleven  times  between  the  years 
1561  and  1565,  after  which  he  dropped  the  figure  alto- 
gether. His  signature  continues  occasionally  up  to  the 
translation  of  Bishop  Barnes  in  1577,  but  it*  does  not  recur 
in  the  register  of  Bishop  Meye.  There  is  no  appreciable 
variation  in  any  of  the  notarial  figures  used  by  him,  a 
family  likeness  existing  all  through,  one  being  a  fac-simile 
of  the  other. 

As  a  contemporary  with  AglionSjfpThomas  Tallentyre 
filled  the  post  of  clerk  or  notary  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter 
of  Carlisle.  At  the  beginning  of  one  of  the  earliest  vol- 
umes of  the  Capitular  books  he  has  entered  a  copy  of 
Queen  Elizabeth's  commission,  dated  29  June  (8  Eliza- 
beth) 1566,  concerning  the  granting  of  improper  leases, 
to  which  he  subjoined  the  sign-manual  given  in  the  illus- 
tration.* Of  Tallentyre's  signature  I  have  found  no 
duplicate.  It  would  appear  that  he  was  succeeded  in 
August,  1579,  by  John  Smithe.  About  the  same  time, 
August  1st,  1579,  the  name  of  Reginald  Perkin  occurs  as 
a  public  notary  in  Bishop  Meye's  register,  and  on  the 
nth  of  December  following  he  blossoms  out  into  the 
registrar.  But  Perkin  was  more  particular  in  tricking 
out  his  device  with  additional  touches  than  in  what  desig- 
nation he  appended  beneath  it  :  sometimes  he  styles 
himself,  as  in  1594  : — 

Ita  est  Reginaldus  Perkin  notarius  pub^" 
Deputatus  Regrarij  Carliolcn 

*  For  a  tracing  of  the  signature  I  am  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  the  Dean  of 
Carlisle. 

though 


158         SOME   SIGNATURES  OF  CARLISLE  NOTARIES. 

though  he  had  previously  subscribed  a  caveat  in  1580 

Per  me  Reginald  urn  Perkin 

Notariuna  Publicum 

Carliolen  Regrum. 

but  for  the  most  part  he  was  satisfied  with  notary  pubh'c 
as  shown  in  the  woodcut.  There  appears  to  have  been  a 
definite  rule  observed  as  to  the  signature  of  notary  and 
registrar.  When  an  ordinary  document  is  entered  upon 
the  Register,  the  office  of  notary  was  deemed  sufficient  to 
attest  its  authenticity,  but  in  weightier  matters  like  a 
caveat  or  a  wTll  it  was  thought  more  prudent  to  recite 
the  double  office  and  append  the  sign-manual.  Perkin 
was  a  most  excellent  scribe,  and  his  device  is  always  in 
itself  a  work  of  art,  like  some  others  of  this  date  that  I 
have  seen  in  the  Public  Record  Office  and  elsewhere.  It 
is  clear  that  he  took  considerable  pride  in  embroidering  it, 
as  in  idle  moments  he  sketched  it  in  the  margin  and  on 
vacant  spaces  on  the  pages:  besides  out  of  the  thirty 
documents  he  was  called  upon  to  witness  he  employed  it 
with  scarcely  any  variation  in  form  or  detail  as  many  as 
twenty  times.  It  has  been  suggested  that  notarial  marks 
have  some  concealed  signification,  some  riddle  or  rebus 
on  the  name  or  status  of  the  person  using  it.  That  may 
be ;  but  it  has  yet  to  be  proved.  In  my  own  view  they 
are  mere  conceits*  like  much  of  the  floriation  of  mediaeval 
sculpture  or  the  grotesque  embellishments  of  old  books. 
The  sign-manual  of  Thomas  Gibson,  which  bears  some 
resemblance  to  that  of  Perkin,  first  occurs  in  witness  of  a 


•  Perkin  was  apparently  a  notary  with  many  "  fads,"  since  he  thought  his 
marriage  of  sufficient  importance  to  be  entered  amongst  the  acts  of  the  bishops. 
It  mayoe  useful  to  republish  it  here  : — 

Die  dnica  px  ante  festum  Penthecosts  viz  dnica  duodescimo  die  mesis  maij 
Anno  oni  millimo  quingeno  octog^esimo  tertio  in  ecdia  bte  Marie  vir^inis 
civitate  Carlii  pnte  tempore  Divinor  solemnizatus  futt  mrimonium  inter 
me  Reginalaum  Perkin  Notarium  Publicum  et  Katherinam  Sowthaick 
filiam  Thomae  Sowthaick  mgn  choristoru*  ecclie  CathHa  Carliolen  p 
dnum  I'homam  Johnson  Curatum  ibm,  Mro  Thomafar&x  sacre  theologie 
bacc  eodem  die  ibm  concionate.  Quod  quidem  mrimonium  contractum 
fuit  inter  nos  die  dnica  vigiliis  Sti  jTacobi  Apli,  viz  xxviijo  die  mesis  Julij 
Anoo  dni  millimo  quingeno  octagesimo. 

deed 


Plate    III. 


-^ 


^f<TT 


attmwi^ 


SOME   SIGNATURES   OF  CARLISLE    NOTARIES.         I59 

deed  of  resignation  of  the  rectory  of  Bowness-on-Solway 
by  Mr.  Leonard  Lowther  in  June,  1597,  and  ceases  alto- 
gether in  1602.  Of  the  eight  signatures  which  occur  in 
the  Register,  the  device  is  delineated  three  times  without 
perceptible  modification.  Bishop  Robinson  was  a  prelate 
who  delighted  in  having  notaries  about  him,  some  of  his 
instruments  being  witnessed  by  three  and  one  of  them  by 
as  many  as  four  of  these  officials.  When  his  brother 
Giles  Robinson  resigned  the  archdeaconry  in  1602  it  took 
four  notaries  to  authenticate  the  deed.  One  of  these  was 
Giles  Swinbank,  who  had  previously  witnessed  a  caveat 
respecting  the  church  of  Orton  in  Westmorland  in  1594, 
the  writing  having  been  signed  in  qimdamp'lura  sive  officio 
infra  Domum  soliter  habiiacois  mei  Reginaldi  Perkin  notarij 
puhlici  deputati  Regrij  Carliolen  in  vico  vocat  Castlegate 
infra  Civitatem  Carlij.  Swinbank's  device,  of  which  I 
have  not  seen  another  example,  seems  to  be  more  of  a 
caligraphic  flourish  than  any  conventional  form. 

Four  of  the  signatures,  which  are  illustrated,  have  no 
distinctive  figure  or  device,  viz.,  those  of  John  Meye, 
William  Mulcaster,  Philip  Ellis,  and  Edward  Fountain. 
Meye  is  an  interesting  personage,  being  a  son  of  the 
Bishop  of  that  name.  The  signature  in  question  is  taken 
from  a  deed  of  resignation  of  Crosthwaite  by  Robert  Beck 
in  1597.  It  maybe  permissible  to  interpolate  in  this  place  a 
couple  of  Cambridge  documents,  which  were  duly  recorded 
in  the  Register:  one  from  Dr.  Preston  is  a  quaint  and 
friendly  letter  conveying  to  the  Bishop  the  news  of  his 
son's  admission  to  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Laws  and  the 
other  is  the  grace  or  placeat  from  the  doctors  and  profes- 
sors of  that  University.  If  of  no  other  value  they  will 
serve  to  show  that  a  notary  at  this  date  could  be  a  person 
well  learned  in  the  law.*     They  are  the  following : — 


**  Another  example  may  be  of  use  to  establish  this  statement.  It  is  from  a 
deed  of  the  resignation  of  the  Rectory  of  Kirkbythore  by  Robert  Warcop  in  1597, 
and  entered  in  Bishop  Meye's  register.     It  concludes  as  follows :~ 

Lra 


l6o         SOME   SIGNATURES   OF  CARLtSLE   NOTARIES. 

Lra  direct  dno  Epo  My  Verie  good 

p  admisione  Johnis  Meye  lorde  the  Rosiall 

cius  filij  in  ordinem  curtesies  w<*  I 

bacchaiaurei  legis  &c  once  receyvede 

unacu*  vera  notula  gracie  muste  comande 

sue,  subscript  p  doctores  my  poor  endevours 

Cantabrigien  for  ever,  M' 

Johne  Meye  his 

grace  to  comence  bacheler  in  lawe  is  accomplished  honorablelie  and 
frugallie  w^hout  penaltie  constrainte  of  exercise  or  convivacon  only 
payinge  accustomed  dewties  unto  the  ordinarie  officers,  as  vice- 
chanceler,  peters,  beadles,  and  coropoundinge  w^^  the  father  for  his 
chaire.  Honorablelie  for  that  he  pceedeth  by  the  privilledge  of 
Nobilitye  Ita  ut  eius  admissio  sUt  ei  p,  compUt,  gradu  et  forma^  w<* 
favour  of  actuall  admission  is  pemptorilie  pi'cluded  to  all  psons  by  a 
statute  of  her  Ma^®*^  ^j^i  ^ijit  Regie  ma^  asirreU^  Epi,  nobiles  aut 
nohiliu'  filij.  That  it  may  more  fully  appeare  I  have  sent  herein - 
closed  a  Trewe  purporte  of  the  grace  unto  yo'  lo :  veiwe  w'*»  such 
handes  subscribed  by  M'  vicechanceler  the  heades  of  Colledges,  and 
doctors  of  the  facultie  as  our  universitye  order  requireth.  The 
admission  may  be  any  tyme  betwixt  this  and  the  comencement  at 
his  owne  convenientest  oportunitie,  when  as  I  hope  he  will  not 
refuse  Trinitie  haull  for  his  lodgeinge  nor  me  for  his  oste  to  whome 
he  shalbe  moste  hartilie  welcome.  And  I  will  not  faile  godwillinge  to 
accompanie  him  unto  the  full  dispatch  of  all  his  busines     Evenso 


Et  ego  Edmundus   Pope  Dioceseos    London  auctoritate  Regia  Notarius 
Publicum,  et  Univ'sitatis  Oxon  artiu'  Mag^ister  et  in  legibus  Bacchalaureus 
quia  resijs:noi,  cession!  et  renunciation!  nee  non  procuratoris  constit .... 
ceterisq  :  prmissis  oibus  et  singulis  dum  sic  ut  prmittitur  agerentur  et  fierent 
una  cum  testibus  supius  noiatis  psonaiiter  interfui,  eaque  oia  et  singula  sic 
fieri  vidi  et  audivi  atque  prout  pesta  sunt  in  protocollum  redegi  sub  annis 
Dot,  mense  die  et  loco  prdict,  Ideo  prsens  publicu'  instrutum  nianu  mea 
propria  fideliter  scriptu  exinde  confeci  subscripsi  et  publicavi  atque  in  hanc 
publicam  et  authenticam  formam  redegi,  sig-noque  meo  Tabellionali,  noie  et 
cognoie  et  subscriptione  meis  notis  et  consuetis  ^ignavi,  in  6dem  et  testimo- 
nium pmissor  rogatus  ad  id  specialiter  (ut  prfertur)  et  requisitus. 
The  allusion  here  to  the  office  of  Jabellion  is  of  great  interest.     Blount  says  that 
it  differed  in  some  countries  from  that  of  Notary,  but  in  his  day  they  were  grown 
or  made  one  in  England  (Law  Dictionary  sub  verl'o).     He  quotes  Matthew  Paris 
(fol.  454,  de  Anno  12^6)  : — 

Quoniam  Tabellionum  usus  in  Regno  Anglix  non  habetur,  propter  auod 

magis  ad  sigilla  authentica  credi  est  necesse,  ut  eorum  co(.ia  facilius  habea- 

tur,  statuimus,  ut  Sigillum  habeant  non  solum  Archiepiscopi  et  Episcopi  sed 

eoitim  Officiates. 

This  is  aJditional  testimony  to  that  stated  in  the  Legatine  Constitutions  that  the 

office  of  notary,  tabellion,  or  scrivener  had  fallen  into  disuse  in  England  at  the 

beginning  of  the  thirteenth  century. 

desircinge 


Plate    iV. 


■7^ 


^' 


t^i^m^ 


^^' 


W^        i     i    »'*      -       »    C         w 


Plate    V. 


SOME  SIGNATURES  OF  CARLISLE   NOTARIES.         l6l 

desireinge  to  have  my  comendacons  remembred  to  M*"  Meye  And  if 
yo«"  lo»  give  me  leave  to  M'  Wilfride  Lawson  and  his  bedfellowe,  I 
wishe  to  yo*  good  lo^  all  happines  in  Christe.  ffrom  Trinitie  hall  in 
Cambridge  this  xxviij^  of  March  1594 

Yo^  lo^  moste  humble  to  comand 
Tho:  Preston 

in  dorso.    To  the  right  rev*end  father  in  god       ^ 
my  very  good  lo :  the  lo :  busshopp  of  Carliell    ) 

Mr  Johannes  Meye 
gracia  Johnis  Meye  Placeat  vobis  ut 

rev'endi  in  xpo  pris  ac  nobilis 

viri,  et  dni  Johnis  Meye  Carliolen  epi  filius  post  studiu'  aliquot 
annoru*  tam  in  humanioribus  Iris,  qm  in  iure  Civili  positum,  admit- 
tatur  ad  gradum  Bacchalaureatus  in  eodem  Jure.  Sic  ut  eius 
admissio  stet  ei  p  complet  gradu  et  forma  et  ut  non  arctetur  ad 
aliquam  Ceremonia'  solitam  observari  ab  intrantibus  in  eadem 
facultate  Juramento  pmittat  se  consuetudines  privilegia  et  statuta 
huius  universitatis  observatura* 

Doctores  Juris  Civiles  Professores  theologie 

Thomas  Binge  ^  Jo :  duport  vicedecanus  \ 


Tho:  Legge 
Thomas  Preston 
John  Hettis 


Rob :  Some 
Humfridus  Tyndale 
Gulielmus  Whitacre 


Jo:  Cowell  1  Edmund:  Harwell 

Robertus  Newcome  I  Tho :  nevile  I 

Matth :  Sethell  /  John  Jegon  / 

I  have  a  pardonable  interest  in  the  persons  of  Philip  Ellis 
and  Edward  Fountain,  as  they  were  both  of  the  parish  of 
Dalston,  The  former  is  styled  generosus  in  the  parish 
register  and  was  buried  in  Dalston  on  February  18, 
1662-3,  while  the  interesting  old  farmhouse  in  the  town- 
ship of  Hawksdale,  now  called  Fountain  head,  takes  its 
name  from  the  latter  family.  Fountain  came  on  the  scene 
as  a  notary  with  Bishop  Potter  in  1629  ^"^  continued 
registrar  of  the  diocese  till  the  ecclesiastical  breakup  in 
1643- 

George 


l62  SOME   SIGNATURES   OF   CARLISLE   NOTARIES. 

George  Tullie,  who  was  registrar  for  a  number  of  years,* 
affected  a  very  complicated  device,  if  it  can  lay  claim  to 
such  a  title.  His  handwriting  begins  in  1609,  but  his 
name  does  not  occur  till  1612.  He  evidently  took  great 
pains  in  subscribing  the  different  instruments  with  which 
he  was  connected,  rarely  forgetting  to  add  a  touch  here 
and  there  to  the  fantasies  with  which  his  signature  is 
invariably  adorned.  While  he  and  Fountain  successively 
filled  the  office  of  registrar  to  the  Bishops,  other  notaries 
had  occasion  to  witness  documents  entered  in  the  Regis- 
try. One  of  these  was  John  Pattinson,  probably  the 
official  of  the  Dean  and  Chapter,  who  enters  a  caveat 
with  respect  to  the  patronage  of  Lowther.  It  is  of  in- 
terest as  describing  the  location  of  the  episcopal  office — 
in  quadam  superiori  Camera  vulgariter  vocai  the  Registers 
office  infra  p'cinct  ecclie  Cathedralis  Carliolen  sup^du  sett  et 
situat  ad  rogatu  decani  et  Captli  Ecclie  Cathedralis  Carliolen 
pdict.f  The  signature  of  Thomas  Hammond  occurs  but 
once  as  witness  to  the  oath  taken  by  the  churchwardens 
of  Crosthwaite  in  1638  like  that  of  Hugh  Briskoe  which 
forms  the  last  entry  in  Bishop  White's  register  in  a  caveat 
respecting  the  advowson  of  Plumbland  Church  in  1627. 
These  notaries  were  employed  by  the  contravening  parties 
and  formed  no  part  of  the  Bishop's  entourage.  We  are 
indebted  to  the  ordination,  by  letters  dismissory,  of  a 
deacon  from  the  diocese  of  York  for  the  signature  -of 
Thomas  Hopper,  who  attended  at  Rose  Castle  to  witness 
the  ceremony.     It  seems  only  a  copy  of  the  original  as  it 


*  TuIIie  had  some  notarial  transactions  with  Lord  William  Howard,  e.g-., 

1612  Junij  2.    To  Mr.  Tullcy  for  coppyingf  out  totum  processum  versus 
Milburn,  is., 
and  he  took  an  interest  too  in  Lord  William's  hobby  :  — 

1623,  Oct  29.  To  Jo :  Robinson  for  charges  of  carryingc  be&re  to  Carlyle 
long-  since  and  brinffing  an  antique  stone  from  Mr  Tully  xiiijd. 
George  Tullie  was  father  of  Thomas,  Dean  of  Ripon,  who  was  born  in  Carlisle, 
1620  (Lord  William  Howard's  Household  Books,  pp.  15»  220).  Timothy  Tullie, 
Rector  of  Cliburn  1639,  and  occasional  preacher  in  Carlisle  was  a  later  personage, 
t  The  Dean  and  Chapter  claimed  the  patronage  of  the  Church  of  Lowther  but 
failed  to  substantiate  their  claim. 

is 


Plate  VI. 


^x^^r^^ 


SOME   SIGNATURES  OF  CARLISLE   NOTARIES.  163 

is  undoubtedly  written  in  the  same  hand  and  with  the 
same  ink  as  the  rest  of  the  register,  which  is  the  work  of 
Reginald  Perkin.  The  last  of  the  notaries  I  have  to 
mention  is  Adam  Sanderson,  whose  signature  occurs  six 
times  between  the  years  1632  and  1639,  and  never  once 
without  the  distinguishing  appendage. 

During  the  remainder  of  the  17th  century,  that  is,  from 
the  Restoration,  I  can  find  no  distinctive  sign-manual  in 
use  by  any  of  the  notaries  employed  by  the  Bishops  of 
Carlisle.     In  1661  the  registrar  witnesses  thus  : — 

Ita  test  or 

Rich:  Sterne 
Reg'  Carliol 
though  sometimes  he  describes  himself  simply  as  notarius 
publicuSf  a  custom  which  I  have  seen  observed  by  others 
in  after  days.  The  nearest  approach  to  a  device  was 
made  on  one  occasion  by  John  Nicolson  in  1685,  but  it  is 
such  a  tame  affair  that  I  did  not  think  it  worth  repro- 
duction. In  recent  years,  the  notaries  attached  to  the 
episcopal  registry  have  used  seals,  bearing  their  names  in 
legend  with  their  family  crests  on  the  field.  The  seal  of 
the  present  holder  of  the  office,  Mr.  A.  N.  Bowman,  to 
whom  some  of  us  are  under  great  obligation  for  unfailing 
courtesy,  displays  the  bow  and  arrows,  a  rebus  on  his 
surname  and  a  reminiscence  of  vocation  of  his  ancestors, 
bowmen  in  the  forests  of  Cumberland. 


(i64) 


Art.  XIV. — On  a  Bronze  Vessel  of  Roman  Date  found  at 

Clifton^  near  Penrith.    By  The  President. 
Communicated  at  Amside^  Sept.  25th,  1893. 

OUR  member,  Mr.  Blair,  F.S.A.,  well  known  as  one  of 
the  Secretaries  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  New- 
castle, sent  me  a  post  card  recently  to  inform  me  that  in 
a  well  known  dealer's  catalogue,  there  was  advertised  for 
sale  a  drawing  of  "  A  Roman  vessel  of  copper,  consisting 
of  three  parts,  found  near  Clifton  by  Penrith."  For  the 
sum  of  half-a-crown,  I  purchased  the  drawing,  and  it 
is  now  reproduced  for  the  benefit  of  the  readers  of  these 
Transactions. 

The  vessel  is  a  saucepan  with  flat  rim  and  handle,  in 
which  is  a  hole,  for  the  purpose  of  suspending  the  vessel 
on  a  nail  when  not  in  use.  The  maker's  stamp  is  on  the 
handle  thus  :  taliof.*  The  diameter  of  the  vessel  at  the 
top  is  eight  inches,  and  depth  about  four.  A  strainer, 
about  two  inches  deep,  and  perforated  with  many  holes, 
fits  into  the  vessel,  while  a  lid  again  fits  into  the  strainer. 
The  whole  arrangement  much  resembles  a  modern  fish 
kettle.  The  lid  appears  from  the  drawing,  to  be  concave 
and  perforated  with  holes,  so  that  vegetables  may  have 
been  steamed  in  it,  while  the  fish  was  being  cooked  below. 

A  scale  is  on  the  drawing  and  the  legend  "  A  Roman 
vessel  of  copper,  consisting  of  three  parts,  found  near 
Clifton  by  Penrith,"  in  a  handwriting  of  the  middle  of  the 
last  century.  No  history  is  known  of  the  drawing,  except 
that  the  dealer  purchased  it  at  Bath.  It  would  be  desir- 
able to  know  if  the  vessel  is  still  in  existence,  and  where, 
or  if  the  find  is  recorded  in  any  book. 

*  Talio  F  occurs  abroad. 


?r^ 


<i 


:\ 


^- 


h-/ 


a 
z 

D 
O 


> 

8 


•        •   •  •» 


f^i^ia 


ROMAN   TOMBSTONE    FROM    CARLISLE 


(i65) 


Art.  XV. — A  Fourth  Century  Tombstone  from  Carlisle,   By 

F.  Haverfield,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 
rpHE  remarkable  tombstone  which  forms  the  subject  of 
^  the  following  paper,  was  dug  up  in  189?,  on  Gallows 
or  Harraby  Hill,  near  the  London  Road,  leading  south- 
wardsout  of  Carlisle,  at  a  point  where  previous  discoveries, 
made  principally  in  1829  and  1847,  had  demonstrated  the 
existence  of  a  Roman  Cemetery.*  When  found,  it  was 
lying  face  downwards  over  a  rough  wooden  coffin  which 
contained  fatty  earth  and  a  skull.  It  is  a  slab  of  red  local 
sandstone,  measuring  20  by  31  inches  and  bearing  six  and 
alhalf  lines  of  lettering  separated  by  lines  ruled  across  the 
stone.  The  inscription  is  perfect  at  the  top  and  sides, 
but  is  broken  across  the  seventh  line,  an  attempt  having 
seemingly  been  made  to  **  chad  "  the  stone  into  two  pieces. 
This  fact  and  the  position  in  which  it  was  found,  shew 
that  it  was  not  in  situ  when  dug  up,  though  it  obviously 
belongs  to  the  circumjacent  cemetery.  It  has  been  given 
by  the  finder,  Mr.  Dudson,  to  the  Tullie  House  Museum. 
The  reading,  t  as  I  copied  it,  is  as  follows  : — 

D  M 

FLAS   ANTIGONS   PAPIAS 


CIVIS 

GRECVS   VIXIT   ANNos 

PLVS 

MINVS  LX  QVEMAD 

MODVM      ACCOMODATAM 

FATIS 

ANIMAM    REVOCAVIT 

SEP^MMIADONT 

•R.  S.  Ferguson,  Proc.  Soc,  Ant.  xiv  (1893)  261.  These  Transations,  vol.  xii, 
p.  365. 

t  Published  by  Mr.  Ferguson  and  myself  he,  cit. ;  bv  myself.  Academy,  Dec. 
24,  1893;  Proceedings  of  the  Neiocastle  Society  of  Antiquaries,  v.  231.  The 
present  article  is  somewhat  modified  from  one  which  I  contributed  to  i\ie  Journal 
of  the  Royal  Archaologieal  Institute, 

D(«) 


l66  A   FOURTH   CENTURY  TOMBSTONE. 

D(is)  M{anibus)  Fla(viu)s  AHiigOH{u)s  Papias,  civis  Gr{a)eeus,  vixit 
annos  plus  minus  Ix^  quem-ad-modum  accom(m)odaiam  fatis  animam 
revocavit  Septimiadon  ? 

The  reading  is  absolutely  certain  with  the  exception  of  the 
seventh  line.  This  I  read  septimiadoni,  but  the  i  after 
the  M  is  not  quite  vertical,  and  the  D  might  possibly  be  a  b 
or  siniilar  letter.  The  interpretation  is  quite  clear  down 
to  LX  :  the  rest  is  disputed.  Fortunately  we  can,  in  spite 
of  this  uncertainty,  predicate  some  facts  about  the  in- 
scription as  a  whole. 

It  is  the  tombstone  of  one  Flavins  Antigonus  Papias, 
a  Greek,  who  died  about  the  age  of  sixty  and  was  buried 
in  Carlisle.  He  lived  in  the  fourth  century  of  our  era  and 
it  is  possible,  though  it  is  not  capable  of  actual  proof,  that 
he  was  a  Christian.  These  certainties  or  uncertainties 
lend  the  tombstone  an  unusual  interest.  We  have  ex- 
traordinarily few  inscriptions,  excluding  milestones,  in 
Britain,  which  we  can  assign  with  confidence  to  the 
fourth  century.  Perhaps  the  only  clear  instances  are  (i) 
a  ''  basis  "  lately  found  at  Cirencester,  the  pedestal  (as  it 
seems)  of  a  monument  to  Juppiter  which  a  governor  of 
Britannia  Prima  restored  at  some  moment,  such  as  the 
reign  of  Julian,  when  Paganism  reasserted  itself  against 
Christianity,  and  (2)  a  stone  recording  the  erection  of  a  fort 
near  Peak,  between  Whitby  and  Scarborough,  about  the 
beginning  of  the  fifth  century.  The  Carlisle  tombstone, 
may,  therefore,  claim  to  be  an  object  of  more  than  ordi- 
nary interest  to  Antiquaries  and  especially  to  Antiquaries 
in  Cumberland. 

First,  as  to  the  date.  We  may  with  confidence  attri- 
bute the  inscription  to  the  fourth  century.  The  proofs 
are  the  following : — 

I.    The  name   Flavins,  popularized   by   the   Flavian 
dynasty  of  the  Constantines,  becomes  very  common  in  the 
fourth  and  fifth  centuries.     The  late  military  cemetery  at 
Concordia  (N.  Italy),  for  instance,  contains  a  large  pro- 
portion 


A  FOURTH   CENTURY  TOMBSTONE.  167 

portion  of  Flavii,  while  of  the  180  Flavii  mentioned  in  the 
fifth  volume  of  the  Corpus  (which  includes  Concordia), 
certainly  60  and  probably  nearly  90  lived  after  the  year 
A.D.  300.  The  name  was  taken  even  by  barbarian  kings 
and  nobles,  and  always  suggests  a  late  date  for  any 
inscription  which  does  not  belong  to  the  era  of  the  first 
Flavii,  Vespasian,  Titus  and  Domitian.*  As  Constantius 
Chlorus  conquered  Britain  in  A.D.  297,  we  cannot  put 
our  inscription  much,  if  at  all,  before  that  date. 

2.  The  abbreviations  Flos  Aniigons  for  Flavins  Antu 
gonus  are  characteristic  of  a  late  period.  In  the  first 
three  centuries,  the  Romans  abbreviated  by  the  first  letter 
or  syllable  of  the  abbreviated  word ;  in  the  fourth  century 
they  began  to  take  the  first  and  last  letters  or  syllabes, 
thus  commencing  the  system  which  went  on  in  the  middle 
ages  and  produced  epus  for  episcopus  and  sett  for  sancti.  I 
do  not  know  whether  the  actual  forms  Flas  and  Antigons 
recur  elsewhere,  but  we  have  abundant  parallels  from  the 
fourth  and  fifth  centuries,  Julians  for  Julianus,  Jans  for 
Januariusy  Debres  for  Decembres^  cus  for  coniuxs^  Maxianus 
and  Consiius  for  Maximianus  and  Constantius^  the  two  latter 
on  a  boundary  stone  at  Cherchell  in  Africa.t 

3.  The  employment  of  civis  to  denote  nationality  is 
also  a  mark  of  late  date.  In  the  first  and  second  centuries, 
the  word  is  used  of  members  of  an  actual  community  or 
of  a  tribe  which  could  be  regarded  as  a  civitas :  later,  it 
denotes  only  birth,  and  civis  Gallus  means  exactly  the 
same  as  natione  Gallus.  The  meaning  crept  even  into 
literature  and  Sidonius  Apollinaris  (p.  vii.  6,  2.)  speaks  of 


*  C.I.L.  V.  p.  178,  Caf^nat  ann^  ^t^r.  1890,  n.  143  foil,  1801,  n.  loi  foil. 
See  also  de  Rossi,  pp.  cxii  and  390,  au  Cange,  s.v,  "  Flavius,"  ana  especially  Th. 
Mommsen's  Ostgothische  Stitdien  in  the  Neues  Arckiv  fur  aliere  deutscke 
Geschicktskunie,  xiv,  p.  536. 

tSce  C.  xii.  5351,  xiv.  399;  le  Blant  i.  472,  614:  Bulletin  ipif^r,  iv.  234; 
Bulletino  di  Arch.  Christ  i«  65  (DEPS=i2efKmltfj)  ti.  108,  (FRis=/ra^m),  etc. 

a 


l68  A   FOURTH   CENTURY  TOMBSTONE. 

a  "Goth  by  birth"  as  civis  Gothus.^  It  may  be  added 
that  Graecus  in  this  context  does  not  necessarily  mean  a 
native  of  Greece.  A  Christian  inscription,  probably  of 
the  fourth  or  fifth  century,  found  in  Hungary,  mentions  a 
civis  Graecus  ex  regione  Ladicena  (C.  iii.  4200)  and  a  Lyons 
gravestone  records  a  man  who  was  natione  Graecus  Nico- 
medea  (Allmer  Lyon  i.  322,  n°.  62).  The  first  was  a 
Phrygian,  the  second  a  Bilhynian.  This,  of  course, 
agrees  with  the  literary  usage  of  the  word  Graecus.  It 
would  be  wrong,  I  think,  to  connect  with  this  the  proper 
name  Greca  on  a  Plumpton  Wall  inscription.  (C.  vii.  326). 

4.  The  formula  pltis  minus,  familiar  enough  to  classical 
scholars  as  good  Latin,  is  rarely  used  on  tombstones 
until  Christian  times  and  is  indeed  almost  a  mark  of 
Christianity. 

5.  The  lettering  and  general  look  of  the  inscription 
suggest  the  fourth  century  as  the  most  probable  date. 

We  may  therefore  conclude  that  the  inscription  belongs 
to  the  fourth  century.  Later  we  cannot  put  it,  for  the 
evacuation  of  Britain  came  early  in  the  next  century,  and 
the  proofs  I  have  quoted  forbid  us  to  put  it  much  earlier. 
We  may,  I  think,  go  further  and  conjecture  that  the 
inscription  was   Christian.     The  formula  plus   minus   is 


•  Mommsen  Hermes  xix.  35.    The  following  examples  may  be  quoted  :— 

civis  Britaiinicus,  found  at  Cologne  (Bambach  2033  addenda). 

c.  Gallus,  Pola  (Pais,  1096),  Rome  (Le  Blant  656,  658,  both  fourth  century). 

c.  Helvedus,  Rothenbur|(  (Brambach,  1639). 

c.  Raetus,  Rome,  Christian  {Eph.  iv.  943) ;  Birrens  and  Netherby  in  Britain 
(C.  vii.  1068,  and  972). 

r.  Noricus,  Halton  and  Castlecary  in  Britain  (C.  vii.  571,  1095) ;  Transylvania 
(C.  iii.  966). 

c.  Pannonius,  Africa,  Christian  C.  viii.  8910);  Rome,  Christian  {Eph,  iv.  953), 
Chesterholm  in  Britain  (C.  vii.  723). 

r.  MensiacuSf  {=Moesiacus),  Bordeaux  (Julian,  i.  p.  146,  n.  44). 

c.  Graecus  HungarVi  Christian  (C.  iii.  4220),  Bordeaux  ( jullian  i.  p.  1S7,  n.  69.) 

c.  Sums,  N.  Italy  (Aquileia),  Christain  (C.  v.  1633)  j  Hungary  {EphAi.  895); 
Cilli  {Oest.  Arch,  epigr,  Mitth.  iv.  127,  seen  by  myself). 

c.  Armeniacus  Cappadox,  Rome  Christian,  A.D.  385  (de  Rossi,  i.  355). 

c.  Afer,  Cilli  (C.  iii.  5230),  and  possibly  Spain  {Inscr.  Christ.  Hisp.  71). 

c.  tuscus,  Rome,  A.D.  408  (de  Rossi,  i.  55S). 

c.  Thrax,  Cherchell  (Bull.  Epigr.  iv.  6^). 

c.  Francus,  Aquincum  (C.  iii,  3576),  obviously  late.    See  also  C.  iii,  1324, 3367. 

usually 


A  FOURTH  CENTURY  TOMBSTONE.        169 

usually,  and  I  think  rightly,  reckoned  as  a  mark  of  Chris- 
tianity, though  simple  classical  scholars  will  perhaps 
smile  at  the  idea.  The  formula  D.M.,  though  in  its  origin 
Pagan,  is  not  unknown  on  Christian  tombstones  and 
especially,  as  it  would  seem,  on  the  earlier  ones.*  It 
must  be  remembered  that,  as  Hirschfeld  and  Le  Blant 
have  pointed  out,  the  early  Christians  used  ordinary  burial 
formulae,  indicating  their  religion  only  by  preference  for 
special  words  and  phrases  like  plusy  minuSf  pius^  sanctuSy 
which  would  not  attract  the  attention  or  arouse  the 
fanaticism  of  the  hostile  pagan  majority  round  them.t 
At  the  same  time,  I  must  repeat  that  the  Christianity  of 
Flavins  Antigonus  Papias,  however  plausible,  is  a  matter 
of  conjecture. 

So  far  we  have  dealt  only  with  the  first  half  of  the 
inscription.  The  second  is  less  certain  and  half  requires 
a  word.  It  is  unfortunate  that  the  stone  does  not  tell  us 
whether  we  should  read  quemadmodum  or  quern  adtnodum 
or  quern  ad  modum.  It  is  also  unfortunate  that  the  last 
line  is  so  broken  that  we  can  hardly  tell  how  it  ran.  To 
me  SBPTiMiADONi  seems  most  probable,  but  it  is  also 
possible  to  read  septima,  supposing  the  stroke  after  m 
(which  is  not  quite  vertical)  to  be  an  accident.  The 
passage,  thus  involved,  has  puzzled  many  persons,  and 
various  distinguished  scholars  whom  I  have  consulted. 
Prof.  Domaszewski,  Prof.  Ellis,  Prof.  Wolfflin  and  others, 
have  differed  considerably  in  their  interpretations.  Of  the 
views  suggested,  the  most  attractive  is  that  which  takes 


*  F.  Becker  die  heidnisehe  Wei)\fiyrmel  D.M.  ai^f  altchrlHlichen  Grabsteinen 
(Gera  1881).  To  his  100  examples  (not  all  certain),  add  instances  from  South 
C^ul  (C.  xii.  4091  3ii4»  331 1,  4059);  Africa  (C.  viii  11S97,  11205,  ii^5»  12197; 
Epk,  vii.  492;  Cagnat  ann^e  ^piffr.  1801,  n.  136);  North  Italy  (Pais  Supfl  n. 
349;  Arch.  EMgr,  Milth,  iii.  p.  50,  C.  iii.  1C43,  8588,  8575);  Salonae  (C.  iii, 
9414;  Larisa  (C  iii,  7315);  Rome  (de  Rossi,  i,  24  and  1192;  Brittany  (Q>rneilhan| 
Revue,  ipigr,  i.  p.  107),  etc.  See  also  De  Rossi,  Bull,  Arch.  Crist  i.  174,  ana 
F.  X.  Kraus,  Roma  SoUerranea,  p.  64,  who  consider  the  use  as  a  rare  one. 

t  fFestdeutsche  ZeitschrifU  viii,  138.  Plus  minus  occurs  also  on  a  tombstone 
found  at  Brougham  {EpK,  iii»  n.  91  j  Bruce,  Lapidarium,  814). 

quetiMdmodum 


170  A   FOURTH   CENTURY  TOMBSTONE. 

quemadmodum  as  three  words,  "  at  which  date,"  and 
renders  it  revocavit  by  the  rare  sense  "  gave  up,"  and  puts 
a  fullstop  after  it.  Then  revocavit  animam  means  ''  he 
gave  up  his  soul,"  either  as  an  equivalent  to  the  common 
Christian  formula  reddidit  animam  or  with  the  heathen  idea 
(mentioned  in  Seneca  and  elsewhere)  of  life  being  a  loan 
from  the  gods.  Of  the  two  alternatives,  I  prefer  the 
former,  but,  whichever  is  accepted,  it  remains  a  difficulty 
that  revocavit  in  this  sense  is  very  rare.  *  If,  however,  it 
be  admitted,  we  shall  render  ''at  which  time,  he  gave  up 
his  soul  resigned  to  death  (or  its  destiny  ").  We  shall 
then  suppose  that  Septimia  (ov  Septima)  Doni  commences 
a  sentence  about  the  person,  perhaps  wife  or  daughter, 
who  put  up  the  tombstone.  Doni  may'be  part  of  donicella, 
that  is  domnicella,  as  Prof.  Wofflin  suggests ;  for  the  form 
compare  Dominicellus  on  an  African  inscription  of  Christiah 
date  (Bulletin  epigr.  vi.  39). 

There  are  however  other  possibilities.  We  may  trans- 
late revocavit  in  its  ordinary  sense  and  suppose  that  the 
nominative  to  it  was  in  the  lost  part  of  the  inscription. 
Septima  (if  that  be  right)  may  belong  to  a  date,  such  as 
was  often  expressed  on  Christian  inscriptions.  We  may 
take  QUEM  ADMODUM  as  two  words,  quem  being  in  opposi- 
tion to  animam  and  admodum  meaning  ''  wholly,"  as  it 
does  both  in  classical  and  in  post-classical  Latinity :  we 
should  then  render  "  whom,  a  wholly  resigned  soul.  ..." 
Prof.  Robinson  Ellis  suggests  to  me  that  we  should 
translate  "  he  lived  sixty  years  more  or  less,  for  so  it  was 
that,  when  his  spirit  was  prepared  to  meet  its  doom,  he 
recalled  it  to  life  (and  did  not  die") ;  that  is,  he  was  often 


*  Mr.  G.  Rushforth  has  pointed  out  to  me  in  the  African  Gesta  Ptirgationis 
Felicia  (of  the  fouth  century,  Routh,  RflL  Sacrae,  iv.  290),  revocare  is  used  as 
the  equivalent  of  tradere^  restituere  and  revocare.  The  later  African  poet  Corip- 
pus  ( floruit  560  a.d.)  may  possibly  have  used  the  word  similarly  in  Joh.  ii,  34^ 
where  the  manuscript  readinj^  captives  revocet  '*  let  him  restore  the  captives '* 
would  make  good  sense.    But  it  is  a  Ult  cry  from  African  Latin  to  Carlisle. 

on 


r 


A   FOURTH   CENTURY   TOMBSTONE.  17I 

on  the  point  of  death  but  recovered  as  often  and  lived  to 
be  sixty  years  old.  On  the  whole,  I  fear  that  certainty  is 
unattainable,  but  I  cannot  help  thinking  that  the  curious 
wording,  whatever  exactly  it  means,  savours  rather  of 
Christian  than  of  heathen  epigraphy. 


(172) 


Art.  XVI.— i4  Survq^  of  the  City  of  Carlisle  in  1684-5, 
from  the  collection   of  Lord    Dartmouth.      By   The 
President. 
Communicated  at  Amside,  Sept.  25^*,  1893. 
THE  Lord  Dartmouth,  who  is  well  known  as  having 
been  sent  out  to  Tangiers  to  arrange  for  the  evacua- 
tion of  that  place,  held  the  ofiEice  of  Master  of  the  Ordnance. 
In  that  capacity  he  was  by  commission  under  the  Royal 
Privy  Signet  and  Sign  Manuel,  bearing  date  the  ist  of 
May,  1682,  authorised  and  empowered  to  make  a  Survey 
of  all  the  King's  magazines,  castles,  and  forts  in  England, 
and  was  empowered  to  deputy  such  officers  of  the  Ordnance 
to  act  for  him  as  he  might  select.     By  warrant  dated  30th 
June,  1684,  Lord  Dartmouth  directed   Sir  Christopher 
Musgrave,  Lieutenant  General  of  the  Ordnance,  to  inspect 
and  survey  the  castles  of  Carlisle,  Chester,  and  Shrews- 
bury.   These  surveys,  with  a  large  number  of  others, 
have  remained  in  the  hands  of  Lord  Dartmouth's  suc- 
cessors in  the  title,  and  the  present  peer  sent  a  selection 
of  them  to  the  Record  Office  in  Fetter  Lane  for  examina- 
tion.   Among  these  was  the  survey  of  Carlisle ;  through 
the  kindness  of  a  friend,  the  writer  was  informed  of  its 
existence :  armed  with  permission  from  the  present  Lord 
Dartmouth,  he  visited  the  Record  Office,  and  recognised 
with  delight  an  utterly  unknown  plan  of  Carlisle.    That 
plan  with  the  report  that  accompanies  it  are  now  here 
reproduced  by  the  courteous  permission  of  the  present 
Lord  Dartmouth,  having  been  carefully  copied  under  the 
superintendence  of  Mr.  J.  J.  Cartwright,  F.S.A.,  Secretary 
of  the  Public  Record  Office. 

The  plan  itself  is  by  James  Richards,  whom  we  believe 
was  one  of  three  brothers,  who  were  much  employed  as 

military 


A   SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  CARLISLE.  I73 

military  engineers  and  draftsmen.  It  shows  the  City  of  Car- 
lisle and  the  vicinity  for  some  little  distance  around,  par- 
ticularly on  the  north  side,  the  Swifts  and  the  Sands  being 
carefully  included.  The  course  of  the  river  Eden,  as  laid 
down,  differs  very  considerably  from  that  in  which  it  now 
flows;  sweeping  round  the  Swifts,  much  as  at  present, 
the  main  channel  runs  south,  almost  as  far,  we  should 
imagine  as  the  foot  of  the  present  George  Street  and 
Rickergate,  before  turning  to  the  north-west :  at  the  foot 
of  Rickergate  it  is  crossed  by  a  bridge  of  seven  arches, 
and  is  marked  on  the  plan  as  "  River  Eden " ;  the 
depths  of  the  water  are  given  at  various  places  as  3  and  4 
feet.  A  smaller  and  nameless  stream"^  is  shown  about  the 
position  of  the  present  channel  of  the  Eden,  and  is  crossed 
by  a  bridge  of  two  arches.  A  large  area  is  included 
between  the  two  streams,  and  is  the  Sands,  though  not 
so  named  on  the  plan.  The  Swifts  are  shown  as  divided 
into  several  fields,  and  the  present  cricket  ground  to  be 
partly  under  the  plough,  and,  also  some  portions  of  the 
Broad  Meadows  on  the  east  of  the  town.  A  few  houses 
with  small  enclosures  at  their  rear  occupy  the  site  of  the 
present  Rickergate. 

On  the  west  of  the  city  the  course  of  the  river  Caldew, 
and  the  dams  on  each  side  of  it  are  given :  of  these  the 
one  nearest  the  city  appears  to  have  been  covered  over 
for  some  distance  just  outside  of  and  opposite  to  the  Irish 
Gate  :  the  road  from  the  Irish  Gate  to  the  west  crosses 
this  dam,  where  thus  covered  over,  and  then  crosses  the 
Caldew  by  a  stone  bridge  of  three  arches,  of  which  the 
central  one  appears  to  be  dry,  an  island  being  shown 
there.  The  road  then  crosses  the  further  dam,  or  Little 
Caldew,  by  a  wooden  bridge. 

The  English  Gate  is  on  the  Bush  Brow,  and  is  pro- 


•The  "  Priestbeck/*  so  called,  we  believe,  because  the  Prior  of  Carlisle  had 
some  fishing  rights  there. 

tected 


174  A   SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF  CARLISLE. 

tected  by  a  barbican,  or  advanced  work ;  the  two  towers  of 
the  Citadel  are  connected  by  walls  enclosing  a  considerable 
space  and  a  circular  bastion  faces  up  English  Street. 

The  plan  of  the  city  is  given  only  in  skeleton,  but 
English  Street,  Scotch  Street,  Fisher  Street,  the  Lrong 
Lane,  Blackfriars  Street,  the  White  Horse,  and  S.  Cuth- 
bert*s  Lanes  are  indicated,  though  their  names  (if  different 
from  those  in  present  use)  are  not  set  down.  Castle 
Street,  Paternoster  Row,  Finkle  and  Annetwell  Streets 
are  also  given.  The  Town  Hall  stands  detached  from  S. 
Alban's  Row,  and  the  Main  Guard  (opposite  the  end  of  S. 
Cuthbert's  Lane),  the  Market  Cross,  and  the  Shambles 
are  depicted  in  the  Old  Market  Place.  In  the  right  hand 
lower  corner  of  the  plan  enclosed  within  a  wreath  and  a 
trophy  of  arms  are  sections  of  the  fortifications,  titled  as 
follows : — 

Profil  of  y*  Great  Castle 
towards  y«  Towne 
Profil  of  y«  Wall  of  y«  Great 
Castle  towards  y«  North 
Profil  of  y*  little 

Castle 
Profil  of  y«  towne 
Wales 

Also  scales  for  "3^  whole  mapp"  and  y«  profils.     The 

litte  Castle  must  be  the  Citadel. 

A  charming  little  picture  is  also  given,  entitled 

A  Prospect  of  Carlisle  towards  the  North  : — 
Jac:  Richards  Fecit 

The  following  is  the  text  of  the  report : — 

MAY  IT  PLEASE  YO'  LORD», 

HIS  MAJ^« ;  by  his  Commission  Vnder  his  Royall  Privy 
Signet  and  Signe  Manuall  bearing  date  the  i^t  May  1682 :  Author- 
ized and  empowered  Yo*^  Lordi^  to  make  a  Particular  survey  of  all 
his  Maj^^  Maga2ines  Castles  and  Forts,  in  this  his  Kingdome  of 
England;  and  All  Governors  Commanders  and  Other  Officers  are 

required 


A  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF   CARLISLE.  I75 

required  not  onely  to  be  obedient,  but  Aiding  and  Assisting  to  You 
in  the  performance  of  this  his  Maj^s  Service.  And  in  case  the  Exig- 
ency of  his  Majts  Affaires  or  other  Emergent  Services  shall  hinder 
you  personally  from  takeing  such  inspection  and  Survey,  Yo'  Lordw 
is  Authorized  and  Empowered  to  Depute  such  of  the  principall 
Officers  of  the  Ordnance  or  other  Ministers  belonging  to  the  Office  of 
the  Ordnance  as  You  shall  think  fitt  to  View  inspect  and  survey  the 
said  Castles  and  Forts  according  to  such  Instructions  as  by  You 
shall  be  given  them. 

YOr  LORD»,  by  Yo'  Warrant  beareing  date  the  3ot»>  June  1684 
was  pleased  to  direct  Mee  to  inspect  and  Survey  the  Citties  and 
Castles  of  Carlisle  Chester  and  Shrewsbury ;  and  to  take  Accompt  of 
the  State  of  the  Fortifications  of  the  said  places ;  and  Likewise  of 
the  Quality  of  the  Governors,  Officers,  and  Soldiers,  their  severall 
Entertainements,  and  whether  such  as  are  in  Pay  be  resident  upon 
their  respective  charges.  And  alsoe  to  take  an  Accompt  of  all  Ord- 
nance Carriages  Munition  and  Habiliaments  of  Warr  in  the  said 
places.  In  pursuance  of  these  Yo^*  Lordi^  Instructions  I  went  first 
to  Carlisle  and  shewed  my  Comission  from  Yo^  Lordi'*  to  Lievtenant 
William  Fielding  (he  being  the  Officer  commanding  in  Cheife  there 
at  that  time)  who  paid  all  Obedience  to  My  Lord  Morpeth  comeing 
to  Towne  two  dayes  after  and  he  being  the  Officer  then  Commanding 
in  Cheife,  I  shewed  him  my  Comission :  After  perusall  of  itt,  his 
Lordi>v  was  pleased  to  say,  That  his  Comission  was  from  the  King, 
and  hee  should  not  Obey  any  other  Comission,  and  that  Yo**  Lordw 
had  noe  power  or  Authority  over  him,  and  that  Yoi"  power  related 
onely  to  Storekeepers  and  Gunners :  I  told  his  Lord>o  that  hee  must 
needs  observe,  in  the  reading  of  my  Comission,  the  reciteing  of  his 
Maj^  Comission  to  Yo'  Lord»  and  the  power  given  thereby  to  Yo* 
Lordiv,  which  required  all  Governors  and  other  Officers  to  be  Obedi- 
ent to  Yor  Lord».  His  Lord»  replyed  that  hee  would  not  Obey  any 
Command  of  Yo'  Lordi^  and  if  any  Officer  or  Soldier  vnder  his 
Command  Obeyed  any  Orders  or  Comands  of  mine,  he  would  Com- 
mitt  them.  I  told  his  Lord"*  I  very  well  vnderstood  the  power  that 
was  granted  me  by  this  Comission,  and  that  if  his  Lordiv  Obstructed 
me  in  the  Exercise  of  itt,  for  dischargeing  the  Trust  reposed  in  mee, 
I  knew  how  to  have  Right  done,  and  to  Release  any  that  should  be 
Comitted  for  Obeying  my  Orders :  I  shewed  him  a  Copy  of  his 
Maj"  Comission  to  Yo'  Lordw  Attested  by  S'  Edward  Sherburne 
Clerke  of  the  Ordnance,  and  informed  him  that  noe  Governor  or 
Comander  had  in  the  Least  questioned  Yo'  power,  but  Yielded  all 
Obedience  to  itt.    His  Lord>v  said  that  he  could  not  vnderstand  that 

a 


176  A  SCJRVBY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  CARLISLE. 

any  such  Authority  was  granted  to  You  ;  in  which  he  much  injured 
his  Judgement,  when  with  great  justice  he  might  have  charged  the 
fault  vpon  his  will.  I  have  related  to  Yo'  Lord**  all  the  Esteeme  he 
had  for  Yo'  Comissioni  and  all  the  discourse  I  had  with  him,  he  not 
Vouchsafeing  to  acquaint  mee  with  anything  relateing  to  the  Garri- 
son, <fc  Offer  any  thing  which  might  advance  his  Maj*B  Service  in 
that  place.  Whether  this  Proceeding  is  according  to  the  duty  of  his 
Employment  is  humbly  submitted  to  Yo^  Lordv^  great  Judgment. 

BY*  his  Majts  Patent  vnder  the  Great  Scale  beareing  date  the  ^^^ 
March  1677  :  Charles  Earl  of  Carlisle  is  made  Governor  of  the  City, 
Citadell  and  Castle  of  Carlisle  dureing  his  Maj*'«*  Pleasure,  in  the 
place  of  Sr  Philip  Musgrave  Baronett  deceased,  and  hath  the  Fee  of 
iqs  p  diem  payable  out  of  his  Maj^  Exchequer,  all  the  Feasts  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary  and  S^  Michaell  by  equall  portions.  Vpon  his 
Maj^  Restauration  the  Earle  of  Carlisle  Obtained  a  Lease  of  Thirty 
one  yeares  from  the  Queene  Mother  of  the  Castle  of  Carlisle  with  the 
Demesne  Lands  and  soccage  Tenements  therevnto  belonging.  Her 
Maj^*  receiveing  the  Yearely  Rent  of  5oli:  And  this  Lease  hath  been 
renewed  by  the  present  Queene  (being  her  Maj*«  Jointure)  to  com- 
pleat  the  Terme  of  31 :  yeares.  His  Lord»  received  a  considerable 
8ume  of  money  vpon  renewing  the  Leases  of  the  Soccage  Tenements: 
I  am  informed  that  the  Demesne  Lands  and  Soccage  Tenements 
may  be  worth  200  li  p  Annum.  Whether  it  is  for  his  Maj^s  service 
that  a  Grant  should  be  made  of  his  Maj^  Forts  is  submitted  to  Yo' 
Lord"*  consideration. 

IN  this  Garrison  is  one  Company  of  Foot  consisting  of  Fifty  Pri- 
vate Soldiers,  two  Serjeants  3  Corporalls,  one  Drummer,  Edward 
Lord  Morpeth  Captaine  of  this  Company,  William  Fielding  Liev^ 
Francis  Sanderson  Ensigne.  The  Allowance  for  Fire  and  Candle 
formerly  was  two  shillings  and  sixpence  p  Diem,  but  now  is  reduced 
to  12^ :  there  is  also  Established  a  Master  Gunner  and  three  Gun- 
ners, Richard  Lethatt  Master  Gunner  hath  the  allowance  of  2" 
p  diem :  at  the  time  of  my  being  upon  the  place,  I  found  only  two 
Gunners,  viz^  James  Maxwell  and  Miles  Sutton  (Thomas  Tayler 
being  dead)  each  of  which  Gunners  hath  the  allowance  of  i2d  p 
diem. 

JAMES  MAXWELL  is  Steward  to  my  Lord  Morpeth  and  Lives 
at  Noward  Castle  eight  Miles  from  Carlisle,  Yol^  Lordi^  may  remem- 
ber that  some  time  since  Vouchers  were  returned  to  the  Office  of  the 
Ordnance  for  moneys  disbursed  for  Workes  done  at  Carlisle,  and  a 
Debenture  therevpon  made  to  my  Lord  Morpeth ;    These  Vouchers 

declared 


A  SURVEY  OP  THE  CITY  OF  CARLISLE.  \^^ 

declared  that  the  Severall  sumes  therein  menconed  were  paid  by  the 
said  James  Maxwell,  but  vpon  examination  it  appeared  that  more 
was  charged  then  the  Vndertakers  agreed  for  or  received  ;  And  alsoe 
money  said  to  be  paid  for  worke  which  was  not  done :  whether  a 
Person  guilty  of  so  great  a  fraud  is  fitt  to  be  continued  in  his  Maj^ 
service,  is  humbly  submitted  to  Yo'  Lord"*  Judgment. 

I  here  present  to  Yo'  Lord^P  a  List  of  the  Officers  and  Soldiers 
which  was  delivered  to  me  vpon  honour,  by  Lievtenant  William 
Fielding  (and  I  saw  the  Company  drawne  out  and  Exercised)  by 
which  List  itt  appeares  that  one  Serjeant  and  Six  Private  Soldiers 
have  Liberty  from  my  Lord  Morpeth  to  hire  their  duty,  and  I  am  in- 
formed that  a  Soldiers  pay  hath  been  sometimes  divided  betwixt  two 
Persons. 

THE  Duty  performed  by  the  Soldiers  is  in  this  manner.  A  Guard 
kept  at  the  Castle  consisting  of  Eleaven  Sentinells,  a  Serjeant  or 
Corporall  Comanding  from  this  Guard  in  the  day  time,  3  Sentinells 
are  drawne  out  and  sent  to  the  Severall  Gates  in  the  Towne.  To 
each  Gate  there  is  a  very  good  Guardhouse,  and  a  very  good  house 
for  a  Maine  Guard  neare  the  Markett  Place.  All  these  Guard-houses 
were  built  by  the  late  Rebels,  who  made  vse  of  the  Stones  of  the 
Parish  Church  of  S^  Maries. 

THE  Citty  is  surrounded  with  a  good  Stone  wall  with  Battlements 
and  Ramperts,  but  few  Flanques.  Neare  to  the  south  Gate  of  the 
Citty  is  a  small  Cittadell,  in  which  was  a  house  wherein  the  Sherriffs 
entertained  the  Judges,  but  was  destroyed  by  the  Scotts  in  the  late 
Rebellion :  nothing  is  now  standing  but  the  Walls  and  two  Platt- 
formes,  both  Looking  into  the  Country,  vpon  one  of  which  Five  Guns 
are  Planted,  and  Power,  vpon  the  other.  That  part  of  the  Cittadell 
which  Comands  the  Towne  hath  noe  Plattformes. 

IN  the  Cittadell  the  Country  Goale  is  kept,  which  is  very  inconve- 
nient, and  a  Prejudiee  to  his  Maj^s  Serrvice ;  S^  George  Jeofferies 
Lord  Cheife  Justice  of  England  att  the  last  Assizes  fined  the  County 
for  not  Provideing  a  better  Goale. 

THE  Civill  Government  of  this  Citty  consists  of  Twelve  Aldermen 
out  of  which  a  Mayor  is  chosen,  and  a  Councill  of  Twenty  fower,  out 
of  which  two  Bayliffs  (who  are  in  the  Nature  of  Sherriffs)  are  yearely 
Chosen,  a  Recorder,  a  Towne  Clarke,  and  some  Officers  of  an  infe- 
riour  Ranck :  The  Revenue  oi  this  Citty  is  betweene  Power  and  Five 
Hundred  Pounds  p  Annum. 

VPON   the  North-west  is  the  Castle,  which  is  pleasantly  and 

Advantageously 


178  A   SURVEY  OF  THE    CITY  OF   CARLISLE. 

Advantageously  scituated  Comanding  the  Towne.  The  Walls  about 
the  Castle  are  good :  in  the  Inner  Court  stands  the  Castle  in  which 
the  Governor  lives  (when  vpon  the  Place)  and  is  a  good  Old  house ; 
the  best  Rootnes  were  built  by  Queene  Eiizabeth.  All  the  Castle  is 
covered  with  Lead  ;  There  is  a  great  Tower  joyneing  to  the  Castle 
covered  with  Lead,  in  which  all  his  Maj'^  Stores  are  kept :  in  this 
Inner  Court  are  very  good  Plattformes,  and  severall  Guns  Planted 
vpon  them :  in  the  Outward  Court  which  is  very  large  there  are  att 
present  but  two  Platformes,  one  of  three  Guns,  and  the  other  of  two, 
and  Guns  are  placed  vpon  them  :  vpon  one  side  of  this  Court  is  a 
Stable  and  Barne  in  one  entire  building  72  Yards  long  ;  there  is 
alsoe  another  Slight  Building  about  46  yards  long,  but  very  narrow. 
There  is  likewise  a  Hwelling-house  for  the  Gunner  with  a  Conve- 
niency  to  lodge  his  Ordinary  Stores  in.  Both  the  Towne  and  Castle 
are  capable  of  being  Fortified  for  a  reasonable  Charge.  Vpon  the 
North  are  two  Hills  which  are  about  halfe  a  Mile  distant,  which  are 
the  onely  places  that  can  Annoy  the  Towne  and  Castle,  all  the  rest 
is  low  ground  as  will  appeare  by  a  Draught  thereof  presented  to  Yo' 
Lord™.  Though  this  be  a  Frontier  Towne,  itt  doth  not  stand  vpon  a 
Passe,  and  an  Army  may  come  out  of  Scottland  wiihin  less  then  two 
Miles  of  the  Towne,  and  March  by  itt.  As  his  Maj***  did  in  his  way  to 
Worster. 

I  here  represent  to  Yo*"  Lord»  the  Defects  of  the  Towne  and  Castle 
Walls,  and  Platformes,  with  the  charge  of  Repaireing  them,  which 
amounts  to  46^^ :  8$ :  5<)  :  makeing  vse  of  such  stones  as  may  be  con- 
veniently spared  at  the  Cittadell. 

ANNEXED  is  the  Remaineofhis  Maj*s  stores,  and  another  Re- 
maine  of  the  House-hold  goods  belonging  to  his  Maj***. 

I  have  delivered  to  S^  Edward  Sherburne  Gierke  of  the  Ordnance 
Lievtenant  William  Fielding's  Accompt,  of  Receipts  and  Issues  of 
Stores,  alsoe  the  Master  Gunners  Accompt. 

AND  finding  that  some  very  good  Swords  would  be  vselesse  except 
speedy  care  were  taken  thereof,  I  contracted  for  dressing,  new  scab- 
berting  them  with  Calfe's  Leather,  new  blacking  and  repaireing  the 
Hilts  of  80  swords  at  the  Rate  of  20**  each,  and  to  have  them  kept 
cleane  for  one  Yeare  at  the  Rate  of  I2<^  a  score.  This  is  a  sincere 
Report  of  what  occurred  to  my  poor  observation  at  Carlisle,  which 
I  humbly  leave  (as  I  ought)  to  Yo'  Lordws  Judgment,  being 

MY  LORD 
Yo^  LordPK  most  Obedient  and  most  humble  Servant 
February  y«  10*^  1684.  CHRIS  :  MUSGRAVE. 

THIS 


A   SURVEY   OF  THE   CITY   OF  CARLISLE.  I79 

THIS  INDENTURE  made  the  Thirteenth  day  of  September  in 
the  yeare  of  Our  Lord  God  One  Thousand  Six  Hundred  Eighty  and 
Power,  and  in  the  Thirty  Sixth  yeare  of  the  Reigne  of  Our  Sover- 
aigne  Lord  Charles  the  Second  by  the  Grace  of  God  King  of  England 
Scotland  France  and  Ireland,  Defender  of  the  Faith  &c.  BE- 
TWEENE  the  Hono»»»«  S'  Christopher  Musgrave  Kn'  Lievtenant 
Generall  of  his  Maj^  Ordnance  for  and  on  the  behalfe  of  his  Maj^^ 
his  Heires  and  Lawfull  Successours  on  the  one  part  AND  Cap^ 
William  Fielding  of  his  Maj's  Citty  of  Carlisle  in  the  County  of 
Cumberland  on  the  other  part  WITNESSETH  that  he  the  said 
Captaine  William  Fielding  hath  Received  into  his  charge  and 
custody  for  the  vse  and  Service  of  his  Maj^s  Garrison  of  Carlisle 
aforesaid  All  the  Hrasse  and  Iron  Ordnance,  Carriages,  Powder, 
Match,  Shott,  and  other  Stores  and  Habiliaments  of  Warr  hereafter 
mentioned.  AND  the  said  Capt :  William  Fielding  doth  hereby 
covenant  to  and  with  the  said  S**  Christopher  Musgrave  for  and  on 
the  behalfe  of  his  Maj<*^  his  Heires  and  Lawfull  Successors,  that  he 
the  said  Cap^  William  Fielding  shall  nor  will  not  at  any  time  die- 
pose  of  any  of  the  said  Ordnance  or  other  Stores,  otherwise  than  for 
his  Maj^  service  but  render  a  just  Accompt  thereof  when  therevnto 
duely  required. 

Viz* 


I  So 


A  SURVBY  OP  TRB  CITY  OP  CARLISLB. 


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si         05c  :  p  :  est  : 

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»t     f»    ' 

»• 

»»    • 

*  Tampeons  ^tampions)  bung^,  or  corks  used  to  stop  the  mouth  of  a  cannon  :    cuincv 
wted  to  elevate  its  breech :  aprons,  pieces  of  lead  used  to  cover  the  touch  holes. 


A  SURVEY  OF  THE  CIT*  OF  CARUSLB. 


I8t 


OU  Hammerd  Gun^  6|  Inch  Diameter  4I 
foot  Long  poiz :  8  Cwt| 
p  Est:  each 
,    Inch  foot 


Servble        Repble         Vnsble 


Iron  Murderers  J 


13  Diameter  6}  Long  in  a) 

Block  Carriage  I  • 
I  g^g  Diameter :  7}  L-inj^  in  a  )^ 
I  Block  Carriage  { 

.foot 
Slin^  Peeces  without  Chambers    j  5  .^"f^„g.» 

Iron  Chambers  f 

J  Demy  Culvering 
Netv  StanJing  Carriages^  for  >  12  Pounders 
)  baker 
Cannon  7 
Culvering 
Demy  Culvering 
Saker 

Round  Shott  for   {  paS 

24  Pounder 
12  Pounder 
6  Pounder 
3  Pounder 
Crosse  Barr  Shott  for  Saker 
Tin  Cases  fiird  I   .^  j  Demy  Culvering 

with  Musquett  Shott  f  '^"^  )  Saker 

1  Culvering 
Demy  Culvering  ... 
Minion  • 
Falcon... 
12  Pounder 
Ladle  Staves 

fSaker     ... 
Cases  of  Wood  for  Cartridges  for  \  Minion  ... 

(Falcon   ... 
Musquett  Barrells 
Old  Short  Musquetts   ... 
Match  Lock  Musquetts 
Snaphance  Musquetts 

Bandaliers ... 


Come  Powder 

Match 
Halberts     ... 


1 

II 

II 

4 

»i 

II 

1 

II 

II 

2S 

II 

5 

20S 

»• 

1 

973 

>i 

II 

291) 

i» 

11 

221 

11 

I 

22 

II 

2 

14 

II 

1 

183 

II 

II 

41 

II 

II 

7 

II 

I 

9 

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II 

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tf 

Collen 

Collers 

51 

34 

91 

11> 

Barr:  U 

50:37 

»» 

t» 

C    qs   li 

C  qs   li 

6:00:00 

»• 

4:3:00 

*  A  block  carriage  is  of  i^ood  without  wheels. 

t  For  breech  loaders. 

X  Sunding  carriages  as  opposed  to  travelling  carriages  for  use  in  the  field. 


Long 


l82 


A   SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OP  CARLISLE. 


Servblo 

Repble 

Vnsble 

Ijong  Pikes 

31 

6 

91 

3  Quarter  Pikes 

26 

>> 

»7 

Hatchetts  ... 

5 

»• 

»> 

Swords       ... 

C  qc   li 

97 

>t 

Musquett  Shott 

...      132:1:00 

>f 

»» 

Crows  of  Iron 

22 

»f 

» 

Sledge        ... 

1 

ft 

» 

Great  Melting  Ladle  ... 

I 

f» 

«f 

Field  Bedds 

II 

>* 

>i 

Coines*      ... 

14 

9» 

t> 

Heads  and  Rammers  great 

4 

f» 

»» 

Heads  and  Rammers  small 

6 

»> 

*» 

Formers  great 

5 

>> 

it 

Formers  small 

5 

>> 

>t 

Hand  Granadoes 

164 

9* 

»» 

Budge  Barrellsf 

•••             f) 

2 

» 

Tann'd  Hides 

4 

II 

>» 

Sheepskins  .. 

»i 

i> 

8 

Basketts    ... 

5 
Khm  :  Qr 

9t 

•> 

Paper  Royall 

2:     4 

»f 

>f 

I^nthornes  Ordinary  ... 

»» 

2 

>« 

Muscovia  Lights  {g;;^;^^^.^^^ 

I 

Wadhooks 

7 

99 

»> 

Handcrow  Leavers 

6 

99 

>» 

Powder  Homes 

18 

»9 

»> 

Linstocks   ... 

17 

I 

»> 

Wire 

ij 

» 

»» 

Handscrues 

2 

I 

>» 

Flagg-Staffc 

I 

»» 

» 

Han«!spikes 

5 

» 

2 

Brasse  Cock 

1 

** 

» 

Brasse  Socketts 

2 

*f 

» 

Leaden  Cisterns 

3 

t» 

>t 

Frames  for  Ditto 

2 

»f 

>t 

Wheel-barrows 

19 

4» 

>» 

Wooden  Wheel  and  Rowler  for  a  Well 

I 

»f 

>• 

Rope  for  Ditto 

» 

t» 

I 

II 

I 

9» 

Spades       ... 

33 

2 

49 

Picks 

8 

II 

>» 

Pickaxes    ... 

91 

5 

«» 

*  Wedges  used  to  raise  the  breech  of  a  gun. 

t  Bud^e-barrells,  small  barrels  well  hooped,  with  only  one  head  :  on  the  other 
end  is  nailed  a  piece  of  leather,  to  draw  together  upon  strings  like  a  purse.  Their 
use  is  for  carrying  powder  with  a  gun  or  mortar,  being  less  dangerous,  and 
easier  carried  than  whole  barrels. 

Crane 


A    SURVEY   OF   THE   CITY   OF   CAULISLE. 


183 


Bepbltf       Vnsblo 

9 
> 


Servble 

Lon{;  Fowling  peece    ...                ...                ...  » 

Old  Brasse  Gun  4  foot  Long^        ...                ...  „ 

Sword  Belts                  ...                ...                ...  30 

Lances       ...                ...                ...                ...  „ 

Pack  Sadie                  ...                ...  „ 

Hand  Mill   ..                ...                ...                ...  „ 

Extrees  for  Standing  Carriages   ..                  ...  5  >.  »» 

Double  Racks               ...                ...                ...  3  ••  » 

Ditto  Single                 ...                ...                ...  7  „  i* 

Oyle  Botles                  ...                ...                ..  2  „  »> 

Gin  Ropes...                ...                ...                ...  2  „  3 

Double  Blocks  with  two  Brasse  Shivers  each 

for  Gins             ...               ...                ...  2  „  »» 

Wheeles  for  Limbers  ...                ...                ...  „  »»  » 

Extrees  for  Limbers    ...                ...                ..  „  m  i 

l^eaden  Cover  for  a  Powder  Barrell               ...  i  »»  <i 

Flags  of  Buport*         ...               ...               ...  2  „  ». 

Iron  Spikes                   ...                ...                ...  15  >»  >* 

Pye-Treet"                ■••                •••                •••  '  »»  »» 

Capsquare  %                 •••                •••                •••  >  >*  »* 

(Backs         ...                ...                ...  ,»  ..  14 

Armour  \  Breasts        ...                ...                ...  „  »»  10 

vPots             ...                ...                ...  „  „  »4 

Faces$       ...               ...               ...               ...  ,»  **  588 

Broaken  Wheel  for  a  Windloss   ...                ...  „  „  i 

C  qi  K 

Sheet  Lead  Poiz          ...                ...                ...  5  :  i  :  19    '  „  „ 

C  qx   li 
Peeces  of  Broaken  Shott  and  Hand  Granadoes 

Poii...                ...                                   ...0:3:  14  »  »» 

Body  of  a  Standing  Carriage  for  Minion       ...  ,•  1  tt 

Locks  and  Keys  to  the  Store-houses  8  „  ,• 

Ginsll          ...                ...                ...                ■■.  I  II  »» 

AT  THE  GUARD-HOUSES. 

Firegrates  with  4  Barrs  each       ...                ...  5  „  » 

Fire  Shovells                ...                                   ...  i  i>  »» 

Fire  Tongues               ...                ..                .  ip  »,  3P 

Guard  Bedds               ...  5  „  „ 

Benches      ...                ...                ...                .  5  „  2 

Lanthornes  Ordinary  ...                ...                 .  .  i  „  „ 

Old  Chaires                 ...                ...                ...  3  .,  „ 

Livery  Cubbert                               ...                ...  i  ,,  „ 

Shelves      ...                ...                ...                ...  1  „  „ 

*  Buport  qu  :  Bunting. 
+  The  beam  or  pole  of  a  gin. 

t  Capsc^uares,  strong  plates  of  iron,  which  come  over  the  trunnions  of  a  gun 
and  keep  it  in  the  carriage. 
§  Torches  or  links. 
II  Machines  for  lifting  timber,  guns,  etc. 

Bedstead 


184 


A   SURVEY  OF   THE   CITY   OF   CARLISLE. 


Servble  Bepble       Vnsble 

Bedstead  frame           ...               ...  ...  i  „  „ 

Square  Fire  Grate  with  16 :  Barrs  ...  i  „  „ 

Wooden  Horse*          ...                ...  ...  „  1  „ 

Hooks  for  Pikes          ...                ...  ...  2  „  „ 

Racks  for  Musquetts  ...                ...  ...  2  „  » 

Window  Shutters        ...                ...  ...  „  „  9 

Stock  Locks  with  Keys                 ...  ...  4  „  „ 

Padlock  with  Key        ...                ...  ...              i  „  „ 

Wooden  Barr              ...  ...              i  „  „ 

Table          ...                ...                ...  ...              1  „  ,. 

IN  WITNESSE  whereof  the  Parties  aboue  mentioned  have  to  these  Present 
Indentures  Interchangeably  sett  their  hands  and  Seales  the  day  and  Yeare  above 
written 

WILLIAM  FIELDING. 
Sealed  and  delivered 
in  the  presence  of 

Basill  Fbilding. 
James  Nicholson. 
Christ:  Winteringham. 

ILoose  paper,  2  memsj] 

AN  ACCOt :  of  what  Stores  have  been  sent  to  his  Mats  Guarrison  of 
Carlisle  since  the  Remaine  taken  the  13th  of  Septemr  1684  to  the  ist  of 
June  1686.     For  supplying  of  the  said  Guarrison. 

Culvering     ...  ...  ...  i 

12  Pounder  ... 
Demy  Culver 
6  Pounder  ... 
Saker 
Minion 

Falconett      ... 
6  Pounders... 
Saker 
Minion 
Falcon 
Falconett 
Demy  Culvering 
Boxes  for  do. 
/  Handgranadoes 
Fuzes  for  do: 

Culvering     ... 
12  Pounders... 
Demy  Culver 
6  Pounders... 
Saker 
Minion 
Falcon 
^Falconett 
Ladlestaves  ... 


Standing  Carnag : 


Round  Shott  for 


Ladles  &  Sponges  for< 


1 
8 

1  body 

2  &  10 
I  &  03. 
I  Body 

060 

Bodys 
Bodys 

1000 

279 
100 

12 

01 

400 

500 

La.  Sp. 

0  :  I 

0  :  I 
2  :  6 

I  :  1 

13!  14 
4:  4 
t» :  2 

•  For  punishment  of  ill-behaved  soldiers. 


Come 


VEY   OF   THE    CITY 

OF   CARLISLE.               l8 

Ladlestaves  ... 

8 

Barrlls : 

150  ind  25  f. 

Match 

2  Ton  \ 

Match  Musketts 

50 

Muskett  Rodds 

100 

Bandaleirs    ... 

I90  Collrs: 

Pistolls  wth  Holsters      . 

360  p 

Longf  Pikes  ... 

300 

Muskett  Shott 

6  Cwt 

Pistoll  shott  ... 

4  Cwt 

Crowes  of  Iron 

12 

Udlehookes 

40  p 

Linchpins     ... 

40  p 

Spikes 

300 

Forelockcys* 

40  P 

lod  Nailes     ... 

1000 

6d      „        ... 

1500 

4d      .,        

1500 

Bedds 

2S  field 

Coynes 

.  .          08 

Heads  &  Ramrs  grt 

4  P 

Dito  small     .. 

6  p 

Formers  ffreatf 

5 

Dito  small    ... 

5 

Budge  Barriis 

10 

Tand  hydes  ... 

6 

Basketts 

25 

Paper  Royall 

5  Rie 

Oyle 

7  gall. 

Tallow 

I  C  J 

Starch 

10  1 

Needles         ... 

10  dozn 

Thread 

10  1 

Lanthornes  ordry 

8 

Muscovia  Lights 

f)  ordry 

Do  extraordinary 

4 

Waddhookes 

5 

4od  Nailes    ... 

400 

Handcrowleavrs 

8 

Powder  homes 

14 

Priming  Irons 

18 

Marlin:       ... 

50  1 

Twine 

10  1 

*  Wedges  of  iron,  put  through  holes  in  the  end  of  bolts  to  hinder  them  from 
slipping  out. 

t  Formers  are  gouges,  according  to  Halliwell :  also  grappling  irons. 

%  Marlin,  lines  of  untwisted  hemp,  dipped  in  pitch  or  tar,  with  which  ropes  are 
wrapped  round  to  prevent  them  from  being  fretted  or  rubbed  in  blocks  or 
pulleys.  Wyre 


i86 


A  8DRVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  CARLISLE. 


Wyte 

... 

81 

Drumes 

•••                ... 

30  ford 

Do  tor  Dragoons 

,,, 

2 

Carbine  shott 

••• 

3  Cwt 

Backs 

360 

Breasts 

... 

360 

Potts 

360 

'Wbeelesfor 

/Saker 
t  Mynion 

8  p 

Standing  Carriages 

2  p 

Extrees  for 

fSaker 
[Minion 

S 

Standing  Carriages 

... 

2 

Spades 

... 

50 

Sho  veils 

PHIL: 

50 
MUSGRA\ 

[  Endorsed]        Account  of  Stores 

lOOO 

sent  to  Carlisle. 

4c. 

40000 

THIS  INDENTURE  made  the  Thirteenth  day  of  September  in  the  yeare  of 
Our  Lord  God  One  Thousand  Six  Hundred  Eighty  and  Power,  And  in  the 
Thirty  Sixth  yeare  of  the  Reigne  of  Our  Soveraigne  Lord  Charles  the  Second  by 
the  Grace  of  God  King  of  England  Scottland  France  and  Ireland  Defender  of 
the  Faith  &c  :  BK'I  WEENE  the  Honoble  Sr  Christopher  Musgrave  Kot  Liev- 
tenant  Generall  of  his  Majts  Ordnance  On  the  behalfe  of  his  Majtie  his  Heires 
and  Lawfull  Successors  on  the  one  part  AND  the  Honoble  Edward  Lord  Mor- 
peth OP  the  other  part.  WITTNESSETH  that  he  the  said  Edward  Lord 
Morpeth  hath  Received  into  his  Charge  and  Custody  the  Particulars  Ifereafter 
mentioned  belonging  to  his  Majtie  in  and  about  his  Majties  Citty  and  Castle  of 
Carlisle.  AND  the  said  Edward  Lord  Morpeth  doth  hereby  Covenant  to  and 
with  the  said  Sr  Christopher  Musgrave  for  and  on  the  behalfe  of  his  Majtie  his 
Heires  and  Successors,  that  hee  the  said  Edward  Lord  Morpeth  shall  nor  will  not 
att  any  time  dispose  of  any  of  the  said  Particulars  otherwise  than  for  his  Majties 
Service,  but  render  a  just  Accompt  thereof  when  therevnto  duely  required. 

Vizt 


In  the  Inner  Court 
of  the  Castle 


In  the  Bame 


In  the 
AbbyYard 


i  Leaden  > 
Cistemef 
Pump 

fExtree,  Trundle  and  \ 
Cogg  Wheele  for  a  - 
Horse  Mill  ^ 

Pieces  of  Timber  for  Swape 

(Posts 
Bearers 
Spurrs  for  Swape  Posts  ... 
Oaken  Plancks 
Trussells 
Ladders 
)  Mill  Stones  for  a  Horse 
<        Mill 


Servble       Bepble 


Vnsble 


4 
5 
6 

3 

2 

2p 


A  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  CARLISLE. 


In  the  Cole  house 

In  the  first  l^w 
Kuom  next  the 
Magazine 

In  the  2nd  low 
Room 


In  the  Celler 


In  the 
Wine  Celler 

In  the  Celler 
vnder  the  Hall 


In  the 
Brew  house 


In  the 

old 
Kitchin 


In  the 

hijfh 

Kitchin 


In  a 
Clos&et  wthin 
the  Kitchin. 

In  the  Little 

Larder  at  the 

Stair  foot. 

In  the  Room  adjovn- 

ing  to  the  Great  Hall 

In  the  Pastery 


In^yc'gnreat  Room 
vnder  .the  Dining 
Kodme 


Stock  Lock  and  Key 
/Timber  belonging  to  two  \ 
'         Horse  Mills  i 

j  Hoppers  for  Ditto 
j  Stares  for  Ditto 
j  Mill  Rims  or  Dust  Hoops 
VLock  and  Key 
t  Old  Bedstead 
i  Tables 

foot 

(14:  Long       ... 
Gantrees -j  13  :  Long 

I   7:  Long       ... 
Bolt  to  a  Doore  with  g  Iron 
Stanchels 
\  Gantree  1 2}  :  foot  Long 
(  I^ck  and  Key 
f  Timber  belonging  to  two 
-j         Horse  Mills 
[Lock  and  Key   ... 
Brewing  Leads 
Uven 

Masse  Fatt     ... 
Stone  Trough 
Wooden   Trough  for  con- 
veying Water 
Cooler  with  a  frame 
FireGi-ate  with  5  Barrs  ... 
Oven 

Leaden    Cisterne    with    a 

Brasse  Cock  fixt  in  itt 

Brasse  Cock  at  the  end  of 

a  Pipe     ... 
Dresser   Table    17  :    foot 
long 
/Little     Cubbert     with     4 
Shelves   ... 

6    foot  Long  ... 

9    foot  Long  ... 
/Shelves 

J  Cubbert  with  one  Shelve  I 
I         Lock  and  Key  ) 

ioldLock 

1  Leaden  Cisternes  made  ) 
Anno  Dom  :  1649      ) 
Gantree:  10  foot  long    ... 
j  Table 

*  Wainscoat  Setle 
(Table 
JShelues 
(Lock  and  Key 
Iron  Grate  with  4  Barrs  ... 
Cubbert  with  one  Shelve... 
Ditto  with  two  Shelves    ... 
Livery  Table  ... 
, Shelves 


Servble 

I 

57  peeces 

2 

2p 

2 


57  P« 


Bepble 


187 

Vnsblc 


Id 


igo 


A  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OF  CARLISLE. 


A  LIST  OF  THE  RIGHT  HONOWe 

EDWARD  LORD  MORPETH'S  FOOT  COMPANY 

IN  HIS  MAJts  GARRISON  OF  CARLISLE. 


Edward  Lord  Morpeth  Capt 
William  Feilding  Lievtenant 
Francis  Sanderson  Ensigne 


Fetherston-Haugh 
—  Dodson 
Francis  Chamley 

Thomas  Waller     ] 

Thomas  Allison      |-  Corporalls 

John  Ballard         j 


I  Serjts 


George  Blamire 
William  Barton 
John  Blalock 
Henry  Bell 
George  Bowman 
Robert  Bowman 
Robert  Boustead 
William  Brunskill 
Thomas  Bunting 
John  Chamley 
Thomas  Crosland 
Thomas  Dawson 
'J*homas  Dixon 
Silvester  Dodsworth 
Aubony  Dodson 
Patrick  Duers 
Stephen  Dent 


Henry  Barton,  Drummer. 
Charles  Duckett 
Richard  Fetherston-haugh 
Andrew  Frazer 
Ralph  Garth 
William  Goffe 
Ja :  Gilchrist 
Richard  Hanby 
William  Holmes 
William  Hudiesse 
Edward  Hutchinson 
Thomas  Hutton 
Francis  Jackson 
Edmond  Johnston 
John  Kennedy 
Ja.  Ladley 
John  Litle 
1  homas  Lowden 


John  Lowden 
Thomas  Mattison 
Edward  Mjwe 
William  Nicholson 
John  Pattison 
Richard  Salkeld 
John  Sarginson 
Robert  Scott 
Thomas  Simpson 
John  Smithson 
J  homas  Taylor 
John  Thompsen 
Edward  Nicholson 
Thomas  Waller 
Juhn  Waggett 
Jonathan  Wright 


Richard  Lethatt    Master  Gunner: 

Ja :  Maxwell>     Miles  Sutton,   Gunners. 

Carlisle  September  13th  1684. 

Six  and  Forty  of  the  Private  Soldiers  afore  named  are  vpon  duty  every  fourth 
Night ;  The  other  foure  are  exempted  from  duty,  as  being  Servants  to  the 
Comission  Officers.  Vizt :  Thomas  Lowden  and  John  lowden  Servants  to  my 
Lord  Morpeth.  John  Thompson  Servant  to  Lievtenant  Fieldmg.  Patrick 
Duers  Servant  to  Ensigne  Sanderson. 

The  Persons  hereafter  named  are  allowed  by  my  Lord  Morpeth  to  hire 
sometimes  their  fellow  Soldiers  to  doe  duty  for  them     Vizt : 


Serjeant  Dodson 
William  Hudlesse 
Henry  Bell 
John  Smithson 


Andrew  Frazer 
Silvester  Dodsworth 
John  Kennedy 

Attested  By 
WILLIAxM  FEILDING. 

AN 


A  SURVEY  OF  THE  CITY  OK  CARLISLE. 


igi 


AN  ACCOM PT  of  what  Gunpowder  I  have  received  from  Captaine  Feilding. 


November  5th  1680 
February  26th  1681 
May  agth     ... 


July  28th     ... 
September  12th  1682 
Aprill  22th   ... 
May  29th 
Au^rust  15th... 
November  5th 
May  29th  1683 : 
Aug-ust  14th... 
October  9th... 
November  5th 
May  29th  1684: 
Aug^ust  4th  ... 
August  iSth... 

Received  in  Match 


Received  i  Pickaxe,  1  Spade, 
I  Shovel  for  the  Kings's  vse. 


Receipts  of  Gunpowder. 
Barren*  Rerd. 


2 
I 

Skeens 
...       42 

RICHARD  LEATHATT. 


192 


A   SURVEY  OF  THE   CITY  OF  CARLISLE. 


AN  ACCOMPT  OF  WHAT  GUNS  WERE  FIRED  IN  THE  GARRISON 
OF  CARLISLE  SINCE  1680. 


oundcr. 
under. 

1 

i    i 

u 

1 
1    ^ 

I 

1 

u  1 

e 

0 

P.          J5 

^       *5 

ii  1  ^^  i  i  j  -^  ■ 

^          "* 

.«    1    - 

.?  ,  ""  1   ®     - 

1 

'•  I  - 1  - 1  - 

Novembr  5th :  1680 

•. 13 

I       >*    ,    •»        3 

,1,L', 

February  26th      ... 

For  my  Lord  Carlisle                    23 
For  my  Lord  Arundells  comeing 

1        3  ;     I   '     3 

7  1     2        5        1 

1 

to  Carlisle      ...             ...          9 

1,1             t*              M 

I        I        4  <     1 

March  14th 

For  his  goeing  from  Carlisle          7 

>»       '       If       '       >t              t* 

3  1    >f        4      .1 

July  5th  :  1681      ... 

Fcr  Sir  Joseph   Williamson's 

' 

comeing         ...             ...  [sic^g 

*                 1             I*              »f 

1   j     I        3        1 

Ditto  9th 

For  his  eoeing  from  Carlisle          7 

l«              »*       1       l»              .f 

3      ».        4       ,. 

August  2d 

For  the  Earle  of  Thanets  comeing  9 

„        3       »       .. 

4   1       i    i       »        M 

Ditto:  2d 
Ditto  :4th 

For  the  Judges  comeing     ...          9 
For  the  Earle  of  Thanets  goeing  7 

»           3        r> 

4  1     I  '     »       0 
4:1        1       „ 

Ditto  :  6th 

For  the  Judges  goeing       ...           7 
For  my  Lord  Prestons  goeing        9 

M                 1      '       ,.       1       M 

4  '     I   1     I   1    ., 

Scptembr  2d 

I       1          t      '       »       1       M 

;    1    4I  I 

Ditto  :9th 

For  my  Lord  Scarsdell       ...          7 

3          M             4          » 

Ditto  :14th 

For  my  Lord  Arundells  goeing      7 

>t              l»              »       ',       If 

3      f>        41    >f 

Ditto  :  2ith 

For  Sr  :  Christopher  Musgrave's 

comeing          ...             ...           9 

f>        3      MM 

4 

I 

1    «> 

October  4th 

For  Sr  :  Christopher  Musgrave's 

1 

goexng            7 

ft        2      „       ,, 

3 

I 

I    ,,  1 

Novembr  5th 

7 

I 

Aprill  2d  :  16S3     ... 
Nlay  29th  • 

For  the  Earle  of  Carlisle  comeing  9 
L«c]i8 

,!  '3  1  ;;  ;; 
1214 

4        » 
3        I 

4   :      ' 

August  15th 

For  the  Judges  comeing     ...          9 
For  the  Judges  goeing       ...          7 

„       2  1  „  1    s 

>»    _     * 

„    1    ,.    '    »         5 

>f    '     ^ 

*    '    »»    1 

May  29th  1683      ... 

(J 

,1                   1 

3      >t 

4   1      *    1 

August  14th 

For  the  Judges  comeing    ...          9 

M    '     3       ,.       » 

5  I   ,» 

'       >» 

For  their  goeing  ...             ...          7 

On  the  Thanksgiving  day...          9 

M    1     I 

5  1    » 

'*     1 

October  yth 
Novembr  5th 
Decembr  23th 

1        I 

»t       •> 

3 

1    1 

Att  Thomas  Taylors  Funerall        6 

:: 

»        t* 

3 

»» 

I 

1 

May  29th  1684     ... 

, 19 

t% 

2 

ft 

3 

>f 

I 

July  9th      

ft 

II 

11 

3 

ft 

August  4th:  16S4... 

For  Sr  :  Christopher  Musgrave's 

Ditto  3d      

comeing         ...             ...          9 

For  the  Duke  of  Norfolk's 

'» 

3 

»» 

>f 

4 

»» 

comeing         ...  ^         ...          9 

f>    1     3 

>»    1    >f 

4 

t> 

Ditto  6th    

For  the  Judges  comeing     ...         15 

•   '     3 

*>    •    » 

4 

5 

I 

Ditto  9th 

M  :  C  :  J  :  returne  from  Scot- 

1 

land 7 

»»   1    »♦ 

» 

3 

>> 

»» 

4 

»» 

Ditto  nth 

For  the  Judges  goeing     ...          15 
For  the  Duke  ofNorfolk's 

3 

»> 

>» 

4 

5 

1 

Roeing            9 

" 

2     „ 

i» 

5 

I 

I 

>> 

•  Royal  Oak  Day. 


RICHARD  LEATHAT. 


A   SURVEY  OF  THE   CtTY  OP   CARLISLE. 


193 


AN  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  RECEIPTS  ISSUES  AND  REMAINES  OF  HIS 

MAJts  STORES  IN  THE  CITTY  OF  CARLISLE,  FROM  THE  38th 

JULY  1681  TO  THIS  PRESENT  13th  SEPTEMBER  1684. 


Rbcbipts. 

ISSUBS. 

Rbmainbs 

28th  July  1681  z) 
from  Mr:  Basil 

Barrellst 

Come  Powder 

48  Barrels 

To  the  Gunner         16 

Feilding^ 

Barrens 

ist  October    ' 

Barrens 

49 

1681 

More          

20  Barrels 

To  Corporal  Waller  3 

froin  Berwick  ^ 

; 

Round  Shott  for  Ordnance  of  several 

Natures :  1941  ... 

nl 

r                            Skeens. 

To  the  Gunner         32     { 
iTo  Corporal  Waller  220  ) 

i<Mi 

Match        

...  iTs: 

Barrels 

Barrens 

Musquett  Shott       ^. 

...     130 

3  barrels 

127 

More  Loose 

Match  Ixick  Musquetts 

...    625 

nl 

625 

SnaphanceMusquetts 

...^  103 

nl 

CcSfers 

Collers 

Bandaliers... 

...      60 

nl 

60 

Pikes          

...     176 

nl 

176 

Lances 

13 

...     nl 

12 

Spades  and  Shovells 

••      35 

nl 

55 

Pickaxes 

...       lOI 

nl 

lOI 

WheeUbarrows 

...       18 

nl 

18 

Hand-barrows 

14 

nl 

14 

Iron  Crows 

22 

nl 

22 

Swords       

...      80 

nl 

80 

(Backs      ... 

12 

...     nl 

12 

Armour  •  Breasts   ... 

12 

nl 

12 

Potts 

12 

nl 

12 

Faces 

...    600 

nl 

600 

Mascovia  Lights     ... 

2 

nl 

2 

Dark  Lanthornes     ... 

I 

nl 

I 

Lanthornes  Ord'nary 

3 

nl 

3 

Tann'd  Hides 

...        6 

nl 

6 

Granado  Shells 

...     160 

To  the  Gunner     ...      6 

154 

WILLIAM  FEILDING. 


(194) 


Art.  XWU.— Church  Bells  in  Leath  Ward,  No.  III.    By 
the  Rev.  H.  Whitehead. 

[For  previous  papers  on  Cumberland  Church  Bells  see  anUt  vi, 
417;  vii,  221 ;  viii,  135  and  505 ;  ix,  240  and  475 ;  and  xi,  127.] 

GREAT  SALKELD. 

JEFFERSON,  in  his  History  of  Leath  Ward,  in  a  foot- 
^      note  to  his  account  of  Great  Salkeld,  says : — 

Dr.  Todd  states  that  in  his  time  it  was  reported  that  Sir  Richard 
Whittington,  knight,  thrice  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  was  bom  of 
poor  parents  within  this  parish  ;  that  he  built  the  church  and  tower 
from  its  foundation  ;  and  that  he  intended  presenting  three  large 
bells  to  the  parish,  which  by  some  mischance  stopped  at  Kirkby 
Stephen  on  their  way  to  Salkeld.  A  similar  tradihon  is  still  current 
in  this  neighbourhood  {Leath  Ward,  p.  268). 

The  church,  being  **of  Norman  date"  {ante^  ii,  53),  was 
certainly  not  built  by  Whittington,  who  was  born  circa 
1358  and  died  in  1423.  He  was,  however,  contemporary 
with  the  period,  *'  about  the  close  of  the  14th  century  ", 
within  which  the  remarkable  fortress  tower  was  probably 
added  to  the  church  (16,  p.  56). 

The  tradition  about  the  bells  is  still  current  at  Kirkby 
Stephen  as  well  as  at  Great  Salkeld.  Mr.  Robert  God- 
frey, in  a  paper  on  Westmorland  Bells,  speaking  of  Kirkby 
Stephen,  says : — 

It  is  a  local  tradition  that  the  original  peal  was  intended  for  Great 
Salkeld,  as  a  gift  from  Whittington  of  immortal  fame ;  but  that  from 
some  cause  or  other  (probably  seized  for  stowage)  they  were  delayed 
in  transit  at  Kirkby  Stephen,  and  never  got  forward  to  their  destina- 
tion {ante,  vi,  83). 

"  And 


CHURCH   BELLS  IN  LBATH  WARD.  I95 

"And  there,"  viz,  at  Kirkby  Stephen,  says  another 
writer,  "  if  tradition  be  truthful,  they  still  remain " 
(White's  Northumberland  and  the  Border,  p.  31).  Tra- 
dition has  a  way  of  not  verifying  its  references.  Nicol- 
son  and  Burn  (i,  540)  say  that  in  their  time  (A.D.  1777) 
there  were  four  bells  at  Kirkby  Stephen.  These  four 
bells,  three  of  which  were  re-cast  in  1877,  ^^^  known  to 
have  been  .dated  1631,  1658,  1693,  and  1749  (ante  iv,  239), 
and  were  therefore  cast  from  two  to  three  centuries  after 
the  time  of  Whittington.  They  may,  however,  have  had 
predecessors  dating  from  that  time.  Whether  those  pre- 
decessors were  the  gift  of  Whittington,  and  by  him 
intended  for  Great  Salkeld,  I  do  not  undertake  to  decide  ; 
nor  whether  he  built  the  Salkeld  tower.  But  I  may 
remark  that  his  alleged  benefactions  to  Great  Salkeld 
must  not  be  attributed  to  regard  for  his  native  parish, 
seeing  that  he  was  born  at  Pauntley  in  Gloucestershire. 
If,  for  whatever  reason,  he  proposed  to  present  a  ring  of 
bells  to  Great  Salkeld,  let  us  hope  he  never  knew  that 
they  failed  to  reach  their  destination. 

What  bells,  then,  did  find  their  way  into  Salkeld  church 
tower?  Edward  VI's  Inventory,  Great  Salkeld  being 
among  the  missing  names,  gives  no  help  in  this  inquiry. 
Nor  does  Bishop  Nicolson,  though  he  was  rector  here  for 
twenty  years.     The  terrier  of  1749  mentions 

Two  Bells  with  their  Frames  the  first  thought 
to  weigh  about  one  hundred  and  a  half; 

which  may  have  been  identical  with  those  taken  in  1882 
as  part  payment  for  the  present  ring,  cast  at  the  Lough- 
borough foundry  by  Messrs.  Taylor;  who,  in  answer 
to  inquiry,  write :  "  We  have  no  particulars  of  the  two 
old  bells  except  their  weights,  viz,  3  qr.  15  lbs.  and  i  cwt. 
o  qr.  13  lbs."  I  am  indebted  to  Messrs.  Taylor  for  the 
following  description  of  the  bells  now  in  the  tower : — 

Treble 


i6g 


CHURCH   BBLLS  IN   LEATH  WARD. 


Note 

Diameter 

Weight 

Treble 

F 

2ft.    3  in. 

4i  cwt. 

No.  2 

•    Eb 

2ft.    5  in. 

5    cwt. 

No.  3 

Db 

2ft.    7iin. 

6    cwt. 

No.  4 

C 

2ft.    8iin. 

7    cwt. 

No.  5 

Bb 

2ft.  ii^in. 

9  :cwt. 

Tenor 

Ab 

3ft.    3iin. 

12   ;CWt. 



A  report  of  "the  ceremony  of  opening  the  new  bells 
placed  in  the  battlemented  tower  of  Great  Salkeld 
church  "  contains  the  following  particulars  : — 

Of  late  years  the  church  has  undergone  great  alterations,  com- 
menced under  the  late  rector,  and  followed  up  by  the  Rev.  Canon 
Butler,  who  originated  the  undertaking  of  furnishing  a  set  of  bells,  at 
a  cost  of  about  jC400,  of  which  some  ;£'35o  resulted  from  a  bazaar 
held  at  Penrith.  The  treble  bell  was  presented  by  Mr.  C.  R.  Saun- 
ders, of  Nunwick,  and  bears  the  inscription:  Laus  Deo,  Upon  the 
second  bell  is  inscribed  the  name  of  the  maker,  Mr.  Taylor,  of 
Loughborough.  Bell  No.  3  bears  the  inscription  Gloria  in  Excelsis ; 
and  the  motto  Agimus  tibi  gratias  Omnipotens  Deus  is  appropriately 
inscribed  upon  the  fifth.  On  the  sixth  is  inscribed :  These  bells  were 
plaud  here  by  money  collected  by  the  Rector  and  his  family.  Upon  the 
remaining  bell  are  the  names  of  the  rector  and  churchwardens. — 
Carlisle  Journal,  Sept.  19, 1882. 

On  the  opening  day  ''  a  sermon  was  preached  by  Dean 
Oakley  from  Zechariah  xiv,  20  ;  and  on  the  conclusion  of 
the  sermon  the  office  for  the  dedication  of  church  bells 
was  gone  through  *'  (ib).  This  office  is  a  revival  with 
considerable  modifications  of  a  very  ancient  ceremony ; 
for  an  account  of  which  see  EUacombe's  Devonshire  Bells 
(p.  272).  The  same  office  was  used  three  weeks  later  at 
Crosthwaite,  Keswick.  An  earlier  instance  of  a  religious 
service  on  the  occasion  of  the  first  use  of  a  new  bell  in  this 
diocese,  viz,  in  1828  at  Cumwhitton,  is  recorded  in  vol  vi, 
p  427,  of  these  Transactions. 
The  tenor  is  rung  at  Great  Salkeld  on  Sunday  at  9  a.m. 

HESKET 


CHURCH  BBLLS  IN   LBATH  WARD.  l^^ 

HESKET  IN  THE  FOREST. 

The  church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Mary.     The  terriers  of 
1749  and  1777  mention 

Two  bells  each  weighing  about  one  Hundred  weight. 

There  are  still  two  bells  here,  in  a  cot  on  the  west  gable  : 
Treble :  17J  inches  diam.,  weight  about  i  cwt.  i^  qr. 
Tenor :  18^  inches  diam.,  weight  about  i  cwt.  2\  qrs. 

The  treble,  a   long  bell,   but   not  after  the  fashion  of 

mediaeval  long-waisted  bells,  is  inscribed 

Wm.  Mason  1736. 

A  bell  at  Corsenside,  Northumberland,  is  inscribed  WM 
1747  F  (fecit  ?). — Newcastle  Antiquarian  Proc,  iii,  228. 
The  tenor  bears  only  a  date :  1826.  It  has  a  "  helmet 
shaped  crown",  which  points  to  the  Cockpit  Smithy, 
Carlisle,  then  in  the  hands  of  Burgess  and  Insall,  as  the 
foundry  where  it  was  cast  {ante  viii,  pp  528-9). 
The  bells  here  have  no  "  peculiar  usages  ". 

HUTTONIN-THE-FOREST. 

Hutton  church,  dedicated  to  St.  James,  had  in  1552 

ij  probe  belles  ij  litill  belles. 

Bishop  Nicolson,  who  was  at  Hutton  on  August  14, 1703, 
says  (p  58)  :— 

They  have  a  Couple  of  Bells ;  ill  hung  in  a  Crazy  wooden  Frame. 

The  church,  which  was  re-built  in  1714,  still  retains  the 
bells  seen  by  the  bishop  in  1703,  now  very  well  hung  in  a 
double  cot  on  the  west  gable.     They  are 

Treble  :  diameter  18    inches,  dated  1588. 

Tenor:    diameter  i8f  inches,  dated  1653. 
For  their  dimensions  and  inscriptions  I  am  indebted  to 
the  Rev.  W4  F.  Gilbanks,  rector  of  Great  Orton. 

The 


igS 


CHURCH   BELLS  IN  LBATH  WARtT. 


The  treble  has,  on  its  shoulder,  in  Roman  capitah, 
with  a  crown  and  clipped  arrows  (fig.  32)  as  intervening 
stop,  this  inscription  : 

THOMAS  -  DRAPER  -  MADE    ME  -  I £88  - 

The  figure  5  in  the  date  is,  as  I  have  represented  it,  up- 
side down.  The  arrows  and  crown  of  St.  Edmund,  king 
and  martyr,  are  the  town  mark  of  Bury  St.  Edmund's ; 


FIG.  32. 


FIG.  33. 


and  Dr.  R^ven,  speaking  of  Thomas  Draper,  says  that 
**  the  arrows  in  his  stamp  are  cut  short,  as  though  to 
signify  a  past  connection  with  Bury  St.  Edmund's'' 
(Cambridgeshire  Bells,  p  66).     His  initials  occur,  in  con- 


FIG.  34. 


junction  with  the  name  in  full  of  Stephen  Tonnie,  a  Bury 
founder,  on  the  second  bell  at  Whatfield  in  Norfolk,  dated 
1575.  "Thomas  Draper's  foundry,  which  thus  seems  to 
have  originated  from  Bury,  was  finally  established  at 
Thetford.  He  was  apparently  a  man  of  substance  and 
character,  and  mayor  of  the  town  in  1592,  on  which  occa- 
sion he  presented  a  treble  to  St.  Cuthbert's  church"  (ib). 

The 


CHURCH   BELLS   IN   LEATH   WARD.  Xgq 

'  The  tenor  has,  round  its  shoulder,  the  following  initials 
and  date,  with  a  fleur-de-lis  (fig  33)  as  intervening  stop, 
and  two  rectangular  oblong  stamps,  one  of  conventional 
foliage  (fig  34),  and  the  other  containing  four  segments  of 
circles,  surmounted  by  fleurs-de-lis  at  their  connected 
points  (fig.  35) ; 

CH  A  R   -   A  S   -   I  H     1653   -WS[Z3LAILWM. 


It  is  not  unlikely,  as  Hutton  is  only  nine  miles  from  Pen- 
rith, that  this  bell  was  cast  by  Thomas  Stafford  of 
Penrith,  who  in  1630  re-cast  the  Cartmel  tenor  {Annales 
CaermoeUnses,  p  61),  in  1631  cast  the  old  Kirkby  Stephen 
treble  {ante  iv,  239),  and  in  1639  or  thereabouts  cast  a  bell 
for  Penrith  (Bp  N's  Miscellany  Accounts,  p.  152.) 

There  is  in  the  parish  chest  a  book  of  accounts,  relating 
to  the  "  church  stock",  beginning  at  1646,  which  contains, 
subjoined  to  the  account  for  1653,  this  memorandum  : 

Pd  in  as  appeares  by  the  16  men 


£  s. 

d. 

Pd  in  by  Antho:  Robinson 

.....    2  10 

0 

pd  in  more  by  WilL  WiUson    ..... 

...«    I  10 

0 

More  by  Hugh  Barker 

„...    0  10 

0 

More  by  Tho:  Goodbourne      

—    0  10 

0 

More  by  Widdow  Jackson 

0  05 

0 

More  by  Jo:  Jackson 

—    0  10 

0 

totill     5  ^5    o 
This  money  wch  appeares  taken  out  and  disbd  was  for  a  bell. 

The 


200  CHURCH   BELLS   IN   LEATH  WARD. 

The  '*  sixteen  men  *\  it  seetns  from  this  riiemorandum, 
having  **  taken  out"  the  purchase  money  for  the  bell  from 
the  capital  of  the  "  stock ",  refunded  it  by  means  of  a 
private  subscription.  The  names  of  the  sixteen  men  in 
1653  are  not  recorded.     But  in  1652  they  were : 

William  Sanderson  William  Willson 

Anthony  Sanderson  Anthony  Robinson 

Richard  Stevenson  John  Howson 

Lanclote  Allisson  Edward  Hutton 

Robt.  Becke  John  Henderson 

Robt.  Watt  ffrancis  Nellson 

Hugh  Barker  William  Stantton 

Nicholas  Barker  Thomas  Goodbume 

By  the  help  of  this  list  we  may  identify  Anthony  Robin- 
son, Anthony  Sanderson,  John  Henderson  (or  Howson  ?), 
Wilh'am  Sanderson,  and  Lancelot  Allisson,  as  five  of  the 
seven  men  whose  initials  are  on  the  bell.  W  M  may 
stand  for  William  Murthwaite,  who,  though  not  one  of 
the  "  sixteen  ",  occurs  in  1653  as  one  of  the  borrowers  of 
the  stock.  The  remaining  initials,  I  L,  must  rest  un- 
appropriated. Anthony  Robinson,  it  will  be  seen,  is  the 
only  collector  of  subscriptions  whose  initials  are  on  the 
bell,  though  three  of  the  other  collectors,  William  Will- 
son,  Hugh  Barker,  and  Thomas  Goodburne  were  among 
the  "sixteen  men".  The  last  name  in  the  list  of  collec- 
tors, John  Jackson,  is  that  of  the  minister  who  had  super- 
seded the  rector  Thomas  Todd.  The  date  of  Todd's 
ejection  is  not  given  by  the  county  historians,  nor  by 
Walker.  It  must,  however,  have  been  before  August  6, 
1651,  on  which  day  Charles  II,  on  his  way  to  Worcester, 
passed  through  Hutton,  when 

Mr.  Todd,  the  rector,  had  the  honour  to  wait  on  his  Majesty,  and 
informed  Charles  that  he  had  been  ejected  from  his  living  and  im- 
prisoned at  Carlisle  for  his  allegiance  to  his  Majesty  and  for  the 
private  exercise  of  the  functions  of  his  sacred  office. — ^Jefferson's 
Leath  Ward,  p  424). 

In 


CHURCH   BELLS   IN    LEATH   WARD.  201 

In  a  footnote  Jefferson  states  that  he  quotes  this  story 
from  Dr  Todd's  MS  History  of  the  Diocese.  Whellan  (p 
565)1  referring  to  the  same  incident,  erroneously  says  it 
took  place  when  Charles  was  "  on  his  journey  to  Scot- 
land ",  and  makes  the  further  mistake  of  representing  Dr 
Todd  as  himself  the  person  who  **  had  the  honour  to  wait 
on  his  Majesty",  whose  visit  to  Hulton,  as  a  matter  of 
fact,  occurred  nine  years  before  Dr  Hugh  Todd,  vicar  of 
Penrith,  and  historian  of  the  diocese  was  born.  Unfor- 
tunately Dr.  Todd's  history  of  the  diocese,  which  was 
seen  and  largely  used  by  Jefferson  in  1840  (Preface  to 
Leath  Ward,  p  vii),  cannot  now  be  found.  He  (Dr.  Todd) 
"assisted  Walker  in  his  'Sufferings  of  the  Clergy'*' 
{Leath  Ward,  p  481),  and  is  therefore  doubtless  responsible 
for  the  statement  that  Jackson  was  "  a  brawling  illiterate 
fellow,  who  held  this  and  another  parish  during  the  whole 
of  the  Usurpation"  (Walker,  p.  375).  The  omission  of 
his  initials  from  the  numerous  company  of  initials  on  the 
church  bell,  for  which  he,  and  perhaps  his  mother  (Wid- 
dow  Jackson),  collected  subscriptions,  seems  to  imply  that 
he  was  not  held  in  much  account  by  the  parishioners. 

The  purchase  of  this  bell  in  the  first  year  of  the  Protec- 
torate may  to  some  persons  be  a  matter  for  surprise.  Thus 
a  church  newspaper,  in  a  notice  of  Chrswick  old  church, 
says : 

There  are  six  bells,  five  of  them  dated  1656,  which  is  very  remark- 
able, as  that  is  the  time  of  the  Commonwealth,  when  churches  were 
losing  rather  than  increasing  their  property. — Church  Bells,  May  9, 
1890. 

Mr.  Daniel  Tyssen-Amherst,  referring  to  church  bells 
cast  during  the  Commonwealth,  says  : 

During  the  civil  war  few  bells  could  be  recast.  Between  1642  and 
1648  there  is  only  one  bell  in  the  county,  viz,  at  Shipley,  1646.  So 
that  all  bells  which  broke  during  those  years  must  have  waited  to  be 
recast  until  peace  was  restored.  Accordingly  during  the  Common- 
wealth 


202  CHURCH   BBLLS   IN   LEATH  WARD. 

wealth  more  business  was  done  than  might  have  been  expected 
considering  the  disrepute  in  which  bells  were  held  by  the  Puritans 
{Sussex  Church  BeUs,  pp  21-2). 

It  is  worth  while  here  to  notice  that  the  treble  of  Carlisle 
cathedral  is  dated  1657,  the  tenor  1659;  and  No  4,  recast 
in  1R45,  was  originally  dated  1658  {ante,  viii.  147). 

The  death  knell  was  formerly  tolled  at  Hutton,  but  has 
been  discontinued  for  many  years.  One  of  the  bells  is 
tolled  after,  as  well  as  before,  an  interment,  but  not 
slowly,  so  that  it  may  be  more  correctly  said  to  be  rung. 
There  was  formerly  here  the  usage  of  the  early  Sunday 
morning  bell,  at  nine  o'clock  ;  but  this  has  of  late  years 
been  discontinued. 

KIRKLAND. 

The  terrier  of  1749  has  this  item : 

Two  Bells  with  their  frames  the  less 
thought  to  weigh  about  one  Hundred  and 
the  Bigger  about  a  Hundred  and  a  half. 

That  of  1777  has  no  inventory  of  church  goods. 

There  are  still  two  bells  here,  in  a  double  cot  on  the 
west  gable : 

Treble,  diam.  17}  inches,  weight  about  i  J  cwt. 
Tenor,  diam.  2ii  inches,  weight  about  2^  cwt. 

I  am  indebted  for  the  diameters  to  the  present  vicar,  the 
Rev  A.  Edwards,  who  reports  both  the  bells  as  blank, 
except  that  on  the  tenor  is  scratched  with  a  nail 

QT    1779. 

Whatever  the  letters  Q  T  may  be  supposed  to  mean,  the 
figures  probably  signify  the  date  of  the  hanging  of  the 
tenor ;  the  weight  of  which  seems  to  show  that  it  was  not 
one  of  the  bells  described  in  the  terrier  of  1749* 

I 


CHURCH   BELLS  IN   LBATH  WARD.  203 

I  obsen'ed,  when  our  archaeological  society  visited 
Kirkland  in  1884,  that  the  trebfe,  as  seen  from  the  ground, 
appears  to  be  the  older  of  the  two ;  and,  judging  from  its 
weight,  we  may  identify  it  with  "the  bigger"  of  the  two 
bells  in  1749.  It  is  long-waisted,  and  may  therefore  be 
ancient. 

KIRKOSWALD. 

The  list  of  "  Kirkozewold "  church  goods  in  Edward 
VI's  Inventory  is  partly  worn  off  on  the  right  hand  side, 
and  among  the  missing  items  are  the  parish  bells.  But 
the  following  items  remain : 

One  Santus  bell  vi  litill  belies. 

The  number  (vi)  of  little  bells,  an  unusual  number  for 
Cumberland,  may  be  attributed  to  the  church  having  been 
made  collegiate  in  1526  ;  a  misfortune,  as  matters  turned 
out,  since  it  theieby  came  to  pass  that 

about  the  year  1545  the  King,  Henry  VIII,  seized  upon  the  property 
of  the  collegiate  body,  and  also  upon  the  rectory,  allowing  only  £S  a 
year  for  the  performance  of  the  parish  duties  (Whellan,  p  571). 

The  patronage  of  the  living  thus  became  vested  in  the 
crown,  and  continued  so  for  more  than  300  years.  Nor 
until  1725  was  there  any  endowment  of  the  vicarage  be- 
sides the  £8  above  mentioned. 

Bishop  Nicolson,  who  visited  Kirkoswald  on  February 
25i  1704,  says,  speaking  of  the  church : 

The  situation  is  inconvenient ;  being  in  such  a  hole  that  their  Belfry 
(with  three  pretty  good  Bells  in  it)  stands  at  a  distance,  on  the  Top 
of  a  neighbouring  Hill. 

Of  the  "  three  pretty  good  bells"  seen  by  the  bishop  two, 
as  presently  will  be  shown,  were  destined  not  to  survive 
for  another  quarter  of  a  century;  and  one  of  their  succes- 
sors has  recently  been  recast* 

The 


204 


CHURCH   BBLLS   IN   LBATH   WARD. 


The  belfry,  which  is  the  only  example  of  a  campanile  in 
this  county,  was  rebuilt  in  1893.  The  accompanying 
sketch  of  the  old  belfry  has  been  made  from  a  photograph 


^1 


''^Ipf'A-. 


sent  to  me  by  the  late  vicar,  Canon  Ransome.     A  news- 
paper report  of  the  opening  of  the  new  belfry  says : 


It  is  believed  that  the  tower  was  built  in  the  time  of  Henry  VIII, 
and  it  was  badly  repaired  in  1742.  As  a  memorial  to  the  late  Canon 
Ransome,  a  committee  of  parishioners  decided  to  restore  it,  and  if 
possible  to  bring  it  back  to  the  original  design.  They  collected 
subscriptions  amounting  to  about  £zoo^  and  from  designs  prepared 
by  Mr.  C.  J.  Ferguson,  F.S.A.,  Carlisle,  Mr.  A.  Watson,  Kirkoswald, 
carried  out  the  necessary  building  work.  The  whole  of  the  upper 
storey  is  new,  and  the  tower  is  now  a  battlement  with  a  small  turret. 
A  new  base  has  also  been  built,  and  a  spiral  staircase  placed  inside 
the  tower.  All  the  whitewash  on  the  outside  has  been  carefully 
removed,  and  the  tower  now  looks  almost  like  new.  It  contains 
three  ancient  bells,  one  of  which  was  cracked  and  broken.  This  bell 
has  been  re-cast  and,  together  with  one  of  the  others,  re-hung.  The 
work  in  connection  with  the  bells  has  been  carried  out  by  Messrs. 
John  Taylor  &  Son,  Loughborough  {Carlisle  Journal,  November  14, 
1893)- 

I  am  indebted  to  Messrs.  Taylor  for  the  following  par- 
ticulars concerning  the  three  bells :. 

Smallest 


CHURCH  BELLS  tN  LEATH  WARD. 


20$ 


Diameter. 

Weight. 

Smallest  (old) 
Middle  (old) 
Largest  (new) 

ift.    73in. 
iff  loiin. 
2ft.    i|in. 

icwt.  2qr.  3lb. 
2cwt.  iqr.  gib. 
3cwt.  3qr.  gib. 

They  also  state  that  *'  the  new  bell  is  F ;  but  the  old  ones 
are  of  such  bad  tone  that  it  is  impossible  to  say  what  they 
really  are,  and  no  attempt  was  made  to  put  the  bells  in 
tune  together.  Each  is  an  odd  bell  apart  from  the  others ; 
the  smallest  is  retained  only  for  its  associations,  and  is 
not  hung  for  ringing  "• 

I  will  now  describe  the  trio  as  I  saw  them  before  the 
rebuilding  of  the  tower  and  the  recasting  of  the  tenor : 


Diameter. 

Date. 

Founder. 

Treble 
No.  2 
Tenor 

igl inches 
22I inches 
24    inches 

1729 
i6ig 
1729 

A.  Pecver 
W.  Land 
A,  Peever 

The  terrier  of  1749,  signed  by  "  John  Mandeville,  vicar", 
describes  them  as 

Three  bells  with  their  frames  and  wheels,  the  least  thought  to  weigh 
about  one  hundred  and  half,  the  second  about  two  hundred  and  one 
quarter,  the  greatest  about  three  hundred. 

Which  estimate  is  nearer  the  mark  than  is  usually  the 
case  with  terrier  weights. 

The  treble  has,  in  Roman  capitals,  with  a  cross  as 
intervening  stop,  this  inscription : 

G   +   PARKER   +   I   +   LOWRANC   +   I   +   BROWN   + 
C   +   WARDINGS   +    1729. 

The  traditional  number  of  churchwardens  at  Kirkoswald 

is 


2o6  CHURCH  BBLLS  IN  LBATH  WARD. 

is  four ;  and  it  appears  from  the  transcripts  in  the 
bishop's  registry  that  the  fourth  churchwarden  in  1729 
was  Christopher  Hudson.  The  warden  described  on  the 
treble  as  i  lowranc  was  John  Lowrance,  whose  name 
occurs  nine  times  as  a  churchwarden  during  the  period 
1696-1729.  But  there  may  have  been  two,  if  not  three,  of 
this  name,  grandfather,  father,  and  son,  as  the  transcripts 
at  Carlisle  have  these  entries : 

1706    Sept  30    John  Lowrance  buried 
1726    Ma}'  26    John  Lowrance  young  man  and 
Hannah  Wilson  widow  married. 

The  Kirkoswald  transcripts  begin  with  the  year  1663. 
But  there  is  only  one  other  transcript  (1666)  extant  until 
1673 ;  after  which  year  they  continue  with  greater  regu- 
larity. It  would  be  well  if  they  were  to  be  mounted  and 
bound,  as  recommended  by  the  Diocesan  Conference 
committee  in  1887,  since  transcripts  often  contain  infor- 
mation not  to  be  found  elsewhere.  Thus  there  is  pre- 
served among  these  transcripts  the  following  letter : 

Mr.  Gibson. — ^These  are  to  lett  you  know  that  there  are  severall 
neglects  of  presentments  by  the  churchwardens  of  the  parish  of 
Kirkoswald  which  they  ought  to  present  in  this  court  that  trans- 
gressors be  punished  according  to  Law  but  more  especially  within 
this  2  or  3  years  past  therefore  it  is  but  proper  that  the  church- 
wardens should  be  examined  that  the  truth  be  discovered  that 
Justice  may  be  done. 

I  told  the  churchwardens  I  wold  writ  to  you  of  these  neglects  for 
they  are  insufferable    So  I  hope  you  take  notice. 

I  remain  Sr 
May  20  Your  most  Humble  Servte 

1729  John  Scott. 

The  letter  is  endorsed 

ffor  Mr  Fetter  Gibson  of  Carlisle  at  the  Chapter  Court  there. 

Mr  Scott  evidently  did  not  regard  the  zeal  of  the  church- 
wardens for  the  bells  in  that  year  (1729)  as  any  palliation 

of 


CHURCH   BELLS   IN    LEATH   WARD.  207 

of  their  "  neglects  of  presentments'*.  Whether  Mr.  Gibson 
"  took  notice  "  and  stirred  them  to  greater  severity  with 
"  transgressors  ",  there  is  nothing  to  show. 

The  tenor,  with  lettering  and  cross  (illustrated  below) 
identical  with  those  on  the  treble,  was  inscribed : 

+  JOHN   +   RVMNEY   +  VICK 
+   AARON   +   PBBVER   +   KIRKOSWALD   +   FA   I729. 

The  canons  had  been  broken  off,  and  it  was  fastened  to 
the  headstock  by  four  iron  bolts  passing  through  its 
crown.  It  was  cracked  about  thirty  years  ago,  and  a 
piece  broken  off  from  the  rim,  by  a  boy  striking  the  death 
knell.  The  letters  fa  are  of  course  a  contraction  of 
facit;  and  the  inscription  seems  to  sho^  that  the 
founder,  Aaron  Peever,  lived  at  Kirkoswald.  But  there  is 
no  tradition  of  any  bell  foundry  there  ;  nor  does  the  name 
of  Peever  occur  in  the  parish  register.  In  1724  he  cast 
two  bells  for  Caldbeck,  and  one  for  Kirklinton,  which  is 
now  at  Blackford  {anief  vii,  226) ;  each  of  which  bears 
no  cross,  and  has  a  double  semi-colon  as  intervening  stop. 
In  1728  he  cast  a  bell  for  Addingham  (ante,  ix,  476),  and 
one  for  Corbridge  in  Northumberland  (Newcastle  Anti- 
quarian Proceedings,  iii,  142) ;  on  each  of  which,  as  at 
Kirkoswald,  he  placed  his  cross  as  intervening  stop.     It 


m 


would  seem  that  it  was  in  1729  that  he  first  learned  how 
to  spell  his  christian  name,  which  occurs  in  1724  as]Aron 
at  Caldbeck  and  Blackford,  but  in  1729  as  Aron  at 
Addingham  and  Aaron  at  Kirkoswald  and  Corbridge.  The 
above  inscription  has  been  placed  on  the  new  tenor. 

Mr. 


2o8  CHURCH   BELLS   IN   LEATH   WARD. 

Mr.  John  Rumney,  vicar  of  Kirkoswald  in  1729,  is  thus 
commended  in  1704  by  Bp  Nicolson : 

The  Register- Book  begins  at  1577,  and  is  carefully 
enough  preserv'd  by  Mr.  Rumney,  the  honest  Curate. 

He  was  also  curate  of  Renwick  in  1704.  Complaining  of 
certain  persons  who  had  "the  chief  of  the  prescriptions 
for  Corn-Tithe",  and  yet  neglected  to  repair  the  chancel 
of  Renwick  church,  the  bishop  says  : 

Perhaps  the  Curate  Mr  Rumney^  haveing  a  share  of  ye  said  prescrip- 
tions, would  not  (poor  as  he  is)  decline  the  throwing  in  his  Mite,  tho' 
twere  barbarous  in  the  others  to  exact  it  from  him. 

It  was  not  at  all  uncommon  in  those  days  for  a  Cumber- 
land clergyman  to  be  a  pluralist,  and  yet  a  very  poor  man. 
The  living  of  Renwick,  owing  to  the  impropriation  of  its 
tithes,  was  so  impoverished  that,  prior  to  its  augmenta- 
tion in  1748,  it  was  difficult  to  find  a  clergyman  to  serve 
the  church  (Nicolson  and  Burn,  ii,  436).  Nor  was  this 
difficulty  any  less  at  Kirkoswald  (t6,  p  428).  Mr.  Rum- 
ney  died  in  1739.  He  signed  the  transcripts  as  "  minister" 
as  far  back  as  1688  ;  in  which  year  he  presented  24 
persons  as  "  dissenters  ".    In  the  same  year  he  writes : 

We  doe  present  the  chancell  as  insufficiently  repaired  though  lately 
repaired  yet  in  some  rpt  ready  to  fall  unless  speedy  care  prevent  it. 

In  subsequent  years  he  often  repeats  this  presentment, 
and  in  1705,  doubtless  encouraged  by  Bp  Nicolson's 
animadversions  on  the  impropriators,  he  says : 

We  doe  present  Timothy  Featherstonehaugh  Esq  and  George  Lowry 
Gent  for  neglecting  to  repair  the  chancell. 

In  that  year  the  churchwardens  describe  themselves  as 
**  church  masters  ". 

The  second  bell  has  this  inscription,  in  Roman  capi- 
tals, with  the  two  middle  strokes  of  the  letter  W  bisecting 
each  other : 

WILLIAM 


CHURCH    BELLS   IN    LEATH   WARD.  209^ 

WILLUM  LAND  CD  MADB  !=]  ICE      1619     W  B. 

The  stamp  before  and  after  the  word  **  made  "  is  worn 
away  and  unrecognizable.  William  Land,  whose  exact 
place  of  residence  has  not  been  ascertained,  is  supposed 
by  Dr.  Raven  {Cambridgeshire  Bells,  p  62)  to  have  hailed 
from  the  eastern  counties.  "  At  Wattisfield,  Suffolk,  and 
at  Halstead,  Essex,  his  initials  occur  in  connection  with 
T  D  for  Thomas  Draper  "  (j6,  p  24).  The  Halstead  tenor, 
bearing  the  initials  WL  and  TD,  is  dated  1378  (C. 
Deedes'  Church  Bells  of  Halstead,  p  6).  It  is  worth  while, 
by  the  way,  to  notice  that,  besides  W.  Land's  Kirkoswald 
bell,  the  only  other  ancient  Cumberland  bell  as  yet  known 
to  have  been  cast  by  a  distant  founder,  i.e.  more  distant 
than  York,  is  the  treble  at  Hutton-in-the-Forest,  cast  by 
Thomas  Draper  in  1588.  William  Land's  initials  occur 
in  conjunction  with  the  name  in  full  of  Stephen  Tonnie 
on  the  fourth  bell  at  St.  Edward's,  Cambridge,  dated 
1576  (Raven,  p  127);  on  the  Landbeach  third,  dated  1577 
{ib,  p  155) ;  and  on  the  Wicken  fourth,  dated  1582  {ib,  p 
177)  I  from  which  Dr.  Raven  infers  that  for  several  years 
he  was  perhaps  a  foreman  of  Tonnie,  whose  foundry  was 
at  Bury  St.  Edmund's  {ib,  p  62).  At  some  time  before 
1613  he  seems  to  have  begun  casting  bells  on  his  own 
account,  as  his  initials  occur  alone  on  the  Petcham  tenor, 
dated  1613  (Stahlschmidt's  Surrey  Bells,  p  158).  His 
name  in  full  and  alone  is  found  on  the  Barnes  treble, 
dated  16 16  {ib,  p  129) ;  on  the  silver  bell,  dated  1624, 
which  hangs  in  the  south-west  turret  of  the  principal 
gateway  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge  (Raven,  p  131), 
and  on  the  tenor  at  Dulwich  College  chapel,  dated  1633 
(Surrey  Btlls,  p  152).  Mr.  Stahlschmidt,  noticing  the 
long  period  covered  by  W.  Land's  work,  was  of  opinion 
that  there  were  two  of  the  name,  father  and  son  {ib,  p  96). 
Mr.  Deedes  says  that  "there  seem  to  have  been  three 
William  Lands  at  different  times  "  {Halstead  Bells,  p  5). 
The  initials  W  B,  found  in  connection  with  this  name  at 

Kirkoswald 


2IO 


CHURCH   BELLS   IN   LBATH  WARD. 


Kirkoswald^  may  be  those  of  a  foreman  who  cast  the  bell. 
The  only  known  founder  in  the  earlier  years  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  whom  they  fit  was  William  Brend  of 
Norwich,  who  died  in  1634  (North's  Lincolnshire  Bells^  p 
loi) ;  but  he  was  unlikely  to  be  a  foreman  of  William 
Land.  W  B,  whoever  he  was,  may  have  been  sent  by 
Land  to  Kirkoswald  in  1619  to  cast  the  three  bells  seen 
there  nearly  a  century  later  by  Bishop  Nicolson,  two  of 
which  were  supplanted  by  Aaron  Peever's  bells  in  1729. 

There  are  here  the  usages  of  death-knell  without 
"tellers",  after-burial  bell,  and  eight  a.m.  Sunday  bell. 

LANOWATHBY. 

Two  bells  hang  in  a  double  cot  on  the  west  gable  of  the 
nave: 

Treble  :  diam.  13J  inches,  weight  about    7olbs. 
Tenor  :  diam.  14^  inches,  weight  about  loolbs. 

A  vestry  and  porch  were  added  to  the  west  end  of  the 
church  in  1836 ;  and  the  bells,  which  were  formerly  rung 
from  the  floor  of  the  nave,  are  now  rung  from  inside  the 
vestry.  . 

The  treble  is  blank,  and  I  pronounce  no  opinion  as  to 
its  probable  age. 

The  tenor  has  round  its  shoulder  a  Lombardic  inscrip- 
tion ;  no  initial  cross  or  maker's  stamp  ;  two  roundlets  as 


intervening  stop  throughout ;  the  letters  A  and  L  re- 
versed; M,  N,  P,  and  R,  upside  down  ;  and  E  once  (in  ave) 

placed 


CHURCH  BELLS  IN  LEATH  WARD. 


211 


placed  sideways  on  its  back.  The  accompanying  illustra- 
tions of  the  words  avb  and  plena  show  the  character  of 
the  lettering.     The  inscription  runs  thus  : 

AVE  I  :  I  MARIA  I  :  I  QRACIA  |  :  |  PLENA  |  :  | 

IN  I :  I  HONORE  I :  I  s  I :  I  iohas. 

The  letter  H  is  Roman ;  on  which  point  Mr.  Stahlschmidt 
said  in  a  letter  to  me : 

The  Roman  H  is  of  course  an  earlier  form  than  the  Lombardic,  and 
is  found  in  MSS  as  late  as  a.d.  500.  But  I  have  never  found  it  used 
in  fourteenth  centur>'  Lombardics  on  a  bell ;  and  I  am  inclined  to  be 
suspicious  that  the  use  of  it  points  to  the  bell  being  of  early  sixteenth 
century. 


Stilly  even  so,  the  bell  will  be  of  respectable  antiquity,  the 
oldest  possession  of  the  church  to  which  it  belongs,  older 
by  two  or  more  centuries  than  the  church  itself,  which 
was  rebuilt  in  1718  (Whellan,  p  574). 

The  church  is  stated  in  Bacon's  Liber  Regis  and  Ecton's 
Thesaurus  to  be  dedicated  to  St.  Peter.  But  Whellan  (p 
574)  says  it  is  "  dedicated  to  the  Blessed  Virgin  " ;  appar- 
ently assuming  that,  because  not  otherwise  mentioned  in 
Henry  VIIFs  Ecclesiastical  Survey,  it  must  be  identical 
with  what  is  therein  described  as  **  the  chantry  of  St. 
Mary  in  Edenhall"  (Hutchinson,  I,  257).  Does  the  bell 
inscription  help  us  to  decide  between  these  authorities  ? 
Well,  the  angelic  salutation,  even  when  standing  alone, 
occurs  too  frequently  on  ancient  bells  to  be  accepted  as 

evidence 


212  CHURCH   BELLS   IN   LEATH  WARD. 

evidence  in  favour  of  the  dedication  of  a  church  to  St. 
Mary ;  and  it  is  here  followed  by  words  which,  if  bearing 
at  all  on  the  point  in  question,  would  rather  lead  us  to 
infer  that  the  patron  saint  of  the  church  was  St.  John. 
But  it  must  not  be  assumed  that  a  bell  inscription  does 
necessarily  bear  on  the  point  in  question. 

The  churches  of  Langwathby  and  Edenhall  have  long 
been  held,  as  now,  by  one  and  the  same  vicar;  which 
circumstance,  together  with  the  fact  that  Langwathby  is 
not  mentioned  in  either  of  the  valuations  of  Pope  Nico- 
las, Edward  II,  and  Henry  VIII,  has  led  to  the  inference 
that  "  Langwathby  was  anciently  a  part  of  the  parish  of 
Edenhall "  (Nicolson  and  Burn,  ii,  448) ;  and  it  has  been 
conjectured  that  "  the  church  or  chapel  here  was  probably 
first  erected  for  want  of  a  bridge  over  Eden,  whereby  the 
inhabitants  were  often  hindered  from  repairing  to  divine 
service ;  but  by  length  of  time  it  hath  gained  parochial 
rights  "  {ib).  If,  however,  as  Dr.  Todd  is  reported  by 
Whellan  (p  574)  to  have  said,  "  the  parishes  of  Edenhall 
and  Langwathby  were  united  in  1380  by  Bishop  Apple- 
by", they  must  originally  have  been  separate.  An  old 
MS  document,  preserved  in  the  parish  chest,  says : 

Item  wee  doe  present  that  we  have  a  Church  in  our  parishe  and  that 
it  is  no  chapell  but  hath  been  allwaies  a  church  without  memorye  of 
man  and  is  a  parishe  of  itselfe  as  appeares  by  record  24  Elizabeth. 

By  us 
October  i  Lancelot  Hodgson  clerke 

1650  John  Steele 

Thomas  Carlton,  Mr. 

What  the  ecclesiastical  arrangements  of  these  parishes 
may  have  been  in  such  an  exceptional  time  as  1650  there 
is  no  knowing.  But  this  would  not  affect  the  contention 
of  the  above  document,  which  is  that  Langwathby  was  no 
more  a  chapelry  of  Edenhall  than  Edenhall  was  of  Lang- 
wathby. 

The 


CHURCH   BELLS  IK  LBATH   WARD,  213 

The  old  church,  as  already  mentioned,  was  rebuilt  in 
1718 ;  and  of  its  goods  there  remain  only  the  register, 
which  begins  at  1576,  the  parish  chest,  and  the  **  Maria" 
bell. 

This  bell  is  tolled  for  a  death,  but  without  "  tellers." 
It  is  rung  quickly  after  a  burial  whilst  the  mourners  are 
leaving  the  churchyard. 

MELMERBY. 

Edward  VFs  commissioners  found  at  "  Melmorby  ** 

ij  prche  belles. 

*'  Melmorby  was  the  habitation  of  Melmoty  a  Dane,  who 
first  improved  and  cultivated  the  country,  about  the  ninth 
or  tenth  century"  (N.  &  B.  ii,  p  441). 

The  church,  dedicated  to  St.  John  Baptist,  has  now 
two  bells,  easily  accessible,  in  a  turret.  Each  of  them  is 
i6i  inches  in  diameter,  therefore  weighing  about  ij  cwt., 
and  has  on  its  waist,  in  a  rectangular  oblong  stamp,  with 
a  fleur-de-lis  fringe,  the  word  Wiggan,  preceded  by  a  bell 
in  outline ;  three  birds  above  in  oblong  stamp ;  and  the 
date  1715. 

A  bell  in  outline  between  initials  R  A  is  found  on  the 
Dalston  treble,  dated  1704  (ante^  x,  p  243),  and  on  the 
Kirkbampton  tenor  dated  1705,  for  an  illustration  of  which 
see  antCf  ix,  p  249.  The  same  initials  with  bell  between, 
accompanied  by  the  word  Wiggan,  are  on  a  bell  at  Skel- 
ton,  dated  1717.  The  Caldbeck  treble,  dated  1726,  is 
inscribed  Luke  Ashton  Fecet  Wigan.  It  follows 
from  these  data  that  the  Melmerby  bells  were  cast  by  R. 
Ashton  of  Wigan. 

The  Rev.  Theodore  Owen,  rector  of  Wood  Walton, 
Peterborough,  informs  me  in  a  letter  that  he  ''  found  R  A 
with  bell  between,  dated  1703,  at  Llanfernien,  Denbigh- 
shire ",  and  that  "  Luke  Ashton  made  the  undated  tenor 
of  Urswick,  Lancashire,  somewhere  after  1714".     Mr.  J. 

S.  Remington 


214  CHURCH   BBLLS  IN   LBATH  WARD. 

S.  Remington,  of  Ulverston,  supplies  these  other  in- 
stances of  bells  cast  by  the  Ashtons :  "  Pennington  ist 
K  A  1719;  Claughton  2nd  L  A  1727  ;  Rushen  Castle,  Isle 
of  Man,  one  bell,  L  A  1728  ;  Gersingham  (one  bell)  L  A 
1740  ".  In  an  account  of  Wigan  assessments  for  the 
relief  of  the  poor  in  1720  he  has  found  "  in  the  division  of 
the  Scoles  the  names  of  Ralph  Ashton  and  Luke  Ash- 
ton  ".  R  A  then  is  Ralph  Ashton,  probably  the  father  of 
Luke.  In  a  document  written  the  **  2  October  in  the 
sixteenth  year  of  Lord  {sic)  George  second  ",  i.e.  1742,  Mr. 
Remington  finds  that  **  the  two  Serjeants  of  the  Corpora- 
tion of  Wigan  were  William  Rogerson  and  Luke  Ashton". 
Mr.  Owen  also  says  that  "  the  second  bell  of  Bolton-le- 
Sands  was  cast  at  Wigan  in  1694".  It  may  not,  however, 
have  been  cast  by  the  Ashtons,  since  Mr.  Remington 
says :  "  The  Scott  family  were  bell-founders  at  Wigan  for 
many  years.  The  original  firm  was  that  of  James  and 
John  Scott,  who  were  bailiffs  in  1627 ;  and  in  1653,  1688, 
and  1701,  members  of  the  family  were  mayors  of  Wigan. 
The  Wigan  parish  church  accounts  have  these  items  : 

Paid  Mr.  Scott  the  Bell  founder  for  casting  the  Bell  aforesaide, 
and  for  one  hundred  and  twelve  pounds  of  mettle,  ;f  18. 

1677. — Paid  unto  William  Scott  for  kasting  the  first  bell  ;f  10  los. 

The  Scotts  never  gave  their  names  in  full  on  their  bells, 
but  only  their  initials  ". 

The  Melmerby  bells  are  rung  by  levers.  There  is  here 
the  usage  of  death  knell  without  "  tellers". 

MUNGRISDALE. 

The  church,  dedicated  to  St.  Mungo,  and  rebuilt  in 
1756,  has  in  a  cot  on  its  west  gable  one  bell,  izi  inches  in 
diameter,  with  no  inscription  but  the  figures  (Arabic) 
1490,  supposed  to  have  been  the  date  of  a  former  bell, 
which  when  cracked  about  thirty  years  ago  was  sent  to 
Sheffield  to  be  recast. 

NEWTON 


CHURCH    BELLS   IN    LBATH   WARD. 


2T5 


NEWTON  REIGNY. 
The  earliest  mention  of  the  bells  of  this  church  occurs 
in  the  terrier  of  1729  : 

Two  Bells  with  their  frames  thought 
to  weigh  about  nine  stone  each. 

There  are  still  two  bells  here,  in  a  double  cot  in  the  west 
gable,  viz  : 

Treble :  diam.  29J  inches,  weight  about  88    lbs. 
Tenor  :  diam.  29    inches,  weight  about    ijcwt. 

They  are  rung  by  levers,  the  ropes  descending  inside  to 
the  floor  of  the  church. 

The  treble,  which  is  blank,  must  be  of  later  date  than 
1749,  as  it  could  never  have  been  supposed  to  be  of  the 
same  weight  as  the  tenor ;  which,  though  about  a  stone 
heavier  than  the  weight  assigned  to  it  in  the  terrier,  was 
undoubtedly  here  in  1749. 

The  tenor  has  round  its  shoulder,  in  small  black  letter, 
with  plain  initial  cross,  this  inscription  : 

*  B'c'a  m'rta  mafl&alena  ora  pro  nobis* 

There  is  no  intervening  stop.  The  cross  and  first  word 
are  here  illustrated  full  size.     The  date  of  the  bell,  while 


J^!^ 


not  later  than  the  Reformation,  is  not  earlier  than  the 
fifteenth  century,  at  the  beginning  of  which  black  letter 
first  appeared  in  bell  inscriptions.  It 


2l6  CHURCH    BELLS   IN   LEATH   WARD. 

It  may  occasion  some  surprise  that,  notwithstanding 
Puritan  zeal  for  the  destruction  of  "  monuments  of  super- 
stition *\  so  many  ancient  bells  retain  their  invocation  to 
saints ;  and  indeed  in  some  places  such  inscriptions  have 
been  defaced.  Mr.  L'Estrange,  in  his  book  on  Norfolk 
Church  Bells  (p  6),  mentions  "  more  than  a  dozen  old  bells 
the  inscriptions  on  which  have  been  either  entirely  or  in 
part  cut  off".  That  such  defacement  was  exceptional  is 
probably  due  to  ignorance  of  what  the  inscriptions  were. 
In  Cumberland,  where  most  of  the  church  bells  are  in 
gable  cots,  and  therefore  difficult  of  access,  I  have  some- 
times found  that  church  authorities  did  not  so  much  as 
know  whether  their  bells  bore  any  inscriptions  at  all. 
Elizabethan  and  later  iconoclasts,  then,  may  often  not 
have  known  that  the  gable  bells  were  inscribed.  Still, 
the  fact  remains  that,  even  where  they  might  have  known, 
as  in  the  towers  of  Cumrew,  Burgh-by-Sands,  Scaleby, 
Dacre,  Edenhall,  Greystock,  and  other  Cumberland 
churches,  the  inscriptions  are  not  defaced. 

Newton  Reigny  church  is  said  by  Ecton  to  be  dedicated 
to  St.  John ;  but  whether  to  the  Baptist  or  the  Evangelist 
he  does  not  state.  Canon  Venables,  in  his  paper  on 
Church  Dedications  in  Cumberland  {ante^  vii,  p  144)  leaves 
the  Newton  dedication  blank  ;  nor  is  it  noticed  by  Bacon, 
Browne  Willis,  or  the  county  historians. 

The  death  knell  is  tolled  here,  but  without  "  tellers  *• ; 
and  there  is  the  usage  of  the  after- burial  bell  rung  quickly. 
The  tenor,  when  under  the  influence  of  a  strong  west 
wind,  has  the  peculiar  usage  of  tolling  itself ;  which  when 
heard  for  the  first  time  at  dead  of  night,  as  by  myself 
when  rector  of  Newton,  is  somewhat  startling. 

OUSBY. 
Edward  VPs  commissioners  in  their  report  of  "  Ullis- 
bie  "  church  goods  mention 

ij  prche  belles. 

The 


CHURCH    BELLS   IN    LEATH   WARD.  217 

The  name  of  the  parish  is  variously  spelt :  "  Ulnesbie  '* 
on  the  communion  cup ;  "  Ulnesby  "  in  the  will  of  Sir 
Richard  de  Ulnesby,  rector  in  1361  {Testamenta  Karleo- 
lensia,jp]^o).     Denton  (pp  120-1)  says  : 

Vlnesby  als.  Ousby  but  rightly  Vlfsby,  Habitatio  Vlfi  vel  Olavi  Dani, 
was  the  seat  and  mansion  of  one  Olave  (whom  the  people  commonly 
called  Vlf),  a  Dane  or  Norwegian,  that  after  the  spoil  of  the  country 
by  the  Danes  (before  the  conquest  of  England  by  the  Normans) 
seated  himself  there  under  the  edge  of  the  east  mountains.  He  was 
one  of  the  three  sons  of  Haldan,  the  other  two  were  Thorquel  and 
Melmor:  Melmor  and  this  Vlf  were  placed  in  this  part  of  the  country, 
and  Thorquell  at  Thorquellby  near  Keswick. 

In  the  name,  as  now  written,  **  Ousby  ",  the  spelling  has 
followed  the  local  pronunciation. 

There  are  two  bells  here,  in  a  double  cot  on  the  west 
gable,  both  blank,  as  reported  by  a  friend  who  examined 
them  for  me,  but  forgot  to  measure  their  diameters.  The 
terrier  of  1749  mentions 

two   bells   with   their  frames   the  least  thought  to  weigh 
about  six  stone  and  a  half  and  the  bigger  about  eight  stone. 

The  bells  now  in  the  cot,  which  I  saw  when  at  Ousby 
with  our  Archaeological  Society  in  1884,  seem  of  somewhat 
larger  dimensions  than  would  accord  with  these  weights. 
Either  then  the  terrier  is  inaccurate,  which  is  not  at  all 
unlikely,  or  the  present  bells  have  been  put  up  since  1749. 
The  dedication  of  the  church  is  doubtful.  The  county 
histories  give  it  as  St.  Luke;  but  in  Bacon's  Liber  Regis 
and  in  Ecton's  Thesaurus  it  is  given  as  St.  Patrick.  Sir 
Richard  de  Ulnesby's  will  does  not  help  to  decide  this 
point,  as  he  was  buried  at  Carlisle. 


(2l8) 


Art.  XVIIL— TA^  Denton  Manuscripts. 

By  the  President. 
Communicated  at  Arnside,  September  25/A,  1893. 
TITHEN  the  Royal  Archaeological  Institute  visited  Car- 
lisle in  1859,  the  late  Mr.  Hodgson-Hinde  read  a 
valuable  paper  in  the  historical  section  On  the  Early 
History  of  Cumberland.  In  it  he  dealt  with  the  inaccura- 
cies and  misstatements  which  abound  in  the  generally 
received  accounts.  Alluding  to  these  inaccuracies  and 
misstatements,  he  said  : — 

Many  of  them  originate  with  the  Chronicon  Cumbriae,  but  these 
are  amplified  and  augmented  by  succeeding  compilers,  especially  by 
two  persons  of  the  name  of  Denton^  whose  manuscript  collections  have 
been  the  main  source  from  whence  the  modern  historians  of  the 
county  have  derived  their  information  as  to  the  early  descent  of 
property,  and  the  genealogy  of  its  possessors.  The  contents  of  these 
storehouses  of  errors  must  be  discarded  by  the  future  topographer, 
or  used  only  to  compare  with  more  authentic  documents. — Hodgson 
Hinde,  Archaological  Journal,  vol.  xvi,  pp.  217, 234-5. 

The  two  persons  of  the  name  of  Denton  are  John 
Denton,  who  wrote  an  account  of  Cumberland  about  the 
year  1610,  and  Thomas  Denton,  who  wrote  an  account  in 
1687-8.  Of  the  John  Denton  MS.  several  copies,  or 
rather  editions  exist,  for  many  persons  edited  and  brought 
up  John  Denton's  original  MS.  to  their  own  dales,  until 
we  come  to  the  edition  known  as  the  Milbourne-Gilpin 
edition,  being  an  edition  made  in  1749  by  William  Mil- 
bourne,  Recorder  of  Carlisle,  from  an  edition  made  in 
1687  by  Richard  Gilpin,  of  Scaleby  Castle,  Deputy 
Recorder  of  Carlisle.  This  edition  is  now  my  property, 
and  was  published  in  1887  by  the  Society,  as  No.  2  of 
their  Tract  Series,  with  an  introduction  in  which  I 
enumerated  all  the  known  copies  of  John  Denton's  MS. 

In 


THE  DENTON    MANUSCRIPTS.  2X9 

In  that  introduction,  I  went  on  to  deal  with  the  Thomas 
Denton  MS.,  and  said  : 

Of  the  Thomas  Denton  MS.  history  of  Cumberland,  no  copy  is 
known  to  exist,  unless  one  be  in  the  muniment  room  in  Lowther 
Castle :  Messrs.  Lyson's,  in  their  history  of  Cumberland,  p.  2,  posi- 
tively state  that  it  was  lent  to  them  by  the  Earl  of  Lonsdale.  They 
state  that  it  was  "  written  in  the  years  1687  and  1688  by  Thomas 
Denton,  Esq.,  barrister-at-law,  recorder  of  Carlisle,  and  lord  of  the 
manor  of  Warnell  Hall  in  Sebergham/*  But  in  those  years  John 
Aglionby  was  recorder  of  Carlisle,  and  William  Gilpin  deputy 
recorder,*  and  in  1687  Mr.  Deputy  Recorder  William  Gilpin  re- 
arranged John  Denton's  MS.  history  of  Cumberland  and  produced 
No.  4,  the  Gilpin  or  Scaleby  Denton  MS.  Thomas  Denton  had  been 
recorder  of  Carlisle  prior  to  Aglionby,  but  had  retired  in  1679:! 
he  died  in  1695  ;  his  portrait  and  that  of  his  wife  Letitia  Vachell  are 
in  the  Town  Hall  at  Carlisle.  The  precise  account  given  by  Messrs. 
Lyson's  of  the  MS.  histor}'  of  Cumberland,  which  they  attribute  to 
Thomas  Denton,  forbids  the  conjecture  that  they  have  accidentally 
substituted  Mr.  Recorder  Denton  for  Mr.  Recorder  Aglionby,  but  it 
is  a  curious  coincidence  that  in  1687,  Mr.  Ex-Recorder  Denton,  and 
Mr.  Deputy  Recorder  Aglionby,  and  Dr.  Todd  should  have  all  com- 
piled histories  of  Cumberland  based  on  that  of  John  Denton. 

Messrs.  Lyson's  also  state  that  the  Earl  of  Lonsdale 
lent  them  a  copy  of  John  Denton's  MS.  Repeated 
searches  in  the  muniment  rooms  at  Lowther  and  White- 
haven Castles  have  failed  to  bring  to  light  any  copy  of 
either  John  or  Thomas  Denton's  MS.  But  in  1892  the 
late  Mr.  Alleyne  Robinson,  principal  agent  to  Lord  Lons- 
dale, found  in  his  lordship's  house  in  Carlton  Gardens  two 
vellum  bound  folios  containing  MS.  accounts  of  the 
County  of  Cumberland.  Knowing  my  interest  in  such 
matters,  Mr.  Robinson  informed  me  of  the  find  and  ob- 
tained Lord  Lonsdale's  permission  to  entrust  the  two 
folios  to  me  for  examination,  so  soon  as  a  box  could  h^ 
made  for  their  safe  custody.     Mr.  Robinson's  sudden  and 


*  Municipal  Records  of  the  City  of  Carlisle,  pp.  312,  314,  315,  322. 
t/hrf,  p.  3M,3i5- 

lamented 


220  THE   DENTON    MANUSCRIPTS. 

lamented  death  prevented  this  from  being  carried  out. 
After  waiting  for  some  time,  I  wrote  to  Lord  Lonsdale, 
and  he  at  once  had  the  two  folios  sent  to  me.  I  immedi- 
ately recognised  them  as  the  John  and  Thomas  Denton's 
MS.  histories  of  Cumberland.  It  is  then  quite  clear  (see 
Lysons'  Cunfberland,  p.  2)  that  these  two  MS.  volumes 
found  in  Carlton  Gardens  are  the  copies  of  John  and 
Thomas  Denton's  MSS.  lent  by  the  then  Earl  of  Lons- 
dale to  Messrs.  Lysons  for  the  purposes  of  their  history  of 
Cumberland,-'^  and  that  they  were  returned  to  Carlton 
Gardens,  and  have  remained  there,  overlooked  and  for- 
gotten, until  the  late  Mr.  R.  Alleyne  Robinson  came  upon 
them  in  1892,  and  thus  brought  to  light  Thomas  Denton's 
MS.,  which  had  for  the  last  seventy  years  totally  disap- 
peared. 

The  copy  of  John  Denton's  MS.  found  at  Carlton 
Gardens  is  contained  in  a  thin  folio  stitched  in  a  dingy 
vellum  cover,t  the  leaves  measuring  12J  inches  by  eight. 
Some  blank  leaves  at  the  beginning  have  been  cut  out,  but 
sufficient  margins  are  left  to  show  that  they  have  been 
used  for  recording  some  rules  of  arithmetic  with  exam- 
ples :  these  are  in  a  much  more  modern  handwriting  than 
that  in  which  the  history  is  written  :  some  loose  sheets  of 
paper  in  the  book  contain  in  an  antique  hand  copies  of 
various  deeds,  and  also  in  the  same  handwriting  as  the 
rules  of  arithmetic,  sundry  directions  for  qualifying 
gangers,  dated  1698. 

The  John  Denton  MS.  itself  presents  no  unusual  fea- 
tures: originally  written  in  1610,  this  copy  includes  in 
the  list  of  Bishops,  Snowdell  (Snowden  bishop  1616  to 
1621).  It  is  prefaced  by  a  title  page  in  a  more  modern 
hand  thus — 


*  Published  in  1816. 

t  This  vellum  cover  appears  to  have  originally  belonged  to  some  other  book. 

THIS 


THE   DENTON    MANUSCRIPTS.  221 

THIS  ANCIENT  MANUSCRIPT 

OF 
THE   HISTORY   OF   THE 

COUNTY  OF  CUMBERLAND 

FROM   THE   CONQUEST 
TO   THE   REIGN   OF   KING  JAMES    THE    FIRST 

WAS  FOUND 

AMONGST  THE  ANCIENT  TITLE  DEEDS 

EVIDENCES  AND  RECORDS 

OF  THE 

MANOR    OF   HUTTON   JOHN 

IN   THE   SAID 
COUNTY   OF    CUMBERLAND 

BY    A.H. 

The  following  is  an  extract  from  a  letter  in  the  muni- 
ment room  at  Lowther,  kindly  furnished  me  by  W.  Little, 
Esq. : — 

••Sir 

Last  Monday  I  paid  my  Coroplim^  at  Lowther  and  carried  with 
me  the  Ancient  Manuscript  History  of  Cumberld  From  the  Conquest 
to  the  Beginning  of  King  Ja^  I  [Found  amongst  the  Ancient  Title 
Deeds,  Evidences,  and  Records  of  the  Manor  of  Hutton  John]  w^^  I 
left  with  Sir  Ja*  for  his  perusal  '^'    *     and  do  not  hear  wh*"  Sir 

Ja*  has  as  yet  made  any  application  to  Capt  Gilpin  for  his  Father's 
Copy  of  Denton's  Manuscript  (wc»»  as  far  as  I  can  remember  confirms 
mine  in  every  particular) 

=::  >::  :;:  ^.i 

I  am  Sir, 

Your  very  obliged  and  obed*  Serv* 
Hutton  John  And  Hudleston 

17  October  177 1 

The  letter  is  addressed  to — 

William  Wordsworth 

Attorney- AT-  Law 

Cocke  RMOUTH. 

Within 


222  THE   DENTON   MANUSCRIPTS. 

Within  the  same  vellum  cover,  but  at  the  end,  and  not 
stitched  in,  are  some  sheets  of  folio  paper,  containing  ex- 
tracts relating  to  legal  proceedings  about  lands  at  or  near 
Kendal,  and  also  the  directions  for  qualifying  gaugers 
mentioned  before.  Two  more  loose  sheets  contain  ex- 
tracts from  the  Dodesworth  Collections,  viz.,  copies  of  a 
Fleming  pedigree  and  two  deeds  relating  to  Skirwith  in 
Cumberland.* 

Thomas  Denton's  MS.  is  contained  in  a  vellum  covered 
folio,  tooled  with  gold,  whose  leaves,  measuring  12  inches 
by  8  inches,  are  gilt  edged.  The  first  page  contains  the 
dedication  : 

"  To  the  hon"«  S'  John  Lowther  of  Lowther  Bart 

Custos  Rotulorum  of  the  Countie  of  Westmorland. 
Noble  Sir, 

As  the  Greatness  of  the  Grecian  Heroe's  "  etc.  etc. 
etc.  From  it  we  learn  that  the  description  of  the  County 
of  Cumberland  was  undertaken  at  the  request  of  Sir 
John  Lowther  and  that,  as  the  description  left  several 
blank  pages  in  the  book  the  writer  filled  them  up  with  an 
account,  which  he  confesses  to  be  imperfect,  of  Westmor- 
land, with  an  appendix  on  the  Border  Tenant  Right :  he 
also  added  "  A  Description  of  the  Isle  of  Man  with  its 
Customes,"  and  **  A  Description  of  Dublin  Cittie  and  of 
the  Province  of  Ulster."  Altogether,  as  the  writing  is 
small,  and  the  lines  close  together,  the  book  is  packed  as 
full  of  information  as  it  possibly  could  be.  It  contains  a 
map  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  printed  "Amstet- 
odami  Apud  Joannem  Jansonium." 

The  title  is  "  A  Perambulation  of  Cumberland  and  of 
Westmorland,  containing  the  Description,  Hystory,  and 
Customes  of  these  Counties,  written  in  the  yeares  1687- 
88,"  by  T.D.  The  words  "  And  of  Westmorland  "  are  a 
subsequent  addition,  written  above  the  line,  and  the  words 
"  these  Counties  "  have  been  altered  from  "  the  Countie." 


•  These  are  now  fastened  into  the  cover.  The 


THE   DENTON    MANUSCRIPTS.  223 

The  Perambulation  of  Cumberland  commences  with  its 
boundaries,  the  origin  of  its  name,  the  history  of  the 
early  inhabitants,  and  of  its  division  into  baronies,  wards, 
parishes,  with  an  account  of  the  diocese,  and  a  list  of  44 
bishops.  The  writer  then  embarks  upon  a  particular 
account  of  each  place  in  the  county ;  taking  it  by  baro- 
nies, and  following  very  much  the  plan  of  his  predecessor 
John  Denton,  but  being  much  fuller  in  detail,  and  parti- 
cularly in  statistics  as  to  the  value  of  the  various  manors, 
fisheries,  mines,  etc.  mentioned,  and  also  as  to  the 
number  of  inhabitants. 

At  the  end  of  the  perambulation  of  Cumberland,  two 
pages  are  devoted  to  an  account  of  the  Picts'  Wall.  The 
history  of  Westmorland  follows,  but  is  very  imperfect, 
consisting  mainly  of  a  detailed  account  of  the  several  lords 
of  the  barony  of  Appleby,  and  a  long  account  of  the  Border 
tenant  right.  The  accounts  of  the  Isle  of  Man  and  of 
Dublin  and  Ulster  finish  the  book.  It  is  desirable  that 
the  account  of  Cumberland  at  any  rate  should  be  printed 
and  published,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  this  Society  may 
be  able,  with  Lord  Lonsdale's  permission,  to  do  the  work. 


(224) 


Art.  XIX. — On  two  Roman  Inscriptions  recently  found  at 

Carlisle. 
By  F.  Haverfield,  F.S.A. 

QHANGKLLOR  FERGUSON  has  lately  sent  me 
photographs  and  squeezes  of  two  fragmentary  inscrip- 
tions  recently  found  in  Cai  lisle.  The  first,  a  largish  block, 
53  inches  long  by  17  high,  was  found  during  some  building 
operations  on  the  London  Road,  close  to  the  spot  where 
the  tombstone  of  Flavius  Antigonus  Papias  was  found 
last  year  {Proc.  S.A.,  2nd  series,  vol.  xiv,  262-7),  and 
has  been  presented  by  the  finder,  Mr.  Dudson,  to  the 
museum  at  Tullie  House.  The  lettering,  in  the  first  two 
lines  2^  inches  high,  is  (see  illustration  given  herewith). 

DEO  MARTIOCELO  ET 
NVMINIIMP  AEXANDRI  NG 

^ — DOM 

At  the  end  of  line  3  I  think  to  see  STR,  but  the  letters 
have  been  purposely  erased,  and  are  not  clear.  The 
general  form  of  the  inscription,  no  doubt,  resembled  that 
of  a  stone  found  at  the  neighbouring  fort  at  Plumpton 
Wall  (C.  vii,  3i9^Lapidarium,  No  797)  which  reads 
Deabus  matribus  tramarinis  ei  n{umini)  itnp{eratoris)  Alexan- 
dri  Aug{usti)  et  IuUcb  Mammece  matr{is)  Aug{usti  n{ostri)  et 
Casirorum  toti  [que]  domui  divince  erected  by  some  [vexill] 
atio  of  soldiers.  So  in  our  new  stone  we  may  read  Deo 
Marti  Ocelo  et  numini  imp{eratoris)  A  lexandri  A  ug{usti)  et 
Jul\iae Mammeae matr.  casirorum  &c, totique]  dom [ui divince y 
but  it  is  impossible  to  be  certain  whether  the  supposed 
STR  at  the  end  of  line  3  belonged  to  nostri  or  to  casirorum. 
As  is  often  the  case,  the  name  of  Alexander  and  his 
mother  were  erased  after  their  death. 

The 


3 

< 
u 

< 

G 
Z 

D 
O 
bu 

o 

Urn 

bu 
Z 


b2 


o 

z 

o 

§ 


ON   TWO    ROMAN   INSCRIPTIONS.  225 

The  god  Mars  Ocelus  appears  to  be  unknown,  but 
Ocelum  as  a  place-name  is  not  uncommon.  It  occurs  on 
the  east  coast  of  Britain,  in  Spain  twice,  in  the  Alps,*  and 
a  probably  cognate  form  may  be  found  in  Tunnocelum, 
the  name  of  a  Roman  fort  mentioned  in  the  Notitia  Dig- 
nitatum  {Occ.  xl),  which  is  to  be  located  either  near  the 
western  end  of  the  Wall  or,  as  I  should  prefer,  further 
south  in  Cumberland.  What  Ocelus  means  I  cannot 
conjecture  or  get  anyone  else  to  conjecture.t  I  will  only 
say  that  it  need  not  bear  a  meaning  which  would  suit  the 
Roman  God  of  War.  When  the  natives  of  the  provinces 
identified  their  local  gods  with  those  of  Italy,  they  did  not 
always  strictly  consider  the  attitudes  of  the  latter.  Thus 
Apollo  Maponus  seems  to  have  been  a  child  ;  the  Keltic 
Silvanus  is  wholly  unlike  the  Latin  ;  the  Mars  Thingsus 
of  Housesteads  seems  to  have  been  a  protective  deity,  and 
even  Juppiter  appears  in  Gaul  with  a  wheel  and  other  un- 
classical  emblems.^ 

The  second  inscription  consists  of  part  of  two  lines 
round  the  base  of  a  statuette,  of  which  only  the  foot 
remains.  It  was  found  buried  at  a  great  depth  in  English 
Street,  Carlisle,  some  years  ago,  but  has  only  lately  been 
noticed  and  added  to  the  TuUie  House  Museum.  The 
material  is  a  local  sandstone.  The  illustration  shows  it 
adequately. 

The  completion  of  the  fragment  is  not  easy,  but  some- 
thing may  be  conjectured.  The  word  after  deo  may 
perhaps  have  been  cavti.  A  god  Cautes  is  mentioned 
several  times  on  inscriptions  found  at  Rome,  at  Aquileia, 
at  one  or  two  places   in    Germany   and   elsewhere,  and 

•  Ptolemy,  ii,  3-A,  ii,  5-7,  ii,  6-22,  and  c.l.L.V.  p.  810. 

t  As  I  have  saia  elsewhere,  I  doubt  if  the  names  in  the  Notitia  (I.e.)  which 
follow  after  Aiiibog:lanna  are  the  names  of  the  stations  on  the  Wall  west  from 
Birdoswald.  Certainly  this  Tunnocelum  seems  not  to  have  been  per  lineam 
yalli,  i  he  sequence  of  names  in  the  list  is  Aballaba,  Cong-avata,  Axeludunum, 
Gabrosentum,  Glannibanta,  Alione,  Bremetenraco :  Aballaba  and  Axelodunum 
were  at  Papcastle  and  Maryport,  Bremetennacum  was  at  Ribchester,  and  Tun- 
nocelum would  naturally  be  one  of  the  various  intervening  forts. 

X  Hirschfeld  IVestdeutsche  Zeitschrifl,  viii.,  137. 

appears 


226  ON   TWO    ROMAN    INSCRIPTIONS. 

appears  to  be  identical  with  Mithras.*  On  some  of  the 
monuments  he  appears  as  a  youth  with  a  Phrygian  cap 
and  inverted  torch  :  whether  our  statuette  was  of  this 
character,  cannot  now  be  determined. 

The  two  letters  after  CAvri  which  may  be  traces  of  iv 
contain  probably  the  initial  letters  of  the  dedicator's  name, 
say  Julius.f  The  second  line  is  harder  to  explain.  Dr. 
Zangemeister,  whom  I  have  consulted  about  the  whole 
inscription,  suggests  that  the  letter  before  e  is  an  L  im- 
perfectly cut  and  perhaps  completed  (as  in  other  cases)  by 
colouring: :  he  would  then  read  arch(itectus)  l(a)etus  \libens 
solvit.  This  seems  the  most  plausible  of  several  conceiv- 
able supplements,  but  it  is  not  certain. 


*  See  fTestdeutsche  Zeitschrift,  xiit.  (1894),  89;  C.I.L.  vi.  86,  Deo  Caute 
Flavins  Antistianus  vfirj  efgrej^iusj  etc.;  Henzen  5848-5S53.  The  name,  like 
the  kindred  Cauto^ates,  is  probably  oriental,  but  the  derivation  is  unknown. 

t  The  two  bits  of  letters  visible  are  too  far  apart  to  be  fragments  of  a  M,  other- 
wise we  might  guess  Deo  Caiiti  M[itkrae,  though  the  usual  order  or  words  would 
be  Deo  Mithrae  Cauti. 


(  227  ) 


Art.  XX. — Extracts  from  the  Records  of  the  Privy  Council 

relating  to  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  in  the  Reign  of 

Queen  Mary.  By  T.  H.  Hodgson. 
Communicated  at  Lake  Side,  Windermere,  June  13,  1894. 
TN  continuation  of  the  extracts  from  the  Acts  of  the 
Privy  Council  laid  before  this  Society  at  their  meeting 
in  September  last*  I  now  submit  further  extracts  relating 
to  the  Reign  of  Queen  Mary.  These  are  somewhat 
voluminous  as  warfare  on  the  Borders  was  incessant, 
becoming  in  1557  so  serious  as  to  demand  not  only  the 
levy  in  the  midland  counties  of  a  strong  force  of 
**  demilances,"  but  also  the  employment  of  a  body  of 
German  mercenaries. 

Much  trouble  seems  to  have  been  given  throughout  this 
period  by  that  turbulent  race,  the  Grahams  of  the 
Debatable  Land,  the  settlement  effected  or  supposed  to 
be  effected  by  the  Commissioners  appointed  in  the  late 
reign  having  apparently  but  little  result.  The  Surveyor 
of  Berwick  was  directed  to  prepare  estimates  for  a  fort  to 
be  built  at  Netherby  probably  with  the  object  of  keeping 
them  in  check,  but  it  does  not  appear  that  the  project  was 
proceeded  with.  Some  of  the  Liddesdale  men  made  over- 
tures of  alliance  with  the  English  but  they  seem  to  have 
been  regarded  as  rather  dangerous  allies,  Lord  Dacre 
being  more  than  once  cautioned  to  be  heedful  in  his 
dealings  with  them. 

Private  quarrels  not  unfrequently  occupied  the  attention 
of  the  Council — the  old  quarrel  between  Lord  Wharton 
and  Lord  Cumberland  being  still  active  notwithstanding 
the    reconciliation    which   was   supposed  to   have   been 


*  Fide  ante,  p.  69,  for  Extracts  in  the  reigns  o£  Henry  VIII.  and  Edward  V. 

effected 


228      EXTRACTS  1?R0M    RECORDS  OF   PRIVY  COUNCIL. 

effected.  The  relations  between  Lord  Dacre  and  his  son 
Sir  Thomas  appear  to  have  been  somewhat  strained,  the 
latter  making  complaint  of  his  father's  behaviour  to  him, 
while  Lord  Dacre  himself  got  into  the  meshes  of  the  law, 
being  defendant  in  a  suit  instituted  by  one  Hewitt, 
Alderman  of  London,  apparently  a  creditor.  Both  were 
bound  over  before  the  Council  to  abide  the  issue  of  the 
suit,  Leonard  Dacre  and  Bartram  Anderson,  a  prominent 
citizen  of  Newcastle,  being  securities  for  Lord  Dacre. 
No  sureties  appear  to  have  been  taken  for  Hewitt,  his 
own  recognizance  being  deemed  sufficient.  During  Lord 
Dacre's  absence  on  this  business  Leonard  Dacre  took 
charge  of  the  West  Marches  as  his  deputy,  'and  proved 
himself  a  capable  and  efficient  officer. 

In  at  least  one  case,  the  imprisonment  by  Lord  Cum- 
berland of  one  Francis  Marr  in  the  Castle  of  Skipton  the 
Council  interfered  with  commendable  promptitude  to 
check  what  seems  to  have  been  a  grievous  case  of 
oppression. 

The  religious  troubles  of  the  reign  appear  to  have 
little  affected  the  Border  counties.  We  find,  however, 
one  case  in  which  two  prebendaries  of  Carlisle  bearing  the 
names  still  familiar  to  us  of  Kirkbride  and  Sewell  were 
summoned  before  the  Council.  The  cause  does  not  appear 
but  it  was  probably  heresy.  Nothing  is  said  as  to  their 
fate,  but  as  they  do  not  appear  in  Foxe's  list  we  may  hope 
that  they  escaped  the  stake. 

Again  we  have  to  regret  the  fragmentary  way  in  which 
notices  occur — we  get  a  glimpse  of  an  incident  with 
nothing  to  show  how  it  began  or  how  it  ended — while 
many  entries  which  promise  to  be  of  the  highest  interest 
conclude  with  the  words  "  according  to  the  minute 
remaining  in  the  Council  chest,"  a  repository  which 
undoubtedly  contained  a  mass  of  documents  of  the 
greatest  historical  value  but  none  of  which  unfortunately 
are   at   present  known  to  exist.     With  this  preface  we 

leave 


EXTRACTS  FROM  RECORDS  OF  PRIVY  COUNCIL.   229 

leave  the  extracts  to  speak  for  themselves.  I  have  not 
thought  it  desirable  to  condense  them,  but  leave  the 
entries  for  the  most  part  as  they  stand  in  the  Registers, 
preserving  the  curious  spelling  and  quaint  forms  of 
expression. 

1553*  There  are  no  entries  relating  to  the  reign— if  it  may  be  so 
called— of  Lady  Jane  Grey.  The  first  entry  we  find  relating  to 
the  Borders  seems  to  imply  that  Lord  Wharton,  who  was 
Lord  Warden  of  the  East  Marches,  had  shown  some  inclina- 
tion to  support  her,  as  on  29  July,  1553,  there  is  an  entry, 
•*  Letter  to  the  Lord  Wharton  "  for  the  qualifying  of  the 
former  letters  sent  unto  him  (these  are  not  recorded)  touching 
the  rumour  for  the  raising  of  his  force  against  the  Lord  Dacre 
in  the  defence  of  the  usurpers  quarrel.  As  usual  the  Whartons 
and  Dacres  seem  to  have  taken  opposite  sides. 

i553»  25  August.  The  Deputy  Warden  of  the  West  Marches  for 
anempst  Scotland  (Lord  Ogle)  is  thanked  for  his  pains,  required 
to  continiie  therein,  and  to  see  good  order  among  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  late  Debateable  ground  now  known  to  be  mere 
English.  Also  Richard  Greme  (Graham)  and  other  then  inhabi- 
tants there  are  required  to  shew  themselves  conformable. 

3  Sept.  Richard  Wharton's  measures  for  the  discharge  of  the 
superfluous  labourers  and  the  employment  of  those  that  remain 
about  the  amendment  of  the  (Scots)  dykes  are  approved,  and 
he  is  referred  as  to  his  proceedings  touching  the  Scots  doings 
to  the  answer  given  to  the  Warden  of  the  West  Marches. 

g  Sept.  Lord  Evers  (Captain  or  Governor  of  Berwick,  is  in- 
structed that  if  George  Hall  who  stroke  (?  struck)  the 
English  outlaw  at  the  Day  of  March  ought  by  the  law  of 
the  Borders  to  die  he  should  cause  him  to  be  executed  in 
example  of  like  disordered  persons. 

10  Sept.  Instructions  were  sent  to  Sir  Thomas  Dacre  and  the  other 
Commissioners  for  the  Survey  of  Church  goods  within  the 
county  of  Cumberland. 

I553-4'  On  the  2nd  January  commission  as  Warden  of  the  West 
and  Middle  Marches  for  anempst  Scotland  were  sent  to  Lord 
Dacre.  The  following  day  instructions  were  sent  to  him  and 
Lord  Conyers  for  the  apprehension  of  an  Italian  named  Marco 
Anthonio  Erizo  who  was  supposed  to  be  attempting  an  escape 
into  Scotland. 

22  Feb.    Lord  Dacre  is  informed  as  to  money  here  delivered  to  John 

Hall 


230      EXTRACTS  FROM   RECORDS  OF   PRIVY  COUNCIL, 

Hall  (Sergeant  of  Ridesdale  and  Tynedale)  and  Cuthbert 
Musgrave  (Keeper  of  Ridesdale)  "in  trust  towards  the  dis. 
charge  of  such  money  as  is  due  unto  them  in  the  North  for 
the  entertainment  of  their  several  offices.** 

Appendix,  1553.  28th  July.  A  letter  from  the  Queen  addressed  to 
Lord  Wharton  to  continue  in  his  office  until  he  shall  know 
further  of  the  Queen's  pleasure  (from  the  entry  above  it  is 
evident  that  he  was  superseded  by  Lord  Dacre)  and  the  13th 
August  Lord  Evre  is  directed  that  as  certain  persons  have 
offered  themselves  to  object  things  against  Lord  Wharton  he 
should  send  them  up  well  instructed  with  such  matters  as  they 
have. 

1554,  16  April.  A  letter  to  Lord  Wharton  requiring  him  to  deliver 
such  cattle  as  are  come  into  his  hands  which  were  taken  by 
the  English  Borderers  from  the  Scots,  to  Lord  Evre,  to  be  by 
him  delivered  over  to  the  Scots  according  to  the  order  given 
by  Sir  Thomas  Comwallis  and  Sir  Robert  Bowes,  late  Com- 
missioners in  the  North  Parts,  and  to  signify  to  John  Hall 
and  Cuthbert  Musgrave  to  do  the  like  with  such  cattle  as  they 
had  received.  The  like  instructions  to  the  Lords  Dacre  and 
Conyers. 

22  April.  A  letter  from  Lord  Wharton  complaining  of  certain 
wrongs  done  to  him  by  Lord  Dacres  is  sent  to  the  latter, 
'*  praying  him  to  leave  all  their  particular  suits  and  griefs 
to  the  determination  of  the  law. 

27  April.  Lord  Conyers  is  directed  to  take  the  musters  of  all  the 
able  men  in  his  boundary  in  such  form  and  manner  as  was 
used  in  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.,  so  that  the  horsemen  be  at 
all  times  ready  to  defend  the  frontiers  and  the  footmen  to  be 
sent  into  Bei*wick,  Warke,  and  Norham  if  they  shall  want  aid. 
Instructions  to  the  same  effect  were  sent  to  Lord  Dacres,  and 
Sir  Robert  Bowes  was  despatched  to  Berwick  "  for  the  better 
taking  of  the  said  Musters."  The  Receivers  of  Yorkshire  and 
Northumberland  each  had  orders  to  pay  Sir  Robert  Bowes  £^0 
for  this  service. 

Sir  Thomas  Gray  and  other  gentlemen  of  Northumberland 
were  warned  to  shew  themselves  "  more  forward  in  service 
than  they  have  erst  done,  whereby  they  shall  well  redubb  their 
former  slackness." 

18  May.  Lord  Dacres  is  informed  that  the  Queen  is  pleased  to 
pardon  Thomas  Gybson  and  that  the  ten  persons  remaining  in 
Carlisle  Castle  may  be  released  on  bail.  Also  that  his  request 
to  leave  the  Middle  Marches  shall  be  considered.    A  dispute 

between 


EXTRACTS  FROM  RECORDS  OF  PRIVY  COUNCIL.   23I 

between  John  Brisco  and  Cuthbert  Musgrave  is  referred  to 
Lord  Shrewsbury  (President  of  the  Council  of  the  North)  for 
decision. 

27  August.  A  letter  to  the  Lord  Dacres  signifying  unto  him  that  his 
Patents  and  Commissions  for  his  Wardenry  shall  be  renewed, 
with  also  such  news  as  the  Queen's  Highness  hath  received  of 
the  proceedings  between  the  Emperor  and  the  French  King's 
camp  and  touching  Petro  Strozes  overthrowen  in  Italy. 

15  Deer.  This  day  the  Earl  of  Cumberland  and  the  Lord  Dacres, 
between  whom  and  the  Lord  Wharton  much  variance  and 
strife  hath  of  long  time  depended,  were  convented  before  the 
Lords  and  having  good  exhortation  given  them  to  remit  all 
iormer  grudges  rancours  and  displeasures  and  to  continue  in 
unfeigned  amity  and  friendship  they  promised  faithfully  so  to 
do  and  in  token  thereof  took  one  another  by  the  hand  in  the 
presence  of  the  Lords.  A  similar  reconciliation  between 
Lords  Dacre  and  Wharton  had  been  effected  in  March  1551-2, 
as  may  be  remembered  but  seems  to  have  been  only  short- 
lived. 

1554-5*  15th  January.  Richard  Greyme,  Peter  Greyme,  and  Wil- 
liam Greyme  (Grahams  of  the  Debateable  Land)  of  Cum. 
berland  are  bound  in  recognizances  of  ;£'20o  each  *'  to  be  of 
good  abearing  towards  the  King's  (Philip  II.  of  Spain)  and 
Queen's  Highness'  subjects  and  shew  themselves  in  all  points 
of  their  Majesties'  service  in  the  Borders  obedient  to  the 
Warden  of  the  Marches  and  other  officers  there  for  the  time 
being  and  moreover  do  what  lieth  in  them  from  time  to  time 
to  bring  in  the  rebels  and  such  others  of  their  surname  as 
lately  fled  into  Scotland  to  be  answerable  to  the  law." 

19  January.  A  letter  to  my  Lord  Conyers  writing  him  from  hence- 
forth to  give  answer  to  the  Scotch  that  they  can  have  no  more 
letters  for  post-horses,  the  country  is  so  continually  troubled 
therewith  that  **  unnethes "  (scarcely)  post-horses  can  be 
gotten  for  the  Queen's  Majesty's  special  affairs,  and  also 
requiring  him  to  certify  hither  particularly  the  state  of  the 
town  of  Berwick  and  what  number  of  soldiers  remain  there  at 
this  present  or  how  many  of  them  or  the  town  dwellers  be 
Scots  or  suspected  so  to  be. 

4  &  5  February.  Lord  Conyers  is  warned  of  warlike  preparations  of 
the  Scots,  and  that  a  French  force  has  been  embarked  as 
suspected  for  Scotland.  He  is  to  take  precautions  accordingly. 
Sir  Robert  Bowes  received  orders  to  repair  to  Berwick  and  in 
conjunction  with  Lord  Dacres  to  survey  and  report  on  its 
condition.  19 


232   EXTRACTS  FROM  RECORDS  OF  PRIVY  COUNCIL, 

19  February.  A  letter  to  Lords  Dacres  and  Conyers  with  copies  of 
correspondence  between  the  Queen  of  Scots  and  the  Queen's 
Highness,  with  instructions  to  concert  measures  for  redress  of 
things  mentioned  at  their  next  meeting  with  the  Wardens  of 
the  opposite  March.  Lord  Conyers  is  also  directed  to  forward 
the  Queen's  letter  to  the  Queen  of  Scots,  instructing  the 
messenger  to  '*  note  what  conformity  he  findeth  in  the 
Queen  of  Scots  for  the  delivery  of  Pelham,  Menville,  and 
others — ^apparently  prisoners  in  Scotland.  If  this  Menville 
is  as  is  probable  one  Ninion  Menvyle  we  shall  meet  with  him 
again.  He  seems  to  have  been  a  notorious  character  on  the 
Borders. 

1555*  30  March.  A  letter  to  Lord  Wharton  signifying  to  him  his 
appointment  to  the  Captainship  of  the  Castle  of  Berwick  (on 
the  same  page,  however,  follows  a  notice  of  the  appointment 
of  Sir  William  Vavasour  to  the  same  office),  and  also  of  his 
appointment  to  be 'Warden  of  the  Middle  Marches  with  the 
**  offices"  (qy.  Captainship)  of  Alnwick  and  Hexham.  An 
entr>' on  the  nth  May  shews  that  it  was  arranged  that  he 
should  take  over  the  charge  of  the  Middle  Marches  from  Lord 
Dacres  on  the  18th  of  that  month,  but  the  next  day  Lord 
Dacre  is  directed  to  continue  in  charge  of  the  Middle  Marches 
until  he  shall  hear  from  Lord  Wharton  who  had  accidentally 
broken  his  leg,  of  his  recovery  and  amendment,  the  latter 
being  instructed  to  take  over  the  charge  on  his  recovery.  Sir 
George  Conyers,  Sir  William  Vavasour  and  Mr.  Norton, 
Captain  of  Norham,  were  appointed  Commissioners  to  be  pre- 
sent at  the  entry  of  Lord  Wharton  with  his  charge. 

2 1st  May.  A  letter  to  Lord  Dacres  to  report  what  was  the  first 
occasion  that  the  Gremes — ^Grahams  of  the  Debateable  Land 
— fled  into  Scotland,  how  they  have  demeaned  themselves 
since  being  there,  what  answers  they  have  made  to  his 
messengers,  and  what  his  opinion  is  touching  reformation  to 
be  had  in  this  matter.  Lord  Wharton,  Sir  Richard  Musgrave 
(Qaptain  of  Bewcastle)  and  Robert  of  Collingwood  were  also 
called  on  to  **  signify  their  knowledge  in  the  premisses  hither 
and  to  keep  the  same  close  to  themselves."  Lord  Conyers, 
Deputy  Warden,  was  instructed  to  use  caution  with  regard  to 
the  Laird  of  Goldenknolls,  who  as  it  would  appear  was 
expected  to  take  refuge  in  England,  this  however  was  not 
to  be  permitted,  it  being  suspected  to  be  a  plot. 

31st  May.  A  proclamation  was  issued  touching  the  disorders  of 
the  Grahams,  of  this  we  have  the  frequent  but  disappointing 

notice 


BXTRACTS  ^ROll   RECORDS  01^  PRIW  COUNCIL.      ^33 

notice  that  it  was  "  according  to  the  minute  remaining  in  the 
Council  Chest.*'  Lord  Wharton  was  notified  of  this  pro- 
clamation and  exhorted  *'  to  forget  all  private  displeasure  and 
join  with  Lord  Dacre  in  the  service  of  the  King's  and  Queen's 
Majesties.*'  By  a  letter  to  Lord  Dacre  of  the  znd  June  it 
appears  that  Mr.  Maxwell  was  desirous  to  meet  him  for 
reforming  the  matter  of  the  Grahams,  Lord  Dacre  however 
is  required  in  no  case  to  suffer  the  said  Maxwell  to  enter  the 
English  Borders. 

13th  June.  The  Wardens  of  the  Marches  were  cautioned  to  have 
their  forces  in  readiness  and  to  keep  a  vigilant  eye  on  the 
Scots  doings — it  appears  that  a  Scotch  invasion  was  appre- 
hended. 

23rd  June.  A  letter  was  sent  to  Lord  Wharton  thanking  him  for 
his  report  of  the  submission  of  the  Grahams.  The  znd  July 
a  further  bill  was  sent  to  him  of  thanks  for  his  dealing  in  the 
matter  of  the  Grahams,  also  forwarding  complaints  from  the 
Queen  of  Scots  of  disorders  on  the  Borders,  again  according 
to  the  Minute  in  the  Council  Chest. 

13th  July.  The  Wardens  were  directed  ta  learn  by  their  best 
espials  what  time  the  ships  of  Denmark  came  into  Scotland, 
and  with  what  intention,  with  such  other  information  as  they 
can  gather. 

26  July.  A  letter  of  thanks  to  Lord  Shrewsbury  (President  of  the 
Council  in  the  North)  '*  for  his  diligence  and  travail  in  the 
planting  of  good  order  upon  the  Borders,  and  as  touching  his 
Lordships  repair  to  Carlisle  the  6th  of  the  next  month  to  see 
good  order  there  their  Majesties  well  liketh  the  same  and  for 
the  better  order  of  the  country  and  the  matter  of  the  Greames 
his  Lordship  willed  at  his  coming  to  Carlisle  to  cause  pro- 
clamation to  be  made  that  so  many  of  the  Greames  which  are 
yet  abroad  as  will  come  in  by  some  certain  day  by  his  Lord- 
ship to  be  limited  shall  be  pardoned  four  of  the  chief  offenders 
only  to  be  excepted  by  his  Lordship  and  named  at  his  Lord- 
ships discretion  in  the  Proclamation."  > 

iftt  August.  Further  instructions  were  sent  him  *'to  take  such 
order  for  the  due  administration  of  justice  to  the  Greymes  as 
they  may  be  satisfied  of  the  wrongs  done  to  them  for  that  they 
are  bound  to  answer  the  wrongs  by  them  done  to  others, 
whereby  they  shall  be  the  better  able  to  answer  the  same  and 
to  do  their  Majesties  the  better  service." 

*'  As  for  the  Scottes  of  the  surnames  of  Johnsons,  Irwens 
and  Belles  to  be  suffered  in  the  wastes  of  Tynedale  in  case 

they 


234      EXTRACTS   FROM   RECORDS  OF  !>RIVY  COUNCIL, 

they  be  pursued,  to  use  that  matter  as  he  thinks  best,  so  as  it 
be  not  known  to  be  done  from  hence  or  officers  there." 

1 6  August.  The  Bishop  of  Durham,  Lord  Wharton,  and  Lord 
Conyers  are  warned  to  be  at  all  times  ready  with  their  force 
to  withstand  all  attempts  as  shall  be  offered  by  the  Scottes. 

28  August.  The  Wardens  of  the  Marches  are  informed  of  the 
intended  departure  of  the  King  (Philip  H.  of  Spain)  for 
Flanders,  and  to  have  regard  to  the  good  rule  of  the  country 
and  cause  spreaders  of  false  rumours  to  be  punished. 

II  Sept.  William  Phelipps,  yeoman,  of  Buckingham,  was  bound 
in  recognizances  to  appear  and  answer  the  charge  of  robbing 
one  William  Briskoo  or  Brisco,  clerk.  This  may  have  been 
one  of  the  Briscos  of  Cumberland,  but  there  is  no  clue  by 
which  he  can  be  identified. 

20  Sept.  A  letter  to  Richard  Musgrave,  whom  Sir  Rise  (sic)  Mus- 
grave,  knight,  deceased,  left  his  deputie  at  Beau  Castell 
(Bewcastle)  signifying  unto  him  the  King  and  Queen's  Majes- 
ties pleasures  for  his  continuance  still  in  the  said  charge  untill 
a  new  officer  be  thereunto  appointed  and  requiring  him  in  the 
meantime  to  have  a  diligent  eye  to  the  good  order  of  the 
country  thereabouts. 

20  October.  The  Lords  thought  good  that  for  the  office  of  Bew- 
casteli  the  Queen's  Highness  is  to  be  moved  that  the  same 
office  be  appointed  to  some  such  gentleman  as  will  dwell 
thereupon  and  he  to  have  ;f  100  fee  by  year  by  patent  'vith 
Plumpton  Park  in  lease  during  the  time  he  is  officer ;  provided 
that  he  let  and  sel  the  said  Park  to  such  as  will  serve  with 
horse  and  harness  and  none  other  and  to  pay  for  the  same 
Park  as  the  rent  is  now  and  the  certainty  of  the  rent  now  to 
be  known,  and  to  put  out  no  tenant  that  will  dwell  upon  it  nor 
none  such  as  have  the  Queen's  lease. 

23  October.  Hugh  Sewele  and  Barnaby  Kirkebred  (Kirkbride)  Pre- 
bendaries of  Carlisle,  appeared  in  answer  to  summons.  On 
the  loth  November  the  matter  was  committed  to  Sir  Edward 
Hastings,  Master  of  the  Horse,  and  Bourne,  one  of  the 
Secretaries,  for  examination,  with  power  to  commit  them  to 
prison  if  they  think  good  till  the  matter  be  further  examined. 
Nothing  more  is  heard  of  them,  however,  and  it  does  not 
appear  what  they  were  accused  of. 

i6jNovember.  A  compromise  was  arranged  with  Lord  Wharton 
who  was  claiming  arrears  of  pay  due  to  him  while  as  it 
appears  he  was  himself  largely  in  arrear  as  a  Crown  tenant. 
It  was  agreed  that  on  his  paying  the  rents  he  owed  for  the 

year 


EXTRACTS  PROM  RECORDS  OP  PRIW  COUNCIL.  2^5 

year  ended  at  the  preceding  Michaelmas  he  should  have  full 
payment  for  the  residue  of  his  fees. 
10  December,  A  letter  to  Lord  Dacres  desiring  him  to  aid  with  his 
good  will  and  favour  Symon  Musgrave,  Captain  of  Beaucastell 
in  the  execution  from  time  to  time  of  his  office  and  charge 
these  so  as  by  his  Lordships  favour  towards  him  the  King  and 
Queen's  Majesties  may  be  the  better  served  in  those  parts. 

Another  letter  to  the  Sheriff  of  Cumberland  (according  to 
the  County  Histories  Thomas  Sandford)  and  to  Albany  Fether- 
stonhaugh  requiring  them  in  the  King  and  Queen*s  Majesties 
names  that  at  such  time  as  the  said  Simon  Musgrave  shall 
enter  into  the  said  charge,  not  only  to  be  there  present  with 
him  themselves  and  to  be  aiding  and  assisting  him  therein 
but  also  taking  a  perfect  view  of  the  state  of  the  house  of 
Heaucastell  and  the  rest  of  the  office  to  certify  the  same  hither 
by  their  letters,  declaring  in  what  sort  he  findeth  the  same  at 
the  time  of  his  entry  thereunto. 

26  December.  A  letter  to  Lord  Dacres  (Warden  of  West  Marches) 
with  a  Statute  book  for  the  Enclosures  upon  the  Borders  for 
anempst  Scotland  wherein  he  is  willed  to  signify  his  opinion 
and  what  men  his  Lordship  thinketh  meet  for  the  execution 
of  the  said  Statute.  The  Council  were  evidently  impatient  to 
have  this  scheme  carried  out  as  on  the  2Sth  a  list  of  Commis- 
sioners was  sent  to  Lord  Shrewsbury,  President  of  the  Council 
of  the  North,  with  instructions  to  consider  by  what  means  the 
Statute  might  be  most  readily  executed.  They  were  specially 
amongst  other  things  "  to  consider  the  breadth  and  deepness 
of  the  ditches  to  be  made,  in  what  places  the  new  dwelling 
houses  may  to  all  purposes  be  best  placed  for  safeguard, 
defence  and  annoyance,  what  decayed  houses  and  castles  are 
to  be  chiefly  first  repaired,  to  cause  the  dwellings  to  be  placed 
as  near  the  frontiers  as  may  be,  and  to  consider  the  making 
of  highways." 

31  December.  Serjeant  Browne  (Anthony  Browne,  afterwards  Lord 
Chief  Justice  of  the  Common  Pleas,  and  a  notorious  persecutor 
of  heretics)  and  the  Solicitor  General,  John  Gosnold,  were 
called  on  for  their  opinion  of  a  claim  of  Sir  Thomas  Newen- 
ham  to  the  office  of  Receiver  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland. 
There  is  no  record  of  the  decision  as  to  his  claim. 

1555.6,  19  January.  Orders  were  given  that  all  letters  for  the  North 
**  shall  be  pacquetted  with  thread  for  the  more  safer  con- 
veyance thereof." 

9  February.    A  letter  was  written  to  the  Lord  Treasurer  touching 

Bewecastell 


236      EXTRACtS  FROM    RECORDS   OF   I>RIVY  COUNCIL. 

Bewecastell,  Plumpton  Park  and  the  other  parts  of  the  North, 
with  the  tantalising  addition  "  according  to  the  Minute  in  the 
Council  Chest." 

15  February.  A  dispute  between  the  Captain  of  the  Citadel  and  the 
Mayor  and  Citizens  of  Carlisle  for  the  keeping  of  the  keys  of 
the  postern  gate,  the  new  gate,  and  the  cross  wall  was  referred 
to  Lord  Dacre  for  his  decision. 

20  February.  Lord  Wharton  was  informed  that  the  Commissioners 
for  Enclosures  on  the  Borders  shall  only  meddle  with  the 
counties  of  Northumberland,  Durham,  and  the  East  and 
Middle  Marches.  As  we  shall  shortly  come  to  some  long 
entries  respecting  the  Debateable  Land  I  think  it  probable 
that  there  was  a  separate  Commission  for  Cumberland. 

28  February.  In  a  letter  of  instructions  to  Lord  Wharton  chiefly 
as  to  Berwick  he  is  reminded  to  **  rectify  the  fort  of  War- 
coppe.** 

2  June.  An  entry  of  instructions  to  Lord  Wharton,  though  relating 
chiefly  to  the  East  Border  is  of  interest  as  it  records  the 
practice  at  Border  meetings,  which  is  said  to  be  '*  that  both 
parties  being  come  to  the  edge  of  the  Borders  the  Scots  do 
first  send  over  to  the  Englishmen  certain  gentlemen  of  theirs 
to  demand  assurance  for  their  company  which  being  granted 
them  we  send  over  others  to  demand  the  like  assurance,  the 
same  being  granted  the  Eftglish  party  do  thereupon  go  first 
over  to  the  Scots  and  in  the  open  fields  treat  upon  the  causes 
of  their  coming  together  and  agree  upon  the  next  place  of 
meeting  upon  English  ground  in  some  convenient  tent  or 
house  for  that  purpose  and  so  afterwards  interchangeably  to 
meet  one  day  in  Scotland  and  another  day  in  England.'* 

5  June.  A  letter  to  Lord  Dacres  that  the  Lords  have  considered 
his  letters  and  the  plotte  touching  the  fort  to  be  built  at  Black 
Bank  and  although  they  do  not  mislike  but  that  it  were 
requisite  a  fort  should  be  there  yet  forasmuch  as  the  Scottes 
do  yet  build  in  no  other  place  but  in  Langholm  and  Annandale 
and  for  that  these  Borders  are  presently  in  good  strength  it  is 
not  thought  necessary  any  new  fortification  should  begin  there 
unless  the  Scottes  should  build  more  near  hand  which  if  they 
shall  do  upon  advertisement  of  the  same  hither  order  shall  be 
forthwith  taken  either  in  fortifying  that  Bank  or  otherwise  as 
may  stand  best  with  the  Queen's  Majesties  service,  he  is  also 
required  to  confer  more  often  with  the  Lord  Wharton  touching 
the  state  of  the  Borders. 

19  June.     A  letter  to  the  Lord  Dacre  that  whereas  the  ancient  law 

of 


EXTRACTS  FROM  RECORDS  OF  PRIVY  COUNCIL.   237 

of  the  Borders  is  that  such  as  fly  out  of  England  into  Scotland 
and  commit  any  offence  there  and  after  he  return  hither  he 
shall  be  answerable  in  the  same  Marches  where  he  first 
toucheth  which  order  his  Lordship  hath  not  observed  for 
having  been  sent  unto  from  the  Lord  Wharton  for  dyvers  like 
offenders  who  returning  into  England  after  their  offence  com- 
mitted in  Scotland  and  touching  first  in  the  Middle  Marches 
be  nevertheless  kept  in  the  West  March  and  cannot  be 
brought  to  justice,  which  is  taken  here  to  be  very  strange,  he 
is  therefore  willed  and  commanded  in  the  King*s  and  Queen's 
Majesties  names  both  to  send  all  such  whose  names  are  con- 
tained in  a  schedule  sent  herewith,  as  all  others  that  the  said 
Lord  Wharton  shall  from  time  to  time  send  for. 

22  June.  A  letter  to  the  Lord  Wharton  that  when  it  is  advertised 
here  from  the  Lord  Dacres  that  certain  English  Borderers 
making  raids  into  Scotland  use  commonly  to  return  home 
again  but  with  part  of  their  booty  leaving  behind  them  the 
residue  with  such  of  the  Scottes  as  do  keep  the  same  colour- 
ably  to  their  uses  and  yet  nevertheless  the  Scottish  Wardens 
at  their  meetings  do  demand  the  whole  the  said  Lord  Dacres 
is  written  unto  to  signify  the  said  Lord  Wharton  before  the 
next  day  of  meeting  what  their  names  are  that  use  this 
practice  with  other  particulars  touching  their  doings  to  the 
end  his  Lordship  may  at  his  meeting  with  the  Scottish 
Commissioners  signify  the  same  unto  them  and  thereupon 
to  take  further  order  with  them. 

A  letter  to  Lord  Dacre  to  the  same  effect,  with  a  postscript* 
that  where  (as)  Lamplewe*s  brother  hath  been  here  to  make 
suit  for  his  libertie  it  is  signified  to  his  Lordship  that  no 
comfort  is  given  him  herein  and  for  that  he  is  determined  to 
obey  his  order  it  is  hoped  that  his  Lordship  will  by  his 
discretion  restore  him  to  liberty  ;  and  touching  the  ground 
enclosed  by  Lamplewe,  whereof  the  question  now  is,  it  is 
informed  here  that  in  the  time  of  King  Henry  the  VIII. 
when  the  Citadel  was  built  the  townsmen  of  Carlisle  were 
sufficiently  recompensed  for  the  same  ground  and  the  houses 
built  upon  the  same  so  that  it  cannot  be  theirs  but  the  Queen's 
Majesty's  ground. 

4  July.  A  letter  to  the  Lord  Dacre  touching  the  meeting  with  the 
Warden  of  the  Middle  March  in  Scotland,  at  Kyrsopp 
(Kershope)  or  that  part  of  Liddesdale  that  adjoineth  on  the 
West  March  of  England,  according  to  the  Minute  in  the 
Council  Chest. 

19  July. 


238      EXTRACTS   PROM   RECORDS  OF  PRIVY  COUNCIL. 

19  July.  A  letter  to  the  surname  of  the  Grames,  that  where  (as) 
they  have  in  a  skarmouche  of  late  taken  certain  Scottishmen 
prisoners  they  are  all  commanded  upon  their  allegiance  to 
deliver  all  the  same  prisoners  to  the  Lord  Dacres  to  be  by 
him  further  ordered  according  to  the  laws  of  the  Marches, 
which  they  have  already  promised  to  do,  and  also  to  use 
themselves  obedient  toward  him  and  his  officers  in  all  other 
matters  besides  wherein  he  shall  direct  them  and  their  doings 
for  the  better  conservation  of  amity  and  quiet. 

A  copy  was  sent  to  Lord  Dacre  *'  whom  he  is  willed  to  have 
such  consideration  of  (the  doubtfulness  of  the  time  considered) 
as  his  wise  and  discreet  administration  of  justice  may  serve 
to  preserve  the  number  of  the  Queen's  Majesty's  subjects. 

26  July.  A  letter  to  Lord  Dacre  eftsones  requiring  him  on  the 
Queen's  behalf  to  cause  all  such  Scottishmen  or  their  goods 
as  shall  be  found  to  remain  in  the  hands  of  any  Englishman 
within  his  Wardenry  to  be  immediately  restored  according  to 
justice  and  as  shall  presently  be  prescribed  unto  him  by  her 
Majesties  Commissioners  presently  upon  the  frontiers  wherein 
he  is  required  to  use  the  more  diligence  for  that  it  is  alleged 
by  the  Scottes  that  certain  of  his  own  servants  were  at  some 
of  the  spoils  and  robberies  committed  upon  the  Scottes. 

28  July.     Letters  to  the  Lord  Dacres  signifying  the  receipt  of  his  of 

the  2ist  and  23rd  hereof  and  the  Queen's  good  acceptation  of 
his  diligent  advertisements  therein  and  as  touching  the  Scottes 
complaints  against  the  Grames  and  other  subjects  although  it 
was  signified  to  him  by  several  letters  the  last  being  of  the 
25th  (26th  ?)  hereof,  that  his  Lordship  should  cause  the  Greames 
and  all  other  Englishmen  to  restore  all  Scottish  prisoners  or 
their  goods  according  to  justice  for  which  purpose  the  Lords 
wrote  also  their  letters  to  the  said  Greames  commanding  them 
to  follow  such  order  as  should  be  prescribed  unto  them  in  this 
behalf  either  by  the  Queen's  Commissions  on  the  Borders  or 
his  Lordship's  yet  because  it  was  not  advertised  hither  from 
his  Lordship  that  they  have  followed  this  order  their  Lordships 
have  eftsones  written  a  letter  in  this  closed  to  them  charging 
them  to  see  restitution  made  immediately  or  else  his  Lordship 
to  force  them  by  strong  hand  and  to  use  herein  his  wisdom. 
A  letter  to  the  Greames  according  to  that  effect. 

29  July.    Orders  that  the  Posts  between  this  and  the  North  should 

each  of  them  keep  a  book  and  make  entry  therein  of  every 
letter  that  he  shall  receive,  the  time  of  delivery  thereof  unto 
his  hands  with  the  parties  names  that  shall  bring  it  to  him, 

whose 


EXTRACTS  PROM  RECORDS  OF  PRIVY  COUNCIL.   239 

whose  handes  he  shall  also  take  to  his  book  witnessing  the 
same  note  to  be  true  which  order  was  also  commanded  to  be 
given  him  at  the  Court  and  the  Wardens  of  the  Marches 
towards  Scotland  were  required  to  do  the  like. 

8  August.  Letter  to  Lords  Wharton  and  Dacres  respecting  the 
disorders  of  the  Greames  and  other  Englishmen  upon  the 
West  Marches,  according  to  the  Minute  in  the  Council  Chest. 

II  August.  A  letter  to  the  Lord  Wharton  with  copies  of  the 
Dowager  of  Scotlands  letter  and  the  Queen*s  Majesties  answer 
thereunto,  wherein  the  said  Dowager  complaineth  of  sundrie 
disorders  committed  upon  the  West  Borders  and  because 
Rosse  the  herald  brought  the  particularities  of  those  dis- 
orders written  in  Instructions,  his  Lordship  is  willed  to 
conceive  like  instructions  of  the  beginning  of  this  matter  and 
the  continuance  of  the  same,  and  chieBy  to  declare  how  that 
about  12  months  past  the  Greames  having  committed  an 
offence  in  the  West  Marches  fled  into  Scotland  and  there  were 
received  and  maintained  and  could  at  no  time  by  that  means 
be  brought  to  justice  which  hath  been  the  greatest  and  only 
cause  of  these  disorders  which  he  is  willed  to  alledge  as  the 
ground  of  all  inconveniences  and  nevertheless  to  signify  the 
Queen's  Majesties  good  minde  to  continue  the  amity  between 
both  realms  and  to  see  things  redressed,  for  which  purpose 
she  hath  presently  written  to  the  Lord  Dacres  a  copy  of  which 
letter  is  herewith  sent  unto  him  which  he  (is)  willed  to  shew 
to  the  Commissioners  if  he  think  so  good,  signifying  also  unto 
him  that  the  Lord  Dacres  is  likewise  written  to  to  see  things 
brought  to  good  quiet  and  to  be  contented  to  be  directed  by 
his  Lordship  in  these  matters  and  notwithstanding  he  seemeth 
to  claim  redress  at  the  Scottes  hands  first  and  useth  that  for 
a  means  to  put  of  the  redress  of  the  last  attemptates  com- 
mitted by  the  Englishmen  yet  considering  the  qualities  of  the 
offences  are  not  like  and  that  which  the  Scottes  complain  of 
was  committed  since  the  Commissioners  meeting  the  said  Lord 
Dacres  is  required  to  cause  that  to  be  first  answered  according 
to  justice  and  the  laws  of  the  Borders,  the  Scottes  doing  the 
like  for  the  attemptates  committed  against  this  realm  within 
the  same  time. 
A  letter  to  the  Lord  Dacres  of  the  effect  aforesaid. 

I4  August.  A  letter  to  the  Lord  Dacres  that  when  the  Commis- 
sioners on  the  B.irders  have  written  several  times  unto  him  to 
see  redress  done  and  to  follow  such  direction  for  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  peace,  a  (sic  ;  ?  and)  reformation  for  disorders 

within 


240      EXTRACTS   FROM   RECORDS  OF  PRIVY  COUNCIL, 

within  his  Wardenry  as  should  be  prescribed  unto  him  from 
them,  forasmuch  as  by  the  copy  of  his  letters  seen  by  the 
Lords  here  it  appeareth  that  it  doth  not  follow  their  said 
directions,  neither  hath  he  repaired  himself  to  them  nor  sent 
three  or  four  sufficiently  instructed  to  answer  for  him  in  these 
things  that  should  be  treated  of  before  them  the  loth  of  this 
present  August  and  alledging  excuses  of  no  importance  hath 
done  neither  the  one  nor  the  other,  their  Lordships  do  much 
marvel  thereat  and  not  knowing  what  inconvenience  may 
fellow  thereof  have  good  hope  that  his  Lordship  hath  been 
better  advised  since  and  hath  kept  the  da3's  prescribed  unto 
him  by  the  said  Commissioners  or  else  there  remaineth  great 
oversight  in  him,  for  as  on  the  one  side  there  is  no  disorders 
on  the  Borders  but  in  his  Wardenry  but  remain  in  quiet  to 
the  satisfaction  of  both  sides  so  hearing  that  the  Scottes  do 
levy  men  pretending  the  lack  of  justice  at  his  hands  their 
Lordships  do  signify  that  if  they  must  needs  witnesse  if  any 
inconvenience  should  follow  that  they  have  sundry  times 
written  unto  him  not  only  to  see  justice  done  and  restitution 
to  be  made  unto  the  Scottes  of  any  attemptates  in  disorders 
committed  upon  them  by  any  of  their  Majesties  subjects 
within  his  Lordships  rule,  but  also  for  that  purpose  to  follow 
all  such  orders  as  should  be  to  his  Lordship  prescribed  by 
their  Majesties'  said  Commissioners  and  eftsoons  he  is  hereby 
charged  to  have  better  regard  unto  the  said  commandments 
from  hence  and  not  only  follow  the  direction  of  the  said  Com- 
missioners in  all  other  things  but  also  in  sending  to  them  such 
as  they  shall  write  for  and  to  repair  himself  to  them  if  they 
shall  so  require  him  and  to  stand  upon  his  guard  and  have  his 
force  in  such  arredynes  as  if  the  Scottes  upon  this  occasion 
would  attempt  any  enterprise  his  Lordship  might  be  able  to 
meet  with  the  hame  in  time. 
A  copy  of  this  letter  was  sent  to  Lord  Wharton. 

4  Sept.  Letters  of  thanks  to  Lord  Dacres,  Lord  Wharton,  and  the 
Commissioners  on  the  Scottish  Border  for  "  their  advertise- 
ments and  towardness  shewed  in  the  execution  of  justice.** 
Also  a  parcel  of  letters  from  the  French  Agent  in  London  was 
sent  for  delivery  to  Mons.  Dissell  (probably  Doycelleor  D'Oysel.) 

i6  Sept.  A  letter  to  Lord  Wharton  and  the  Commissioners  with 
thanks  for  their  pains  taken  in  the  matters  committed  to  their 
charge,  and  where  (as)  it  appeareth  that  the  Scottish  Commis- 
sioners have  resisted  to  come  to  an  end  for  the  Greames-and 
disorders  of  the  West  Borders  until  they  may  understand  the 

opinion 


EXTRACTS   1?R0M   records  OP  1>RIVY  C6uKClL.      ^4! 

opinion  of  the  Scottish  Council  at  Edinburgh  the  said  Com- 
missioners are  willed  in  case  the  answer  that  shall  be  returned 
from  the  Scottes  shall  seem  reasonable  then  to  take  such  end 
with  them  in  that  matter  as  they  shall  think  convenient  but  if 
their  offers  shall  not  seem  fit  to  be  embraced  then  to  ask  time 
to  know  the  Council's  resolution  thereon  here  as  the  Scottes 
at  the  first  demanded  respite  to  make  their  Council  privy  to 
the  motion  made  in  that  matter  to  (sic)  our  Commissioners. 

It  may  be  noted  that  in  the  rough  copy  of  the  proceedings 
of  the  Council  which  for  this  period  happens  to  be  still  existing 
the  following  entry,  which  has  not  been  transferred  to  the  fair 
copy,  occurs  under  date  26  July. 

A  letter  to  Dr.  Oglethorpe,  Elect  of  Carlisle,  requiring  him 
in  the  Queen*s  Majesties  name  that  forasmuch  as  the  gift  of 
his  promotions  belongeth  now  to  her  Royal  Highness  by  her 
prerogative  royal  by  reason  of  his  election  to  the  Bishopric  of 
Carlisle  he  should  forbear  therefore  in  any  wise  to  resign  any 
of  his  said  promotions  and  leave  the  same  to  be  bestowed  by 
Her  Majesty. 
13  Oct.  A  letter  to  the  Lord  Dacres  thanking  him  for  his  advertise- 
ments of  the  proceedings  of  the  Scottish  rebels  and  liking  well 
his  motion  for  the  placing  hereafter  of  able  and  serviceable 
men  to  be  the  Queen's  Highness  tenants  within  his  rule  in  the 
counties  of  Cuniberland  and  Westmorland  the  Lords  have 
promised  after  the  general  survey  to  remember  the.  same 
specially  and  to  give  order  for  it. 

16  Nov.    A  letter  to  therle  of  Cumberland  towching  certain  wronges 

offered  by  him  to  the  Lord  Wharton  his  servants  and  tenants 
in  the  County  of  Westmorland,  according  to  the  mynutc  re- 
maining in  the  Counsaill  Chest. 

17  Nov.    A  letter  to  the  Lord  Wharton  and  the  rest  of  the  Commis- 

sioners upon  the  Borders  touching  the  aunswere  by  them  to  be 
made  unto  the  Scottish  Commissioners  for  the  Greames'  bill, 
according  to  the  mynute. 
23  Nov.  A  letter  to  Lord  Wharton  that  when  it  is  written  hither 
from  the  Lord  Dacres  that  the  billes  filed  and  redresseable  on 
the  West  Marches  whiche  the  Scottes  demand  amount  to 
mUiij  ciiij  ""  and  that  that  is  to  be  receyved  of  them  not  above 
c^*  his  Lordship  is  willed  to  take  ordere  where  they  are  most 
charged  as  sone  as  they  shall  receyve  the  like  and  participate 
his  doings  herein  to  the  Lord  Dacres  so  as  their  doings  on  al 
partes  maye  be  equall  towching  the  delyverie  of  recompences. 
A  letter  to  the  like  effect  to  the  Lord  Dacres. 

19  Dec. 


^42      EXTRACTS   t^ROM    RECORDS   OP   PRiVY  COUNCIL. 

19  Dec.  Lettres  to  the  Lord  Wharton  and  the  Lord  Dacres  for  the 
doinge  of  justice  upon  the  Borders,  in  suche  sorte  as  is  agreed 
by  the  Commissioners  as  well  from  the  Queen's  Highness  as 
from  the  Boord,  according  to  the  mynutes  remayning  in  the 
Counsaill  Chest. 

1556-7.  31  Jany.  A  letter  to  the  Lord  Dacres  requiring  him  that  in 
case  the  Lord  Flemyng,  being  eftsones  by  him  required  to 
appoint  a  newe  daie  of  meeting  for  redresse  of  disorders  shall 
refuse  to  aunswere  his  expectation  in  that  behalf  and  by  that 
meanes  be  occasion  of  delaie  of  justice  to  signifie  the  matter 
himself  to  the  Dowager  in  Scotlande  and  so  to  learne  what  is 
ment  thereby,  and  further  requiringe  his  Lordship  to  keep  and 
perfourme  the  ordre  taken  by  the  Commissioners  of  bothe 
realmes  for  the  deliverie  unto  the  said  Lord  Flemyng  either 
Riche  Greyme,  Fergus  or  Thomas  Greyme,  if  it  shall  appere 
unto  him  by  aunswere  from  the  Lord  Wharton  that  the  ordre 
was  so  in  dede  that  cone  of  them  three  shuld  be  delivered  and 
none  elles,  as  the  said  Lord  Flemyng  alleageth. 

23  Feby.  Lord  Whaiton  is  required  to  cause  the  Scottes  that  are 
taken  to  be  proceaded  with  according  to  the  auncient  lawes  of 
the  Borders,  and  to  cause  Noble,  the  Englisshe  rebell  taken 
with  them  to  be  ordered  without  delaye  according  to  justice, 
that  his  punishment  be  a  terrour  to  all  such  as  shall  attempte 
the  like.  (The  **  English  rebel  Noble"  may  perhaps  have 
been,  though  the  circumstances  do  not  quite  agree,  the  un- 
fortunate Hobbie  Noble,  whose  fate  is  the  subject  of  the  well- 
known  ballad). 

1557*  31  May.  The  Lord  Treasurer  (Marquis  of  Winchester)  is 
directed  to  cause  searche  to  be  made  in  the  exchequiet  to 
whome  the  abbey  and  Manour  oi  Holme  Coltram,  in  the 
countie  of  Cumberland,  is  now  leased,  for  what  terme  of  yeres, 
and  what  fine  was  paid  to  their  Majesties  for  the  same,  and  to 
retourne  the  certentie  hereof  with  speed  hither. 
2  June.  A  letter  to  therle  of  Westmorland  (Lieutenant  of  the 
North)  the  Bishop  of  Durham  (Cuthbert  Tunstall)  and  other 
the  Commissioners  upon  the  Borders,  sending  unto  them  a 
copie  of  a  lettre  sent  from  Sir  Thomas  Dacre,  knight  to  the 
Lord  Dacre,  his  father,  towching  an  enterprise  attempted  by 
the  Scottes  of  Annerdale  upon  the  King  and  Queen's  Majesties 
subjects  upon  the  West  Borders,  and  albeit  the  booty  by  them 
taken  was  reskued  and  many  moore  of  the  Scottishe  men 
slaine  than  of  the  Englisshe  yet  bicause  this  enterprise  was  of 
great  consequence  and  committed  sins  th  appointment  of  the 

Commissioners 


EXTRACTS  t^ROM  RECORDS  OP  t»RlVY  COUNCIL.     243 

Commissioners  they  are  willed  to  set  fourtbe  the  matter  moore 
ernestly  and  to  let  it  be  the  first  thing  they  move  at  their 
mealing  and  to  require  redresse  of  the  same  to  the  ende  that 
like  as  the  Scottes  have  allwaies  hitheninto  pressed  the  case 
of  the  Greames  bicause  it  was  during  the  time  of  the  late  Com- 
mission 90  by  their  example  they  may  presse  this  matter  of 
the  Scottes  of  Annedale  for  the  same  respecte  as  earnestlie  as 
the  Scottes  do  the  matters  of  Greames. 

8  June.  A  lettre  to  Kidgewaie,  Surveyor  of  Barwicke,  to  consider 
what  the  charges  will  be  of  building  a  forte  at  Netherbie  and 
for  the  repairing  of  the  great  dongeon  at  Carlisle  and  the  late 
Freer  House  there  for  the  keping  of  the  munition  and  ordinance 
and  conferring  with  the  Lord  Dacres  herein  to  signifie  hither 
what  the  same  shall  ammount  to. 

A  lettre  to  Simon  Musgrave  esquier  to  repaire  fourthwich  to 
Bewcastell  whereof  he  is  Capitaine  and  to  make  his  contynuall 
abode  and  attendaunce  upon  his  charge  there  for  the  better 
defence  and  salvegarde  of  the  same. 

A  lettre  to  the  Lord  Oacre  with  the  letter  enclosed  addressed 
to  Simon  Musgrave  towching  his  repair  to  his  charge  in  Bew- 
castell which  he  is  willed  to  deliver  unto  him  and  if  he  shall 
not  accomplishe  the  contents  of  the  same  then  to  cause  him  to 
be  removed  from  that  charge  and  to  see  that  sum  other  trustie 
personne  have  the  charge  of  the  said  Castell. 

13  July.  A  lettre  to  the  Lord  Dacre  wylling  him  to  forbeare  to  entre- 
meddle  either  with  Sir  Thomas  Dacres  servauntes  or  tenaunts 
or  with  any  other  of  the  Queen's  Majesties  subjects  to  the 
intent  to  sende  them  to  any  other  place  of  service  from  those 
Borders  withowt  her  Highnes*  speciall  commaundement. 

15  July.  A  long  entry  occurs  of  insthictions  to  Lord  Dacre  and  the 
Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  President  of  the  Council  in  the  North, 
but  as  a  marginal  note  shews  that  these  instructions  were 
cancelled,  it  is  not  reproduced  here. 

2  August.  A  lettre  to  Sir  James  Crofts  signiBeing  unto  him  the 
sending  down  of  therle  of  Northumberland  in  which  matter  he 
is  willed  to  breke  with  the  Lorde  Wharton  and  to  perswade 
him  to  be  satisfied  herewith  and  to  signifie  his  inclynacion 
towching  the  same  hither  with  spede.  (Sir  James  Croftes  was 
Marshal  of  Berwick,  l^ord  Northumberland  was  appointed  to 
be  Joint  Warden  of  the  East  and  Middle  Marches,  at  which  it 
seems  to  have  been  thought  probable  that  Lord  Wharton 
would  take  offence). 
A  lettre  to  the  Maiour  of  Rye  with  foure  Frenchmen  sent 

hither 


244      EXTRACTS   I^ROM    RECORDS   01^   PRIVY   COUNCIL. 

hither  from  the  Lorde  Dacres  whiche  he  is  willed  either  to 
use  for  the  redemyng  of  such  as  have  byn  taken  by  the  Frenche 
of  that  towne  orelles  if  they  shalbe  thought  not  mete  for  this 
purpose  thenne  he  is  willed  to  suffer  them  by  vcrtue  of  the 
passport  sent  herewith  to  passe  into  France. 

A  lettre  to  the  Lord   Dacres  towching  the  fortifications  of 
Carlille,  &c.,  according  to  the  mynute  in  the  Counsaill  Cheste. 

i8  August.  Like  Icttres  to  therles  of  Shrewesbury,  Northumberland, 
and  Westmorland,  the  Lords  Dacres  and  Wharton,  signiBeing 
the  taking  of  the  Constable  of  Fraunce  and  others,  &c.  (This 
was  the  battle  of  St.  Quentin.  The  first  letter,  to  which  these 
were  similar,  was  to  the  Bishop  of  London  for  orders  for 
rejoicings  in  London.  Special  orders  seem  to  have  been  sent 
to  the  Borders,  probably  that  the  English  might  crow  over  the 
Scots  for  the  defeat  of  their  allies  the  French.) 

II  Oct.  A  lettre  to  therle  of  Shrewsbury  signifieing  unto  him  that 
the  Lordes  do  well  like  the  staienge  of  the  Border  according  to 
his  lettres  of  the  Vlth  of  this  present  and  also  the  staieng  at 
home  of  the  Lord  Dacres  and  Leonard  Dacres  for  the  better 
service  on  the  Borders,  for  which  respecte  ordre  is  alredie 
given  here  for  the  staye  of  the  process  out  of  the  Court  of 
theschequier  upon  the  condempnacion  against  him.  (Lord 
Dacre,  as  it  appears,  was  sued  for  debt  by  a  citizen  of  London. 
We  shall  hear  more  of  it.) 

21  Nov.  A  lettre  of  thanks  to  the  Lord  Dacres  for  his  advertisements 
of  thinnerode  made  by  him  of  {sic)  into  Scotland,  according  to 
the  mynute  remaining  in  the  Counsaill  Chest. 

4  Deer.  A  lettre  to  the  Lord  Dacres  that  where  he  desireth  to 
knowe  the  Queen's  Majesties  pleasure  towching  such  Lyddes- 
dale  men  as  offer  to  become  Englisshe  and  to  serve  her 
Majestie  against  the  Scottes  he  is  willed  to  receyve  them  and 
to  appoynte  them  to  sum  service  as  maye  annoye  the  Scottes, 
whereby  they  shall  declare  thiere  good  affection  and  devotion 
towards  this  State;  forseing  nevertheless  that  he  do  not  put 
them  in  trust  in  such  service  wherein  they  might  do  hurte  and 
deceyve  him  whiche  ordre  he  is  willed  to  observe  with  all 
other  that  shall  offre  the  like. 

8  Deer.  A  lettre  to  the  Lord  Dacres  signifieing  the  receipt  of  his 
lettre  of  the  last  of  Novembre  and  as  towching  the  assuraunce 
made  by  the  Gremes  with  the  Scottes,  for  (asmuch)  the  same 
is  to  be  misliked  and  met  withall  in  tyme  as  before  the  Queen's 
Majestie  do  proceade  to  any  extremitie  towardes  them  it  is 
thought  good  to  procure  to  call  them  backe  and  wynne  them 

(if 


EXTRACTS  FROM  RECORDS  OF  PRIVY  COUNCIL.   245 

(if  it  maye  be)  by  fair  meanes  and  for  that  purpose  it  hathe 
been  devised  that  the  Erie  of  Pembroke  shuld  write  his  pryvate 
iettre  unto  them  declaring  thier  faulte  and  perswading  them 
to  give  upp  thier  assuraunce  as  by  the  copye  of  the  said  Iettre 
whiche  together  with  the  originall  is  presently  sent  unto  him 
he  maye  at  better  length  perceive,  whiche  Iettre  he  is  willed  to 
cause  to  be  delivered  either  by  sum  oone  of  those  Borderers 
that  is  towardes  the  said  Erie  or  by  sum  suche  other  personne 
as  maye  do  the  same  with  least  suspition  and  untyll  it  may  be 
perceived  what  the  said  Greames  meanynges  shalbe  he  is 
willed  to  use  them  with  as  moche  gentlenes  and  indifferencye 
as  he  maye,  procuring  rather  to  wynne  them  by  gentlenes 
than  to  stir  them  to  any  further  disordre  untill  they  shall 
shewe  themselfes  to  be  utterly  broken  and  unhable  to  be 
reconciled. 

23  Deer.  A  Iettre  to  the  Lord  Dacres  of  thankes  for  the  diligence 
used  by  his  two  sonnes  in  the  inrode  by  them  made  into 
Annerdale,  and  towching  his  request  to  repaire  hither  at  the 
next  Terme,  bothe  to  declare  the  state  of  the  Borders  and  to 
aunswere  an  accion  against  him  in  theschequier,  he  is  willed 
in  no  case  to  departe  from  that  his  chardge  untill  he  shall 
further  the  Queues  Majesties  pleasure  ;  and  as  for  the  state  of 
the  Borders  he  maye  signifie  the  same  by  his  lettres  from  tyme 
to  tyme  hither,  and  for  the  aunswering  of  the  accion  he  maye 
appointe  his  learned  counsaill  and  attorney,  to  aunswere  the 
same,  so  as  his  oune  presence  is  not  so  reqnisite  thereat,  who 
shalbe  harde  with  justice  and  favour. 

1557-8,  7  Jany.  Thre  lettres  to  therle  of  Northumberland,  the  Lord 
Dacres  and  the  Lord  Evre  signifying  to  them  thaproching  of 
the  Frenche  to  Callays,  wherfore  they  are  wylled  to  have  the 
more  care,  foresight  and  dylligence  to  their  severall  charges 
according  to  the  truste  reposed  in  every  of  them,  and  to  signify 
hither  from  tyme  to  tyme  what  they  shall  learne  by  their 
spialles  of  the  Scottyshe  attemptates. 

(The  Council  had  received  a  report  that  a  French  fleet  was 
sailing  northward,  as  was  suspected  for  Scotland.  It  seems, 
however,  to  have  been  a  false  alarm.) 

4  Feby.  A  Iettre  to  the  Lord  Dacres  signifiyng  unto  him  thorder 
taken  with  Sandy  Armestrong,  according  to  the  notes  of  the 
conclusion  with  him  remayning  in  the  Counsell  Chest,  and 
where  the  saide  Sandy  feareth  that  if  he  shall  do  any  annoy- 
aunce  to  the  Scottes,  he  shalbe  in  some  daunger  of  suche 
Englishemen  as  the  Scottes  as  (sic)  allyed  with,  his  Lordship 


246      EXTRACTS   FROM  RECORDS  OF   PRIVY  COUNCIL. 

is  wylled  to  forsee  that  he  incurre  no  damage  for  hys  good 
servyce,  but  that  all  suche  as  shall  attempte  any  thinge 
agaynst  him  herein  may  be  sharpely  punisshed  according  to 
justyje. 

4  Feb.  A  lettre  to  Sir  Richarde  Sowthewell  (Master  of  the  Ordnance) 
to  call  thoflicers  of  thordynance  to  him,  and  to  consyder 
whither  one  James  Spencer,  having  been  commended  hither 
from  the  Lord  Dacres  and  the  Mayour  of  Carlisle  to  be  a  fytt 
man  to  be  Master  Gunner  of  that  towne,  be  mete  for  that 
rowme  or  no,  and  thereuppon  to  geve  order  for  the  placinge 
of  him  accordingly. 

24  March.  Where  informacion  hath  been  exhibited  unto  the  Borde 
by  the  Lorde  Wharton,  conteyning  sundry  heynous  and 
grevous  disorders  committed  heretofore  against  him  and  his 
tenantes  by  therle  of  Cumberlande,  the  Lords,  having  respecte 
to  the  present  tyme  of  servyce  in  which  they  thinke  it  not 
mete  to  call  for  either  of  the  parties  out  of  their  cuntreys 
taunswer  the  sayde  matters,  have  this  day  resolved  to  differ 
the  hearing  of  the  same  untyll  the  begynning  of  the  Parlya- 
ment  in  wynter  nexte,  untyll  which  tyme  bothe  parties  are 
commaunded,  therle  by  speciall  lettres  and  the  Lord  Wharton 
by  mouth  at  the  Borde,  to  remayne  in  their  present  and 
severall  possessions  quietly  without  any  disturbaunce  thone  to 
thother,  the  saide  Erie  being  also  required  to  forbeare  from 
henceforth  from  the  committing  of  the  like  dissorders  either 
towarde  the  said  Lord  Wharton  himself  or  any  of  his  saide 
tenantes. 

1558,  27  March.  A  lettre  to  therle  of  Westmorlande  touching  cer- 
tein  supplyes  of  ordinance  and  munytion  for  the  Citadell  in 
Carlysle,  &c.,  according  to  the  mynute  remayninge  in  the 
Counsell  Cheste. 

I  May.  A  lettre  to  the  Lord  Dacre  desyring  him  to  advertise 
by  his  lettres  the  Threasourer  of  Barwyck,  not  only  the  names 
of  the  gunners  which  were  lately  sent  from  hens  to  Carlisle  by 
the  Master  of  thordynance  here  in  the  cumpany  of  one  John 
Edwardes,  but  also  of  the  very  day  when  they  arryved  and 
came  to  Carlisle  to  serve  there,  praying  his  Lordshipp  in  lykc 
manner  therof  tadvertise  also  Mr.  Brende,  the  Muster  Master, 
to  thende  he  may  addresse  furth  his  warraunt  for  their  pays 
accordingly. 

22  May.  A  lettre  to  therle  of  Westmorlande  with  a  Supplicacion 
exhibited  here  by  one  John  Man  enclosed,  wherin  he  com- 
playneth  that  ope  Fraunces  Man,  his  brother,  was  aboute 

Mighelmas 


EXTRACTS   PROM   RECORDS  OF  PRIVY  COUNCIL.      2 17 

Mif^helmas  last  taken  by  certein  servantes  and  officers  of 
therle  of  Cumberland  and  committed  to  prison  in  the  Castell 
of  Skipton,  where  he  is  still  deteyned,  and  as  is  thought  deade. 
His  Lordship  is  wylled  to  examyne  dilligently  for  what  cause 
the  saide  Man  was  apprehended,  and  if  he  shalbe  deade  he  is 
than  wylled  to  cause  all  the  parties  named  in  the  SuppHcacion, 
and  all  other  that  he  shall  fynde  culpaple  herein,  to  be  appre- 
hended and  committed  to  saf  warde  and  furder  examined,  and 
to  signifye  hither  what  he  shall  have  found  oute  herein;  and 
if  he  shalbe  found  a  lyve  and  matter  wherwith  to  charge  him, 
than  to  committ  him  to  the  common  gaole  to  be  furder  pro- 
ceded  withall  according  to  justyce;  if  there  be  no  matter 
against  him  than  to  put  him  at  liberty  and  to  punishe  them 
that  have  so  punisshed  him  without  deserte,  according  to  his 
Lordship's  discrecion.      * 

29  May.     A   lettre  to  the   Lord   Dacres  of  thankes  for  the  good 

exployte  done  uppon  thopposite  Marche,  requyring  him  seing 
he  hath  an  augmentacion  of  force  uppon  the  Marches,  so 
temploye  the  same  as  the  Quenes  Majestic  have  no  just  cause 
to  thinke  her  charges  there  yli  bestowed,  but  that  he  use  all 
the  meanes  he  can  to  annoye  thennemy. 
2  June.  A  lettre  to  therle  of  Westmorlande  of  thankes  for  his  adver- 
tismentes  of  the  exploite  doone  of  late  uppon  the  West  Marches 
by  the  Lord  Dacres  bande,  and  for  that  he  signifyeth  that  the 
Scottes  hath  withdrawen  ccc  speres  from  their  West  Borders, 
wherby  the  Lord  Dacres  hath  good  oportunytie  tannoye  them, 
his  Lordship  is  wylled  to  write  earnestly  unto  him  herein  and 
to  pricke  him  forwarde  to  thexecucion  hereof,  so  as  the  Quenes 
Majestic  may  thinke  thaugmentacion  of  her  charges  there  well 
bestowed. 

30  June.    A  lettre  to  the  Master  of  the  Wardes  requyring  him  to  take 

such  order  furthewith  as  no  processe  be  awarded  out  of  that 
Courte  againste  the  Lord  Wharton,  in  his  matter  depending 
there,  before  the  return  of  the  Master  of  the  Rolles  out  of  the 
North,  and  before  the  same  may  be  harde  by  him  and  others 
of  the  Counsell  to  whome  the  Quene  hath  committed  the 
hearing  therof. 
II  July.  A  lettre  to  therle  of  Westmorland  touching  his  bayling  of 
therle  of  Cumberlandes  servauntes  and  tenauntes  in  the  matter 
of  the  conveyaunce  of  Fraunces  Man  to  the  Castell  of  Skipton, 
&c.,  according  to  the  mynute  remaying  in  the  Counsell  Cheste. 
The  23  July  Lord  Westmorland  was  again  warned  of  a 
French  fleet  at  sea,  as  supposed  for  Scotland. 

12  August 


248      EXTRACTS   FROM    RECORDS   OF  I^RIVY  COUN'CIL. 

12  August.  A  lettre  to  Leonarde  Dacre  signifyinge  the  Quenes 
Majesties  well  taking  of  the  Lord  Dacre  his  father's  late  enter- 
prise againste  the  Scottes,  and  bycause  the  chiefest  tyme  to 
annoye  thennemyes  by  burninge  and  spoyling  their  corne  and 
provisions  before  the  same  can  be  put  in  suertye  is  nowe,  he  is 
required,  seing  he  hath  now  the  charge  of  the  West  Marches 
during  his  father's  absence,  to  devyse  with  the  trusty  and 
skylfuU  persons  under  his  rule  howse  (sic)  to  annoye  the 
Scottes  from  tyme  to  tyme  the  best  he  may,  having  never- 
theles  regarde  not  to  hassard  himself  and  those  under  his 
charge  further  then  may  stande  with  the  suerty  of  the  Borders 
and  be  agreable  to  the  consideracion  and  good  conducte  that 
ought  to  be  in  one  occupying  the  place  and  charge  that  he 
doothe. 

29  August.     A  lettre  to  Maister  Let>narde  Dacre  of  thankes  for  the 
-    good  exploite  by  him  lately  doone  uppon  the  West  Marche  of 

Scotlande,  uhich  his  good  dilligence  he  is  willed  to  contynue 
and  to  annoye  thennemy  from  tyme  to  tyme  as  he  maye. 

30  August.     A  lettre  to  therle  of  Westmorland  of  thankes  for  his 

advertisementes;  he  is  also  willed  to  call  uppon  Mr.  Leonarde 
Dacres,  Deputy  Wardein  of  the  West  Marches,  tannoye 
thennemy  as  moche  as  he  maye,  so  as  the  Quenes  Majestie 
may  have  cause  not  to  thinke  that  the  newe  charge  uppon 
that  Borders  be  not  vayncly  imployed. 

3  Sept.  This  daye  the  Lorde  Dacres  being  before  the  Lordes  of  the 
Counsell  touching  the 'matter  in  controversy  betwene  William 
Huett,  Alderman  of  London,  and  him  for  certain  leade,  was 
contented  to  stande  to  suche  order  as  shulde  be  taken  herein, 
a  swell  for  the  pryncypall  debte  asfor  all  the  costes  and 
damages,  by  the  Busshopp  of  Ely  and  the  Master  of  the 
Rolles,  and  if  they  cannot  bringe  the  sayde  Mr.  Huett 
tagree  hereunto  than  to  make  reporte  to  the  Lordes  what 
they  shall  have  doone  herein. 

WilUlmus  Dacre,  miles,  Dominus  Dacre  de  Gray  stoke,  recog- 
novit  se  dehere  Willelmo  Hewet  de  civitate  London,  Aldermanno, 
tria  vtillia  Uhrarum,  &c. 

5  Sept.  The  condicion  of  this  recognizaunce  is  suche  that  if 
thabove-bounden  William  Lorde  Dacre  do  stande,  obey, 
perfourme,  fullfiyll  and  kepe  suche  awarde,  arbytrement  and 
order  to  be  taken  betwene  him  and  the  saide  William  Hewett 
for  and  concerning  a  condempnacion  in  the  Courte  of  the 
Exchequer  agaynst  the  sayde  Lorde  Dacre,  toguyther  with 
Leonarde  Dacre,  his  sonne,  and  Bartram  Anderson  of  New- 

castell 


EXTRACTS   t'ROM    RfeCORDS   Ot?   PRlVY  COUNCIL.         ^49 

castell,  at  the  sute  of  the  sayde  Hewett,  by  the  Reverend 
Father  in  God,  the  Busshopp  of  Ely  and  the  Master  of  the 
RoUes  for  the  somme  of  mimUxH  and  do  agre  and  stande  unto 
suche  ende  and  determynacion  as  shalbe  by  the  saide  arbitra- 
tours  taken  touching  the  same,  so  as  the  saide  arbitrement  be 
geven  in  writing  before  the  first  of  October  nexte  to  suche  of 
the  saide  parties  as  shall  demaunde  the  same,  than  this  pre- 
sent recognizaunce  to  be  voyde  and  of  none  effecte,  orelles, 
&c. 

WilUlmtts  Hewei  de  civitate  London ^  AldtrmannuSy  recognovit 
se  debere,  Wilklmo  Dacre^  milUiy  Domino  Docrc  de  Graisto.ke,  tria 
millia  librarum,  &c. 

The  condicion  of  this  recognizaunce  is  suche  that  if  thabove- 
bounden  William  Hewett  do  stande,  obey,  perfourme,  &c.,  ut 
supra  pro  Domino  Dacre. 

21  Sept.  A  lettre  to  Leonarde  Dacre,  esquier,  of  thankes  for  his 
ryding  in  Annerdale,  which  his  servyce  is  moche  commended 
and  he  desyred  to  contynue  the  same,  and  albeit  this  sorte  of 
receyving  suche  as  yelde  themselfes  cannot  be  accoumpted 
otherwise  in  him  than  zeale  of  good  servyce,  yet  the  nature 
of  those  men  being  consydered  here,  and  how  falseley  they  have 
served  after  their  submyssyon,  and  oftentymes  put  the  War- 
dein  to  whome  they  have  submytted  themselfes  in  daunger, 
&c.,  he  is  required  to  forbeare  hence  forthe  in  receyving  any 
more  uppon  assuraunce,  and  yet,  neverthelesse,  for  that  he 
shulde  not  seme  to  be  touched  or  defaced  in  hys  doinges,  he  is 
wylled  to  use  thies  that  he  hath  alredy  taken  in  suche  sorte  as 
he  tbinketh  best  they  may  shewe  their  devotion  and  faithefull 
myndes  to  this  state.  Foreseing  alwayes  that  he  do  not 
further  truste  them  [than]  he  shall  fynde  himself  hable  to 
rule  them  if  they  shall  goo  aboute  tattempt  any  thinge,  and 
also  to  have  specyall  eye  over  them  that  shalbe  suffred  to  come 
into  this  realme,  least  they  come  rather  as  spies  than  other- 
wise, and  meane  rather  to  espye  tyme  of  advauntage  whan 
they  may  easely  hurte,  than  to  do  any  servyce  to  this  state. 

19  Oct.  A  lettre  to  Leonarde  Dacres,  Deputy  Wardein  of  the  West 
Marches  foranempst  Scotland,  of  thankes  for  using  the  servyce 
of  some  of  those  Scottishe  men  which  came  into  him  of  late 
uppon  promise  to  thannoyaunce  of  that  realme,  wherin  he 
desyred  to  contyne  and  to  kepe  them  occupyed  to  the  servyce 
of  the  Quene  and  annoyaunce  of  thennemy;  and  being  de- 
syrous  tunderstande  the  Counselles  opynion  howe  the  pledges 
of  those  Scottyshemen  are  to  be  used  that  have  layed  in  the 

same, 


2  50      EXTRACtS  PROU   K£CORt>S  OF   t>RlW  COUNCIL. 

same,  and  havinge  had  interteynement  the  laste  warres,  were 
syns  discharged  and  therfore  fynde  themselfes  burdened  with 
the  charges  of  their  saide  pledges,  it  is  signifyed  unto  him 
touching  that  matter  that  the  Lordes  thinke  it  good  the  same 
pledges  be  by  his  discretion  had  further  into  the  realme  and 
disposed  to  dyvers  gentlemen  suche  as  bs  of  his  acquayn- 
taunce  and  wyll  aunswer  for  them,  and  that  they  see  no  cause 
here  why  the  sayde  Scottishemen  shuld  thinke  themselfes  so 
soore  burdened  with  the  charges  of  their  saide  pledges,  con- 
syderinge  that  they  are  in  that  respecte  specially  forborne  and 
spared  from  burninge  and  spoylinge,  wherof  otherwise  they 
were  lyke  to  stande  in  contynuall  daunger  from  tyme  to  tyme. 

31  Oct.  A  lettre  of  thankes  to  Leonarde  Dacres,  esquier,  Wardein 
of  the  West  Marches  foranempst  Scotlande,  for  his  good  order 
taken  with  suche  of  the  Scottes  as  uppon  their  snte  of  assur- 
aunce  do  come  into  the  servyce  of  this  realme,  and  for  his 
wyse  refusaill  tadmytt  the  Larde  of  Maugerton  and  others 
therunto  before  they  had  declared  by  their  dedes  some  good 
effecte  of  their  devocion  that  waye,  which  order  he  is  requyred 
to  contynue.  He  ys  thanked  also  for  thexecucion  he  caused 
to  be  doone  uppon  certein  disordred  persons  that  were  arrayned 
lately  within  that  Wardenry ;  and  as  touchinge  the  discharge 
of  Captein  Tuttyc  and  his  bande,  consyderinge  that  matter 
hath  passed  by  some  resolucion  of  the  Lord  Lieutenaunt,  it  is 
signifyed  unto  that  the  Lordes  meane  not  to  alter  that 
resolucion  before  they  shall  have  spoken  with  his  Lordshipp 
in  that  behalf. 

4  Nov.  A  lettre  of  thankes  to  Leonard  Dacre  for  his  good  servyce 
uppon  the  Borders,  advertising  him  that  the  Quenes  Majestic 
is  pleased  that  the  cc"*  harquebusyers  under  the  leading  of 
Captein  Tuttye  shall  for  a  longer  tyme  remayn  uppon  the 
Borders,  which  he  is  wj'Ued  so  to  use  as  the  Quenes  Majestie 
have  no  cause  to  thinke  that  charge  yll  employed. 

This  is  the  last  entry  relating  to  the  Borders  in  the  reign  of 
Queen  Mary,  who  died  17th  November,  1558. 


(251) 


Art.  XXI. — A  Grave  Cover  of  Tiles  at  Carlisle.    By  the 

President. 
Communicated  at  the  Isle  of  Man,  September  24,  1894. 
XyHILE  engaged  at  the  Midsummer  Quarter  Sessions 
for  this  year  [Julys,  1894]  holden  for  the  county 
of  Cumberland,  a  note  was  handed  up  to  me  from  the 
reporters*  desk,  informing  me  that  a  find  of  inscribed 
stones  had  just  been  made  in  Brook  Street,  Carlisle. 
Brook  Street  runs  out  of  London  Road  to  the  eastward 
and  is  within  the  district,  which  I  have  shown  to  have 
been  the  principal  cemetery  of  Roman  Carlisle,  of  Lugu- 
vallium.*  Not  being  able  then  to  go  myself,  I  asked  our 
fellow  member,  the  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley,  to  go  to  Brook 
Street  and  make  what  enquiry  he  could  about  the  find, 
and  the  circumstances  under  which  it  was  made :  thi^ 
account  is  written  from  Mr.  Calverley *s  notes. 

The  *'  inscribed  stones  "  turned  out  to  be  a  barrow  load 
of  red  roofing  tiles  of  Roman  date,  of  which  only  two  were 
unbroken :  these  tiles  measure  each  18  inches  by  12^ 
inches  at  the  one  end,  and  12  inches  at  the  other :  the 
thickness  is  i^  inch:  a  ilange  about  an  inch  deep  is 
turned  down  along  the  longer  sides,  and  these  flanges  at 
the  wider  ends  are  notched  out  to  receive  the  narrower 
ends  of  other  tiles.  Lengthwise  on  one  of  the  whole  tiles 
is  the  stamp 

LUG   II  AVG 

that  is  Legio  Secunda  Augusta,  the  two  I's  being  used 
instead  of  E  :  t  portions  of  this  stamp  appear  on  other  of 


*  Transactions  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and  Archaologfical 
Society,  vol.  xii,  p.  365. 

t  See  an  instance  in  the  Lapidarium  Septentriotuile,  No.  loo,  and  see  Wright 
The  Celt,  ike  Roman  and  the  Saxoih  3rd  edition^  p.  233. 

the 


252  A  GRAVE  COVER  OF  TILES   AT  CARLISLE. 

the  fragments :  on  one  the  two  last  letters  of  it  are  dupli- 
cated, the  stamp  having  slipped.  The  other  whole  tile 
has  on  it,  crosswise, 

LEG    •  XX  VV 

that  is  Legio  Vicesima  Valeria  Victrix :  There  is  a  trian- 
gular stop  between  the  leg  and  the  xx.  The  usual  dog's 
pad,  impressed  on  soft  clay,  is  on  one  of  the  fragments. 
These  tiles  formed  the  cover  of  a  grave,  and  were  about 
three  feet  below  the  present  level  of  the  ground,  the  inter- 
ment was  just  in,  not  on,  the  gravel,  and  the  space 
excavated  for  it  was  7  feet  4  inches  by  2  feet  5  inches. 
The  darkish  fine  mould  found  under  the  tiles,  and  the 
presence  among  it  of  several  iron  nails  would  seem  to 
indicate  the  use  of  a  wooden  coffin.  The  grave  lay  nearly 
east  and  west,  and  the  western  portion  had  been  smashed 
a  good  deal  by  the  labourers,  who  removed  the  material. 
The  eastern  end  of  the  grave  cover  was  seen  in  situ  by 
Mr.  Calverley:  from  it,  it  appears  that  the  cover  was 
constituted  of  three  rows  of  tiles,  the  outermost  rows 
being  with  the  flanges  turned  upwards,  and  the  centre 
row  with  them  turned  downwards  over  the  inner  flanges 
of  the  two  outer  rows.  Only  the  middle  row  of  tiles  were 
stamped,  and  as  five  stamped  tiles  appear,  we  get  five 
tiles  by  three  as  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  grave 
cover,  unless  the  solitary  tile  marked  leg  '  xx  vv  belongs 
to  another  interment,  but  it  is  more  likely  that  the 
legionaries  of  the  Augustan  Legion  in  burying  a  departed 
comrade  had  to  eke  out  a  deficiency  in  tiles  by  borrowing 
from  Valeria  Victrix. 

Several  tombs  covered  with  tiles  have  been  found  at 
York,  and  some  of  them  are  preserved  in  the  York 
Museum,*  the  tiles  bearing  the  stamps  of  the  Sixth  and 
of  the  Ninth  Legions.  The  tiles,  whole  and  broken,  now 
found  at  Carlisle,  have  been  removed  to  the  Museum  at 
TuUie  House. 

*  Handbook  to  the  York  Museum,  Eighth  Edition^  Nos.  70  to  73  d. 


(253) 


Art.  XXIL— i4  Grasmere  Farmer's  Sale  Schedule  in  1710. 

By  H.  S.  CowPBR,  F.S.A. 
Read  at  Lake  Side,  Windermere,  June  13,  1894. 

THE  following  Sale  schedule  of  the  goods  of  a  Grasmere 
yeoman  is  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Stephen  Marshall, 
of  Skelwith  Fold,  Ambleside.  It  is  of  interest  in  more 
than  one  way.  To  begin  with  it  contains  a  great  many 
obsolete  terms  (some  probably  quite  local)  for  farming  and 
domestic  appliances.  Many  of  these  were  quite  new  to 
me  when  I  first  saw  the  document,  but  by  the  aid  of  old 
farmers  and  local  glossaries,  I  have  been  able  to  find  out 
the  meaning  of  most,  •and  they  are  explained  in  a  glossary 
at  the  end.  The  next  point  of  interest  is  that  it  shows 
the  value  of  stock  and  farm  produce  in  Lakeland  a 
hundred  and  eighty  years  ago.  There  are  also  the  prices 
realized  for  furniture,  wardrobe,  and  the  agricultural 
implements.  It  should  also  be  noticed  that  the  sale  was 
not  completed  in  several  consecutive  days,  as  at  present. 
There  were  in  all  five  auctions,  held  respectively  on  the 
17th,  24th,  and  31st  of  October,  1710,  and  the  30th 
January  and  8th  March  following.  Although  buyers 
below  the  value  of  ten  shillings  were  to  pay  cash,  those 
who  purchased  above  that  sum  were  allowed  credit  to 
November  nth  (Martinmas  day)  1711.  A  few  pages  are 
missing,  but  at  the  end  will  be  found  a  summary  of  the 
debts  of  the  deceased,  and  also  an  account  of  the  sale  and 
funeral  expenses. 

Unfortunately  documents  of  this  character  are  uncom- 
mon, even  among  bundles  of  title  deeds  belonging  to  small 
estates.  For  this  reason  I  venture  to  bring  this  before 
the  notice  of  the  Society. 


254 


A  0RA8MBRR  8ALB  SCHEDULE. 


A  Schedule  or  Memorand  of  all  such  floods  and  Chattells  as  were 
sold  at  the  late  Dwelling  House  of  W^  Hawkrigg  late  of  under- 
helm  in  Grasmere,  in  the  County  of  Westmorld  yeo :  Deceased, 
on  Tursday  the  seventeenth  Day  of  October  Ano  Domini  1710, 
in  publick  Sale :  The  order  of  the  sale  being  as  followeth,  that 
is  to  say :  Any  who  buy  any  goods  whose  price  shall  not  amount 
to  10^  are  to  pay  present  money  to  Catherine  the  Relict  and 
Executrix  of  the  said  William  Hawkrigg :  And  Any  who  buy 
any  Goods  whose  price  shall  amount  to  lo^,  or  upwards  may 
have  time  for  paymt,  untill  Martinmas  Day  come  a  year,  Provided 
they  enter  into  Security  for  paymt  thereof  accordingly,  to  the 
said  Catherine  Hawkrigg  or  her  Assignes,  for  the  use  of  Hannah 
Hawkrigg  her  Daughter,  before  they  depart  from  the  Sale,  or  at 
any  time  after  upon  Demand 


lib    s    d 

Imprimis  John  Park  bought 

a  Uttle  Heifer  ... 

... 

0  14    6 

Mr.  Robert  Atkinson 

a  Little  Heifer  ... 

... 

0  16    6 

John  Jackson  de  Wythbum 

a  Little  Heifer  ... 

... 

0  15     7 

Mr.  Robert  Atkinson 

a  Uttle  Heifer  ... 

... 

0  16    6 

William  Sawrey 

a  Little  Heifer  ... 

I     3    0 

James  Dawson  younger 

a  Heifer 

... 

I   15    6 

a  Heifer 

... 

2    5     I 

John  Wilkinson  Doctor 

a  Heifer 

... 

2    S    2 

William  Brathwayte  dc  Wrey 

a  Heifer 

... 

2    8    4 

Edward  Brathwayte 

a  Heifer 

... 

2  19     I 

WillUm  Knipe 

2  Stears 

... 

5     1     6 

John  Ullock  younger 

a  Cow 

... 

2  iS    3 

Christopher  Cowpthwayte 

a  Cow 

... 

2  19    0 

George  Mackreth  de  Throng 

a  Cow 

... 

3    8    3 

Mr  Christopher  Bethom 

the  wtddows  Cow 

... 

3  14    4 

William  Turner  Taylor 

Robert  Hawkrif  g's 

Cow... 

306 

Christopher  Cowpthwayte 

a  ffatt  Cow 

., 

I  13    0 

Edward  Park  10  Lambs  at  2s  4d.  a  piece  &  3d  further  at  all 

I     3    7 

John  Hird  10  Lambs  at  2s  2d  a 

piece  &  5d  further 

... 

I     2     I 

Solomon  Benson  10  Lambs  at  2s  8d  a  piece  &  8d  further  ... 

«     7    4 

John  Dawson  5  Lambs  at  3s  3d 

a  piece  ... 

... 

0  16    3 

Thomas  Green  10  Twintersat  28 

8d  a  piece  &  2d  further  at  all 

1  •  6  10 

Edwin  Green  de  Blintarn  Gill 

3s  3d  &  2d  furthr. 

for  to 

Twinters 

... 

I   12    8 

Lanclutt  Harrison  20  weathers 

...            ...            ... 

... 

600 

John  Benson  de  Ambleside  a  final 

... 

I     3    6 

Joseph  Wood  a  Colt  p  Johannem  Mackreth 

... 

I  16  10 

John  Benson  dc  Ambleside  a  M 

are 

Totall  is... 

3  14    2 

59    0    4 

Memorand 

4  ORASMERE   SALE  SCHEDULE.  255 

Memorand  that  io  the  Sale  aforemencond  was  sold  one  Cow 
called  the  widdows  Cow  came  to  3lib  14s  4d  and  a  Cow 
of  Robert  Hawkrigg's  came  to  3lib  6d.  which  amounts      lib   s    d 
to  6Iib  14s  lod  which  will  Reduce  the  Sum  to  ...      52    5    6 


A  Schedule  or  memorand  of  all  such  goods  and  chattells  as  were  sold 
at  Underlielm  in  Grasmere  in  the  County  of  Westmorld  on 
Tuesday  the  Twenty  ifourth  Day  of  October  Ano  Domini  17 10 
in  publick  Sale,  f  Terms  as  be/ore,  Jbut  credit  given  to  those  who 
buy  above  10s,  till  the  eleventh  Day  of  November^  which  will  be 
Ano  Domini  1711.^ 


(!)• 

lib 

8     d     Ob 

Imprimis  Edward  Partridge 

a  p  of  Breeches  ... 

0 

0  10 

William  Dickinson  p'uxor 

a  p  of  Breeches  .. 

0 

I    9 

Joseph  Hawkrigg 

a  p  of  Breeches  ... 

0 

7    6 

John  Hawkrige 

a  vest    

0 

1     0 

George  Brathwayte  p'uxor 

a  vest    ... 

0 

0    5 

John  Newton  de  GiUfoot. 

a  Coat 

0 

2    8 

William  Dickinson  p'uxor 

a  Coat 

0 

7  10 

John  Newton  de  GiUfoot 

a  Coat 

0 

5    7 

John  Hawkrigg 

a  Coat 

0 

8    7 

Idem 

a  Coat 

0 

7    2 

Wm  Brathwayte  de  Saurey 

a  p  of  Shoes 

0 

0    8 

John  Newton  de  GiUfoot 

a  p  of  Shoes 

0 

2    5 

John  Hawkrigg 

a  p  of  Shoes 

0 

3    5 

Idem 

aHatt 

0 

1    6 

William  Walker  her  servant 

aHatt 

0 

■    4 

John  Newton  de  GiUfoot 

a  Shirt 

0 

»    9 

Stephen  Hawkrigg 

a  Shirt  ... 

0 

1  10 

Idem 

a  Lin  Shirt  (2)   '... 

0 

2    0 

weathers  at  3s  4d  apiece  & 

idfurthr 

... 

I 

'3    5 

John  Jopson  10  Ewes  at  3s  6d 

a  piece  &  6d  further  at  all  ... 

I 

15    6 

672 

lib   s    d    ob 
William  Brathwayte  de  Sawrey  9  sheep  at  3s  7d  apiece  &  8d 

furthur     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...         1  12  11 

Joseph  Wood  a  Ram  ...  ...  ...        041 

Idem  one  other  Ram    ...  ...        o    6  10 

John  Newton  a  pack  sadle       ...  ...        030 

*  The  small  numbers  in  brackets  (1),  (2),  &c«»  are  references  to  the  Glossary. 

William 


256 


A  ORASMBRB  SALE  SCHBDULB. 


lib 

s 

d    ob 

William  Jopson  de  Easdale 

a  pack  sadle 

0 

0 

ti 

John  Preston 

a  pack  sadle 

0 

t 

6 

Thomas  Green 

a  pack  sadle 

0 

3 

II 

Joseph  Wood,  a  hive  of  Bees  Robert  Hawkriggs... 

0 

8 

0 

John  Ullock 

a  gimer  Hogg  (3) 

0 

3 

0 

John  Preston 

2  Canns 

0 

0 

5 

John  Dixon 

a  milking  pale  &  a  Can   . 

0 

0 

5 

Thomas  Benson 

a  barrell  &  a  stand 

0 

I 

0 

William  Dickinson  p'uxor 

Chees-Rums  &  fFatts  (4) . 

0 

0 

3  i 

John  Grave  de  Legberthwagte 

a  wood  bottle     ... 

0 

0 

3 

Thomas  Benson 

a  milking  pale    ... 

0 

0 

8 

John  Grave  de  Legberthwayte 

a  wood  Can 

0 

0 

2» 

Thomas  Benson 

a  mash  flFatt  (5)  ... 

0 

I 

0 

Thomas  Benson 

a  Chum 

0 

0 

8 

Idem 

a  mash  ffatt 

0 

I 

5 

Idem 

a  milking  pale    ... 

0 

I 

0 

Thomas  Green 

a  Daw  Tub  (6)    ... 

0 

I 

4 

John  Preston 

a  fflesh  Tub 

0 

4 

8 

Idem 

a  Chair 

0 

0 

0    i 

John  Ullock 

a  Throwen  Chair  (7) 

0 

0 

0    i 

James  Dawson  Broadrein 

a  Throwen  Chair 

0 

0 

7    \ 

Idem 

a  Throwen  Chair 

0 

0 

7    i 

Thomas  Benson 

a  Throwen  Chair 

0 

0 

7 

Stephen  Hawkrigg 

a  pair  of  Ropes  ... 

0 

I 

4 

James  Dawson  Broadrein 

a  pair  of  Ropes  ... 

0 

I 

6 

James  Ullock 

a  pair  of  Ropes   ... 

0 

I 

6 

Thomas  Benson 

2  Rakes 

0 

0 

2 

Idem 

2  Rakes 

0 

0 

I     i 

John  Hawkrigg 

a  Hackney  Sadie 

0 

8 

6 

Idem 

2  muck  fforks      ... 

0 

0 

7    i 

Thomas  Benson 

2  muck  fforks      ... 

0 

0 

8 

Idem 

a  cole-rake  (8)    ... 

0 

0 

3 

Idem 

a  Hack  (9) 

0 

I 

2 

Wm  Sawrey 

8  Cowhands 

0 

0 

6    * 

4 

15 

9    k 

lib 

8 

d   ob 

John  Ullock 

6  Cow  bands 

0 

0 

7    4 

Thomas  Sewart 

a  p  of  Crooks  (10) 

0 

0 

3 

John  Preston 

apof  Hotts(ii) 

0 

0 

2    * 

Idem 

a  p  of  Hotts 

0 

0 

5    i 

Thomas  Sewart 

a  p  of  Hotts 

0 

0 

3    h 

Thomas  Benson 

a  p  of  Hotts 

0 

0 

I     i 

ffrancis  Rigg 

a  p  of  Hotts 

0 

0 

2 

John  Richardson 

a  peat  hott 

0 

0 

3 

Thomas  Benson 

an  oxe-yoak 

0 

0 

6 

Idem 

Swingle-Trees 

0 

0 

7 
Idem 

A  GRASMBRB  SALE  SCUBDULB. 


257 


lib 

s     d 

ol 

Idem 

Swingle-Trees     ... 

0 

0    8 

Idem 

an  iron  Team  (12) 

0 

2    0 

Idem 

Tugg&  Bands  (13) 

0 

0    2 

i 

Idem 

a  plow-stick  (14)  •• 

0 

0    2 

Idem 

a  plow     ... 

0 

I    0 

John  Grave 

a  plow  &  irons    ... 

0 

4    0 

John  Partridge 

an  iron  mell 

0 

I    6 

Thomas  Benson 

aGavelock  (15)  ... 

0 

3    6 

Idem 

a  Syth&  Strickle  (16)       ... 

0 

0    5 

John  Walker  Goody4>ridge 

a  syth  &  strickle 

0 

0    9 

i 

John  Walker  ffidler 

asyth 

0 

I     6 

Idem 

a  p  of  Traces 

0 

0    4 

James  Dawson 

a  p  of  Traces 

0 

0    8 

Idem 

apof  Haims  (17) 

0 

0    2 

James  Ullock 

apofHaims 

0 

0    0 

h 

John  Preston 

a  wantyth  &  rope  (18)      ... 

0 

0    3 

John  Hawrigg  wright 

Some  Girths 

0 

0    I 

John  Preston 

a  Leathern  Girth... 

0 

0    8 

John  Hawkrigg  wright 

a  Bridle 

0 

0    7 

John  Hawkrigg  wright 

a  Sledge               

0 

0    4 

James  Dawson  de  Broadrein 

20  shocks  of  oats  on  the  Lower 

mow 



0 

9    6 

I 

II  10 

lib     8      d 

All  Amounts  to     ...        12  14  10 

Memorand  that  in  this  note  is  a  Hive  of  Bees  charged  at  8s      lib    s    d 
belonging  to  Robert  Hawkrigg  which  reduceth  the  sum  to      12    6  10 


{A    Schedule  of  goods  sold  31 

Oct  17 10.      Heading  worded  similarly 

to  No  I.) 

lib 

s    d    ob 

Imprimis  Joseph  Wood 

Some  Dishes 

0 

0    5    i 

fane  Knott  widdow 

Some  Trenchers  &c. 

0 

0    5 

Eadem 

a  cbees  fatt  &  Tunnell  (19) 

0 

0    0    ( 

John  Mackreth  cryer 

a  Little  Pan        

0 

0    7 

John  Jackson  de  Wythburn 

2  Morters  &  a  pestill 

0 

0    4    1 

Debora  Birkett 

a  wood  can 

0 

0    3    i 

Eadem 

a  Large  Can 

0 

0    5 

Joseph  Wood 

an  iron  spitt 

0 

0    6 

John  Mackreth  Cryer 

a  flesh  ffork  &  scures  &c  (20) 

0 

0    6    i 

Joseph  Wood 

a  strikeing  knife ... 

0 

0  II 

Thomas  Benson 

a  Tin  pott 

0 

0    5 

Jane  Knott  widdow 

a  Candlestick  and  a  spoon 

0 

0    5 
Thomas 

256 


A  ORASMBRB  SALE  SCHEDULE. 


lib 

8 

d 

ob 

Thomas  Benson 

a  Tin  Candlestick 

0 

0 

3 

Agnes  Jackson 

a  Dropping  Pan  (21) 

0 

0 

6 

Thomas  Benson 

a  Chafeing  Dish 

0 

I 

3 

Idem 

a  Throwen  Chair... 

0 

0 

6 

Idem 

a  Throwen  Chair... 

0 

0 

6 

Edward  Walker  p*uxor 

a  Throwen  Chair... 

0 

0 

5 

James  Dawson  junr 

a  Throwen  Chair... 

0 

0 

6 

Thomas  Benson 

a  Throwen  Chair... 

0 

0 

8 

James  Dawson  junr 

a  Throwen  Chair... 

0 

0 

9 

John  Preston 

a  Uttle  Schreenge  (22)     ... 

0 

0 

8 

James  Dawson  de  Broad-rein 

a  p  of  weights     ... 

0 

0 

2 

John  Grave  de  Legberthwt 

an  iron  Team      ... 

0 

1 

2 

Thomas  Benson 

a  Throwen  Chair... 

0 

0 

7 

Edward  Walker  p*uxor  a  hack  &  plain  stock  &  bitt  (23)    ... 

0 

0 

3 

John  Hawkrigigr  smith 

a  fflawing  spade  (24) 

0 

1 

2 

Robert  Hawkrigg 

a  (Hawing  spade  ... 

0 

0 

2 

0 

15 

0 

lib 

s 

d 

ob 

James  UUock 

a  peat  spade 

0 

0 

4 

John  Hawkrigg  smith 

a  fflawing  spade ... 

0 

0 

3 

Joseph  Wood 

a  garden  spade  ... 

0 

I 

1 

a  thwart  Saw      ... 

0 

t 

5 

Thomas  Benson 

3  Sickles              

0 

1 

3 

John  Hawkrigg  smith 

aSyth 

0 

0 

2 

Rowland  Wilkinson  p'uxor 

some  Cow  bands. . . 

0 

0 

4 

John  Jackson 

some  Cow  bands. . . 

0 

0 

2 

Thomas  Benson 

apof  Bedstocks... 

0 

3 

8 

Thomas  Benson 

an  iron  wedge     ... 

0 

0 

10 

Idem 

an  iron  wedge     ... 

0 

0 

8 

John  Preston 

an  iron  wedge     ... 

0 

0 

5 

Idem 

an  iron  wedge     ... 

0 

0 

4 

John  Mackrcth 

a  ffowling  piece  ... 

0 

>5 

10 

I'homas  Green 

a  Trunck 

0 

0 

10 

Idem 

a  Chest 

0 

I 

0 

Mary  Green 

2  Carping  Cushions  (25)  ... 

0 

0 

9 

Robert  Hawkrigg  p'uxor 

a  Blankett           

0 

0 

5 

Robert  Walley 

a  Blankett 

0 

1 

3 

Isabell  Tompson 

a  happing  (26)    ... 

0 

0 

9 

John  Grave  de  Legberthwt 

a  Lin  Sheet 

0 

0 

9 

Idem 

a  Lin  Sheet 

0 

I 

4 

Robert  Oatley 

a  Lin  Sheet         

0 

1 

6 

John  Grave 

a  Un  Sheet         

0 

t 

10 

Edward  Walker  p'uxor 

a  Pillow  cover     ... 

0 

0 

2 

John  Lowis 

a  Pillow  cover     ... 

0 

0 

5 

James  Ullock 

a  Sheet               

0 

0 

9 

Agnes  Jackson 

a  Lin  Sheet         

0 

1 

2 

Robert  Oatley 

a  Sheet              

0 

1 

8 

Rowlaqd 

A  grasmbrb  sale  schedule. 


259 


lb    s    d. 

Rowland  Atkinson 

a  Feather  Bed 

0  18    3 

John  Grave  de  Legberthwt 

aboulster 

020 

Idem 

a  Pillow 

004 

John  Mackrcth  Cryer 

a  t  to  ne  of  Black  wool 

047 

Robert  Oatley 

2  stone  of  wool    ... 

098 

James  Dawson  junr. 

2  stone  of  wool    ... 

098 

James  Dawson  junr. 

2  stone  of  wool    ... 

0    9    8 

Idem 

2  stone  of  wool    ... 

0  10    0 

Catherine  Hawknggr 

2  stone  of  wool    ... 

096 

Eadem 

30  sheep  at  3s.  4d.  apiece 

500 

Radem 

a  pewter  Duhler  (27) 

028 

Eadem 

a  pewter  Dubler  . . . 

028 

Kadem 

a  pewter  Dubler ... 

026 

II     3    0 

Joseph  Wood 

lb.  s.  d.    ob 

Joseph  Wood 

a  p  of  pinsers 

0    I   ... 

Catherine  Hawkrigg 

a  pewter  Dubler... 

0    3  ... 

Eadem 

a  pewter  Dubler... 

0     I  ... 

Eadem 

a  pewter  Dubler ... 

0    0     I 

Joseph  Wood 

ahing  Lock 

006 

John  Preston 

2  Gimlocks 

002     i 

John  Hawkrigg 

a  nail  box 

0    0    6     ( 

Thomas  Benson 

a  Dubler 

0     I     3 

Idem 

a  Dubler              

0     I     4 

John  Mackreth 

a  pewter  Dubler  ... 

0    0  II 

Thomas  Benson 

a  pewter  Dubler  ... 

0     I     4 

John  Grave  de  legberthwt 

a  pewter  Dubler ... 

0     1     4 

John  Grave 

a  pewter  Dubler... 

0     1     6 

John  Grave  de  Legbetthivt 

a  pewter  Dubler ... 

0     I     3 

John  Hawkrigg 

a  Cradle              

0     0     g 

0   15  II      i 

All  amounts  to... 

12    14     0 

{Schedule  0/  goods  sold  30  Jan  17 10. 
credit  till  Martinmas  Day  next.) 


Buyers  over  los  to  be  allowed 


Imprimis  John  Walker  de  Goody  Bridge,  a  Blankett 
Anthony  Harrison  a  Blankett 

John  Mackreth  Cryer  a  Rugg 

Idem  a  white  Rugg 

John  Walker  de  Goody  Bridge  a  Happing 


lb 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 


ob 


John 


26o 


A  GRASMHRE  SALB  SCHEDULE. 


John  ^!ackreth 
John  Preston 
John  Mackreth 
John  Preston 


a  Boulster 
a  Boulster 
a  chaff*  bed 
a  Sack 


John  Hawkrigg  smith 

John  Hawkrigg  smith  a  racon-Crook  (2S) 

Idem  a  p  of  Toners 

Thomas  Green  a  pewter  fflagon  ... 

John  Mackreth  a  pewter  Tanckard 

John  Preston  a  Riddle 

Idem  an  iron  Pott 

Gawen  Bateman  de  ffornside  a  Clock  &  Case  ... 
James  Dawson  de  Walethwt  a  Bay  Gelding  ... 
Thomas  Green  20  Shocks  of  oats 

James  Dawson  de  Bioadrein       20  Shocks  of  oats 
Idem  20  Shocks  of  oats 

John  Walker  de  Goody  Bridge  20  Shocks  of  oats 
John  Park  de  Heald  20  Shocks  of  oats 

Robert  Herd  de  Gtllside  20  Shocks  of  oats 

The  rem :  was  26 
John  Park  de  Heald  All  the  remainder  of  the  Oats  after  the 

rate  of  8s  7d  p  stone  &  soe  proporconably  be  the  same 

more  or  less  ...  ...  ...  is 

John  Preston  20  Shocks  of  Bigg  (29)     ... 

John  Preston  20  Shocks  of  Bigg 

John  Hawkrigge  20  Shocks  of  Bigg 

Idem  20  Shocks  of  Bigg 

at  los  p  score  &  soe  proporconably  for  the  rmnainder  of  the 

Bigg  be  the  same  more  or  less  the  rem  :  was  2 
Robert  Tompson  20  stone  of  medow  Hay  at  i^d  p  stone     ... 
Idem  20  stone  of  medow  Hay  at  i^d  p  stone 
Edwin  Green  20  stone  of  medow  Hay  at  id  a  stone  &  6d 

further  at  all 
Thomas  Green  20  stone  of  Hay  at  id  a  stone  &  6d  further 

at  all         

John  Park  20  stone  of  medow  Hay    ... 

Thomas  Green  40  stone  of  medow  Hay  at  id  p  &tone  &  6 

futher       

Idem  20  stone  of  medow  Hay     ... 

Idem  20  stone  of  medow  Hay    ... 

Idem  20  stone  of  medow  Hay     ... 

George  Walker  a  mow  of  Lea-Hay  in  the  Low-End  of  Roger 

Barn         

George  Walker  a  mow  of  Lea-Hay  Lying  o*th  scaffolds  in 

the  west  end  o*th  Bam 


lb    s 

d 

ob 

0    0 

2 

k 

0    0 

4 

i 

0    I 

2 

0      I 

4 

0    7 

5 

i 

lb    s 

d 

ob 

0    I 

6 

0     1 

2 

0     1 

0 

0    I 

2 

0    0 

II 

0  10 

2 

1   »7 

8 

5    7 

6 

0    8 

2 

0    S 

5 

0    8 

7 

0    8 

4 

0    8 

7 

0    8 

9 

II 

I 

4 

0    9 

6 

0    9 

4 

0  10 

0 

0  10 

0 

0     1 

0 

0    2 

6 

0    2 

6 

0    2 

2 

0    2 

2 

0    2 

3 

0    4 

4 

0    2 

2 

0    2 

3 

0    2 

2 

3     I    o 


o  15    6 


John 


A  QRASMBRB   SALE   SCHEDULE.  261 

lib    s    d    ob 
John  Walker  20  stone  of  Lea  Hay  Lying  in  the  stable  Loft         027 
Robert  Hird  de  Townhead  20  stone  of  I^a  Hay  at  t}d  p 

stone  &  id  further...  ...  ...  ...  ...        027 

John  Oatley  20  stone  of  Lea- Hay  at  i(d  p  stone  &  id 

further      ...  ...  ...  ...  ...        o  .2    7 

John  Oatley  All  the  remainder  of  the  Lea-Hay  on  that  mow 

lid  p  stone  &  a  penny  further  at  every  20  stone  be  the 

same  more  or  less 
The  remainder  was  52  stone  amounts  to  ...  ...        068 

John  Preston  A  mow  of  Hay  and  Straw  in  the  Barn  at  home        080 


John  Oatley 


»9    3    5 


lib    s    d    ob 


John  Oatley  20  stone  of  Lea-Hay  in  the  Hogg  house  at 

ijd  p  stone  and  9^  further  at  all  ...            ...            ...  033 

John  Jopson  20  stones  of  Hay    ...            ...             ...            ...  034 

dem  20  stone  of  May  at  lid  p  stone  and  gd  further  at  all...  033 

Thomas  Green  20  stone  of  Hay  at  2d  p  stone       ...            ...  034 

Idem  20  stone  of  Hay  ...            ...            ...            ...            ...  034 

And  all  the  remainder  at  2d  p  stone  be  the  same  more  or 

less      the  rem :  was  30  stone            ...            ...            ...  050 


I     I    6 


This  Sale  note  amounts  in  all  to   ...  ...      20  12    4    ^ 


{Schedule  of  goods  sold  8  March  1710.    Buyers  of  Goods  over  10s  in 
value  to  be  allowed  credit  till  11  Noo  next,) 

lib    s    d    ob 

Imprimis  John -Mackreth  a  Tarr  kitt  (30)  ...  ...  001 

Idem  a  Tarr  kitt  ...  ...  o    o    o    } 

James  Dawson  Sen  a  Tarr  kitt  ...  ...  o    o    i     | 

Idem  aTarrCostrall  (31)  ...  o    o    i     } 

James  Dawson  de  Wythburn      aTarrCostrall   ...  ...  004 

Edwin  Green  de  Blind  Tarrn  Gill  2  Harrows  ...  ...  001 

Catherine  Hawkrigg  a  chees-press       ...  ...  004 

Robert  Hawkrigg  a  Spinning  wheel  ...  017 

Isabell  Thompson  a  Reeing  Siefe  (32)  ...  o    o    2    ( 

Eadem  a  Ridle  ...  ...  ...  o    o    2    i 

William  Saurey  a  wood  Peck       ...  ...  o    o  11 

James  Dawson  de  Wythburn     a  Chair  ...  ...  ...  006 

Edwin  Green  a  wood  Brisset  (33)  ...  012 

Thomas 


262 


A  GRASMBRB  SALE  SCHBDULB. 


Thomas  Newton,  Ambleside       a  p  of  Gamaces  (34) 
William  Jopson 
Francis  Bjnwn  de  (Told 
Edwin  Green 
Robert  Thompson 


lib    s    d    ob 
036 
a  chizel!  &  paring  iron       ...        003 
2  ffell  staffs         ...  ...        o    o    2    I 

a  Chizell  &  Bauk^have  (35)        0034 
an  Axe  and  Backshave     ...        006} 


10    6    4 


Edwin  Green 

lib 

s 

dob 

Edwin  Green 

a  rake  wimble  (36) 

0 

0 

2 

Francis  Benson  de  ffold 

a  wimble 

0 

0 

4     i 

William  Ullock 

a  fishing  pitch  (37) 

0 

0 

2 

Edwin  Green 

an  Axe  ... 

0 

0 

9 

Idem 

aBeefifork 

0 

0 

3 

Idem 

2  iron  scures 

0 

0 

2 

Agnes  Jackssn 

an  iron  scure 

c 

0 

1     k 

Kadem 

a  brass  Scumsr  (3S) 

0 

0 

3     1 

John  Williamson 

a  p  oF  Bed-Stocks 

0 

0 

9    i 

John  Oatley 

a  p  of  Bed-Stocks 

0 

I 

2 

I>orothy  Mawkri^g 

a  p  of  Bed-Stocks 

0 

0 

6     * 

Whoever  buy  the  msdow  Hay»  they  are  to  take  it  at  one 
end,  or  Side  from  Top  to  the  Buttom  as  agreed  before 
the  Sale  , 

Wm  :  Fleming  p*uxor  10  stone  of  Hay  at  2d  p  st  jne  &  2d 
further 

Francis  Benson  10  stone  at  2d  p  stone 

Idem  10  stone  of  Hay  ... 

Thomas  Newton  20  stone  of  Hay  at  2d  p  stone  &  2d  further 
at  all        

Francis  Bsnson  10  stone  of  Hay  at  2d  p  stone  &  id  further 
at  all        

Idem  all  the  remamder  of  the  Hay  at  2d  p  stone  the  rem : 
was  15 

Robert  Hawkrigg  a  Tedder  rope     ... 

Catherine  Hawkrigg  a  Kettle 

Edward  Walker  10  stone  of  Hay  ... 


o  I  10 
o  I  8 
o     I     8 

036 


The  totall  of  all  the  Sales 

The  fiirst  Sale  amounts  to... 
The  Second  Sale  amounts  tj 
The  Third  Sale  amounts  to 


0 

2 

6 

0 

0 

10 

0 

5 

0 

0 

I 

' 

T 

4 

8 

0 

10 

6 

I 

15 

2 

lb 

S 

d 

52 

5 

6 

12 

6 

10 

12 

U 

0 

The 


A   GRASMERE    SALE   SCHEDULE.  263 

lb    s    d    ob 
The  (fourth  Sale  amounts  to  ...  ...        20  12    4    ) 

The  ffifth  Sale  amounts  to  ...  ...        01  15    2 

Goods  left  in  the  Custody  of  Catherine  Hawk- 

rig^g  amounts  to  ...  ...  ...        02  10  10 


The  totall  of  all  amounts  t3  ...  ...  ...     io3    4    S    } 

(2  pages  are  here  torn  out.) 


June  the  5th  1712 
An  Account  of  the  debts  that  William  Hjiwkrig^  late  of  under-Helm 
in  Grasmere,  in  the  County  of  Westmorld  yeo :  was  owing  at 
the  time  of  his  decease,  and  the  charge  of  his  fTuncral,  and  other 
Costs  Laid  forth  by  Catherine  Hawkrigg  his  Relict  &  E.xecutrix 
and  Tutrix  to  Hannah  Hawkiigg  his  daughter 


Imprimis  to  Thomas  Sattsrthwfc  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  John  Wright  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Alice  Watson  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  John  Atkinson  a  dsbt  ... 
Itm  to  Antho  :  Harrison  for  Christopher  Jackson  . 

Itm  to  John  Hawkrigg  smith  a  debt  ... 

itm  to  Joseph  Wood  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Sr  William  Fleming  a  debt  ... 

itm  to  Thomas  Fleming  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  George  Ashburner  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Edward  Hird  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  John  Dockrey  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  William  Grigg  a  debt  ... 

Itm  Seryants  Wages  in  Arrear  ... 

Itm  to  Edward  Walker  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Henry  Jackson  &  John  Partridge  a  debt   . 

Itm  to  Edwd  Brathwt  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Wm  :  Watson  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Mrs  Elizabeth  Bateman  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Edward  Hird  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Mr  William  Sawrey  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Dr  Askew              *  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Dr  Atkinson  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Dr  EUeray  a  debt  ... 

Itm  to  Margaret  Mackreth  a  debt  ... 

This  amounts  to 


lb    s    d 


0    12 

4 

0      4 

4 

5    5 

0 

2     2 

4 

I     4 

7 

5  12 

4 

0  10 

3 

0    S 

0 

0    2 

II 

0    0 

7 

0    0 

10 

0    0 

6 

0    5 

7 

I     0 

0 

0     I 

2 

0    2 

0 

0    0 

4 

0    0 

5 

0     I 

0 

0     I 

0 

0    2 

6 

»    9 

0 

I     0 

0 

0    0 

6 

0     I 

6 

20  00 

00 

Itm 

264 


A  GRASMERB  SALE  SCHEDULE. 


Itm  Laid  forth 

To  John   Mackreth   for   Boardinfr,   goe'mg   to'th   Doctors 

attendance,   &  other  necessaries  in  the  time  of    his 

Sickness  ... 
Itm  money  given  to  the  poor,  &  his  (Funeral  both  at  Hawkes- 

head  and  Grasmcre 
Itm  for  his  Burial  in  the  Quire  ... 


Itm  to  Mr  Walker  for  a  ffuneral  sermon... 

Itm  Engtossinf;:  o*th  Will  in  parchment  &  2  Inventaries    ... 

Itm  Probat  of  Will,  Tuicon,  &  a  Mortuary 

Itm  in  Expences  upon  wittnesses  at  proving  will   ... 

Itm  to  John  Mackreth  for  crying  3  first  sales 

Itm  to  Mr  Wm  :  Sawrey  for  writing  3  first  Sale  bills  3  days 

and  their  several  Extracts  ... 
Itm  to  Wm  :  Fleming  for  malt  at  Sales  ... 
Itm  for  tobacco  at  Sales 
Itm  to  John  P»1ackreth  for  Crying  2.  last  Sales 
Itm  to  Mr  Wm  :  Sawrey  for  writing  2  last  Sale  bills;  and 

their  extracts  and  some  notes 
Itm  Q  memrds  for  Sale  money    ... 
Itm  transcribing  all  the  Sale  bills 
Itm  in  expences  in  collecting  the  Sale  money 
Itm  for  drawing  up  the  Accounts 


lb 


d    ob 


a    2    3    * 


6 13 

00 

0  6 

8 

lb  s 

d 

0  10 

0 

0  13 

0 

3  I 

I 

0  2 

6 

0  7 

6 

0  6 

0 

0  1 

0 

0  0 

5 

0  4 

0 

0  4 

0 

0  I 

6 

0  2 

6 

0  I 

0 

0  I 

6 

14  17 

II  1 

20  09 

0 

35  06  II    i 


AH  the  Sale  bills,  &  goods  left  in  the  Custody  of  the 

Executrix  amounts  to  the  sum  of... 
From  which  there's  to  be  deducted  the  price  of  a  gelding 

sold  to  James  Dawson 
Itm  the  price  of  one  stone  of  wooll  to  James  Dawson  more 

than  was  actually  sold  or    delivered  and  some  hay 

charg*d  on  John  Otley  which  he  had  not    ... 


lb    s    d    ob 


102    4    8    } 


5    7    6 


027 


5  15     I 


Observe 
The  Sale  notes  are... 
deduct  as  afore  ... 


lb 

s 

d 

ob 

102 

04 

08 

i 

5 

>5 

I 

Then 


A  GKASMEUE  SALE  SCHEDULE. 

lb  s    d  ob 

Then  there  will  remain         ...  ...  ...      9^  9    7  i 

deduct  debts  &c...  ...  ...  ...      35  6  ii  i 


6i     2    S 


96    9    7    I 


Then  .to  make  up  this... 

Theres  in  bills  &  bonds  at  Sales 

She  rec*d  of  Mr  Robert  Atkinson 

And  to  Receive  of  James  Dawson 

The  goods  she  had  &  bought  came  to   ... 

John  Park  de  nab 

lb  s    d 
Due  to  the  widow  i  12  10  if  ali  was  got  is         ...  ...        62  15    6 

(Further  pages  have  been  torn  out.) 


lb 

s 

d 

61 

2 

S 

4S 

0 

0 

01 

13 

00 

03 

01 

03 

09 

19 

0 

00 

02 

3 

GLOSSARY. 

1.  Ob:  Oboli. 

2.  A  Lin  Shirt  :  A  linen  shirt. 

3.  A  GiMER  Hogg  :  A  ewe  a  year  old. 

4.  Chees-Rums  &  Fatts  :   Cheese-rums  (or  rims)  and  fatts  (or 

vats)  were  used  together  in  the  manufacture  of  home-made 
cheeses,  and  the  two  together  seem  to  have  formed  the  cheese 
press,  but  there  is  some  confusion  as  to  the  exact  meaning  of 
the  terms.  In  Ash's  Dictionary  of  the  English  Language  (1775) 
we  find  **  Cheese  vat,  a  wooden  case  in  which  the  curds  are 
confined  to  be  pressed  into  cheese/'  and  Halliweli  and  others 
explain  the  term  much  the  same.  The  Rev.  T.  EUwood,  of 
Torver,  however,  writes  me  that  he  believes  the  Cheese-rums 
or  rims  to  have  been  circular  wooden  frameworks  of  coopered 
staves,  without  top  or  bottom,  in  which  the  milk  was  confined 
and  pressed  from  above  by  a  heavy  weight  of  wood  with  a 
stone  on  the  top  of  it.  This  piece  of  wood  Mr.  Ellwood  be- 
lieves was  the  true  **vat  "  or  "  fatt,"  which  theory,  however, 
hardly  seems  to  agree  with  the  above  interpretations  of  Ash 
and  Halliweli. 

5.    Mash 


266  A   GKASMERE    SALE   SCHEDULE. 

5.  Mash    Ffatt  or  Vat  :   A  wooden  vessel  in  which  the   malt 

was  mashed  in  brewing  beer.  The  vat  which  contains  the 
malt  in  brewing. — (Halliwell.) 

6.  Daw  Tub:  A  dough  tub.     Daw:  dough. — (Halliwell.) 

7.  A  Throwen  Chair:  A  chair  in  >Ahich  the  balusters  and  per- 

haps part  of  the  back  were  **  thrown"  or  turned  on  the  lathe, 
in  contradistinction  to  one  which  was  roughl}'  cut  or  sawn  out 
of  wood. 

8.  A  Cole-rake:  An  iron  scraper  for  farm  purposes.    The  first 

meaning  seems  to  be  a  coal  rake  to  rake  ashes  from  the  oven. 
(Halliwell.)  Now  pronounced  variously  "cou'-rake/*  **co*rake," 
&c.  There  are  other  theories  as  to  its  derivation  as  from  the 
word  COAL,  to  scrape  up. 

9.  A  Hack  :  A  mattock.     (Still  in  use.) 

10.  A  p  OP  Crooks  :  The  crooks  were  chains  ending  in  hooks  which 

were  suspended  in  the  chimney  to  hang  pans  on. 

11.  A  p  OP  Hotts:  Hotts  are  horse  panniers  for  carrying  peat  or 

manure  in. — (Halliwell,  &c.) 

12.  An  Iron  Team:  A  team — an  ox  chain  in  harness. — (Halliwell.) 

13.  TuGG  &  Bands  :  The  tugg  was  the  chain  or  rope  between  the 

plough  and  swingle  tree. 

14.  A  Plow  Stick:  Query:  A  stick  to  clean  the  plough  share.     If 

so,  identical  with  plough  puddle  (Halliwell),  and  plu'  pattle 
(Dickinson.) 
15.*  A  Gavelock  :  A  crowbar.     (Still  in  use.) 

16.  Strickle  :  A  sanded  piece  of  wood  to  sharpen  a  scythe. 

17.  A  p  OF  Hames  :  The  wooden  parts  of  the  horse  collar  to  which 

are  attached  the  traces  ;   now  generally  of  iron. 

18.  A  Wantyth  &  Rope:  The  word  wantyth  or  wanty  was  gene- 

rally used  for  ihe  strap  from  shaft  to  shaft  of  a  cart  passing 
under  the  horse.  It  was  also  a  leathern  girth  fastening  a 
horse's  pack. 

19.  Tunnell  :  A  funnel. 

20.  Scures  :  Skewers. 

21.  A  Dropping  Pan  :  A  dripping  pan. 

22.  Schreenge:  Syringe. 

23.  Plain  Stock  &  Bitt  :  i.^.,  plane,  stock,  and  bit,  the  stock  beinj^ 

the  wooden  part,  the  bit  the  iron  cutting  part  of  the  tool. 

24.  A  ffLAWiNG  Spade:   A  spade  like  the  push  plough  but  shorter, 

used  for  cutting  the  top  on  peat  mosses,  now  called  a  flaying 
spade  ;  c./.,  flay  speadd. —  (Dickinson.) 

25.  2  Carping  Cushions:  I  am  unable  to  explain  these,  but  Mr. 

Ellwood  has  favoured  me  with  the  following  suggestion  : — 

"  Carping 


A  0RASM£RB  sale  3CHBJbULB.  267 

'*  Carping  Cushions. — I  am  disposed  to  think  they  would  be  really 
what  were  commonly  known  as  carding  cushions.  These  were 
well  known  and  used  for  carding  wool  or  flax,  being  a  pair  of 
flat  wood  boards  into  which  were  inserted  pieces  of  wire  as 
teeth,  and  the  wool  was  placed  between  these  and  they  were 
rubbed  back  and  forward  to  tease  or  card  the  wool.  The  Latin 
equivalent  for  this  process  would  be  Carpo,  Inf.  Carpere,  Ferl. 
Carpsi  Carptum,  which  Latin  verb  may  have  furnished  another 
name  for  it,  namely,  carping  cushions,  though  generally  they 
were  termed  carding  cushions.  They  were  used  in  pairs,  and 
the  two  mentioned  in  your  sale  list  would  doubtless  imply  a 
pair." 

26.  A  Happing  :  A  wrap  or  bed  cover.    To  hap  up  is  still  in  use. 

27.  A  Pewter  Dubler  :  A  Dubler  or  Doubler  is  a  large  dish,  more 

generally  of  earthenware. 

28.  A  Racon-crook  :  More  generally  called  ratten  crook,  the  chain 

which  hung  from  the  rannel  balk  in  the  kitchen  chimney  for 
cooking  purposes. 

29.  Bigg:  uc,  barley. 

30.  A  Tarr  Kitt  :  Kit,  a  large  bottle  or  wooden  vessel,  or  a  small 

tub. 

31.  A  Tarr   Costrall  :  Costrel,  a  small   cask   (Ash),   a  wooden 

bottle  (Halliwell.)  The  shepherd  carried  a  "tarr  costrall** 
with  him  to  salve  the  sheep.  • 

32.  A  Rbeing  Siefe  :  A  cane  sieve  to  r^^or  riddle  corn  with,  used 

before  the  invention  of  the  winnowing  machine. 

33.  A  Wood  Brissbt  :  I  am  entirely  unable  to  explain  this. 

34.  Gamaces  :  Leggings  or  gaiters. 

35.  A  Backshavb  :  Now  called  a  spokeshave. 

36.  A  Rake  Wimble  :  A  wimble  or  wummle  is  an  augur  for  drilling 

holes.  A  rake  wimble  presumably  one  specially  used  for 
making  holes  in  the  rake  head  for  teeth. 

37.  A  Fishing  Pitch:  The  meaning  is  doubtful.      Pitcher  is  an 

obsolete  word  for  a  pointed  iron  bar,  which  is  retained  in 
pitch  fork,  and  also  in  the  kindred  pike,  A  Ashing  pitch  is 
therefore  probably  a  sort  of  gafl*.  Halliwell  gives  a  pitching 
net :  A  large  triangular  net  attached  to  two  poles  and  used 
with  a  boat.  This  hardly  seems  the  same  with  the  true 
casting  net  used  still  in  the  East,  but  I  am  unaware  if  either 
were  ever  in  use  in  the  Lakes.  The  gafl*  derivation  seems  the 
true  one. 

38.  A  Brass  Scumer:  i,e,,  a  skimmer. 


'268  A  ORASM£Rfi  SALE   SCHEDULl^. 

I  have  to  thank  Chancellor  Ferguson  for  looking  out 
many  of  these  words  for  me  in  Halliwell.  I  have  not, 
however,  thought  it  necessary  to  refer  to  this  authority  in 
all  cases,  in  the  glossary,  as  for  many  of  the  words  I  found 
identical  explanations  in  local  glossaries,  or  got  them  at 
first  hand  from  old  inhabitants. 


^htth  J^iigm  0f  six  giwn^ 


Alexandrr 
ob.  vita  patris. 


Sir] 

of  Kirkby,  Knigrht.  I 

received  seizin  of  the    | 
e5Ute,9  Hen.  VI.  (1430) 

(West).  I 


Richard  Kirkby«Annb  Bellingham. 
of  Kirkby,  Lord  of  I 
Kirkby,  living  35      I 
Hen.  VI.  (1456) I 


I  I 

AlexandekI^ 
Thomas     V 


Henry  Kirkby 
of  Kirkby,  ob.  s.  p. 
16  Hen  VlII. 
(1524). 


Richard  Kirkbv= Dorothy  Flemih 


of  Kirkby,  aet  40,  Inq. 
D.m.,  his  brother  Henry. 
Must  have  d.  1 546,  as  his 
son  John  who  d.  1551  aet. 
S,  was  3  years  old  at  his 
father's  death  (West). 


John  Kirkby 
only  son,  ob.  5  Cd.  VI. 
(1551)  aet.  S,  therefore 
b.  1543.      Not  born  till 
about  24  years  after  his 
sister's  marriage.     Query 
was  he  the  issue  of  a 
second  and  unrecorded 
marriage  ? 


(or  Catherine,  loaj 
visit.  Cumb.)  man 
c.  1509,  see  West 


I 
Anne 

Could  not  be  b.  prior  to 
15 10,  but  married  to 
Henry  Kirkby  in  I5i9»  »•'• 
9  years  of  age.  Her  eldest 
son  Roger  b.  when  she 
was  about  20. 


Roger  Kirkby 
of  Kirkby,  aet  36  at 
death  of  his  father  9 
Eliz.  1566  (Inq.  p.m.) 


Note. 


(i)— Henry  Kirkby,  to  consolidate  the  estates,  m- A« 

his  father  was  living  till  long  after  this  (»^i 

(2)— John,  the  male  heir,  was  born  24  years  ^^^^rj 

(3)__Had  the  sudden  death  of  John  anything  to  do  • 


&it  Wihhb^si  0f  l&trkbg  Iwktlj. 


I 

John 
a  guo 
Kirlcby  of 
Uprawdiffe. 


Rowland  Kirkby-* Margaret  Coupland. 
of  Crosshouse  [Flower's  visit. 
Lanes.  1567J  His  descendants 
became  extinct  in  male  line 
temp.  Hen.  VIII. 


tKiRKBY  »  Elizabeth  Richardson. 
iriiottsc. 


RKBY 
I  heir  to  his  cousin 

kW.  VI.  (1552).     He 

i  VIII.  (1519)   setUed 
J  and  Crosshouse  to 

I  hb  wife  Anne,  and 
i  50  years  on  death 
I  therefore  born  c. 

1 19  years  old  at  his 


ka  only  a  child),  lonj;  before  the  birth  of  the  male  heir,  but 
[Henry  settle  his  manor  of  Kirkby  as  stated  by  West  ? 
B  aster.    Was  he  by  an  unrecorded  second  marriagfe  ? 
p  of  skulk  at  Kirkby  Crosshouse  ? 


(  a69  ) 


Art.  XXIII.— TA^  Homes  of  the  Kirkbys  of  Kirkby  Ireleth. 

By  H.  S.  CowPER,  F.S.A. 
Read  at  Kirkby  Hall,  June  14/A,  1894. 
T^HE  two  old  houses  of  which  this  paper  treats,  were  both 
residences  of  the  ancient  and  knightly  family  of  Kirkby 
of  Kirkby  in  Furness,  or  Kirkby  Ireleth  as  it  is  sometimes 
called  to  distinguish  it  from  the  numerous  other  Kirkbys 
which  exist  in  the  North  of  England.  Of  the  history  o{ 
this  family  it  is  not  the  place  here  to  enter  into  detail,  for 
all  who  are  acquainted  with  the  history  of  Furness  must 
know  the  part  they  played  in  it.  Of  all  the  families  once 
dwelling  within  the  peninsula,  who,  settled  on  the  land 
from  remote  antiquity,  had  received  their  name  from  their 
estates,  the  Kirkbys  alone  remained  to  modern  times  as 
residential  lords.  The  Broughtons,  the  Lowicks,  the 
Urswicks  and  the  Sawreys,  their  neighbours  of  the  same 
standing  in  early  days,  have  long  disappeared.  But  of 
the  Kirkbys  the  reader  of  West's  "Antiquities  of  Furness" 
will  find  the  chronicles  of  no  less  than  twenty-two  genera- 
tions ending  but  a  hundred  years  ago,  and  land  was  still 
held  within  the  manor  by  members  of  the  family  at  a  later 
date. 

The  family  pedigree  commences  with  a  Roger  de  Kirkby 
who  in  the  lime  of  Richard  I.  was  Lord  of  Kirkby  and 
married  a  daughter  of  Gilbert,  son  of  Roger  Fitz  Reinfred. 
John,  one  of  his  sons,  was  a  famous  lawyer  of  the  time  of 
Henry  III.,  being  at  different  times  a  Justice  Itinerant, 
a  Judge  of  the  Kings'  Bench,  Lord  Keeper,  and  a  Baron 
of  the  Exchequer.  He  was  the  author  of  the  "  Inquest 
of  Yorkshire,"  named  after  him,  which  was  taken  in  1284. 
Among  the  ensuing  generations  we  find  many  benefactors 
of  the  neighbouring  Abbey  of  Furness,  from  which  institu- 
tion 


270  THE   HOMES  OP  THE   KIRKBYS. 

tion  indeed  the  manor  was  held  by  the  family  by  knights* 
service.  The  seventh  Lord,  as  given  by  West,  was  Sir 
Richard  Kirkby,  who  lived  in  the  reign  of  Richard  II., 
and  the  fourth,  fifth,  and  sixth  Henrys.  He  had  a  younger 
son,  Rowland,  who  appears  in  the  Lancashire  visitations 
of  Flower  and  St.  George,  and  is  styled  by  West  "of 
Crosshouse."  The  descendants  of  this  Rowland  became 
extinct  in  the  direct  line  four  generations  later,  in  the 
time  of  Henry  VIII.  Rowland's  elder  brother  Sir  Roger 
Kirkby  of  Kirkby  received  seizin  of  the  manor  in  9  Henry 
VI.  (1430)  and  of  him  we  find  a  younger  son  named  Roger, 
who,  like  his  uncle  Rowland,  was  of  Crosshouse.  Henry, 
the  son  of  this  Roger  of  Crosshouse,  married  his  cousin 
Anne  (or  Agnes),  who  becoming  the  heiress  of  the  Kirkby 
estates  on  the  death  of  her  only  brother,  the  whole  of  the 
family  estates  became  united  and  in  possession  of  the 
descendants  of  this  lady  and  her  husband  Henry  Kirkby 
of  Crosshouse.*  There  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  at 
this  time  Henry  Kirkby  added  to  the  Crosshouse  and  gave 
it  its  present  form.  For  not  only  do  the  details  of  the 
building  point  to  this,  but  West  states  that  by  a  deed  ir 
Hen.  VIII.  (1519),  he  settled  his  estate  of  the  manor  of 
Kirkby  and  a  messuage  called  Crosshouse  to  the  use  of 
himself  and  Anne  his  wife,  and  Richard  his  brother.! 

In  the  seventeenth  generation  of  the  pedigree  as  given 
by  West,  we  find  Roger  Kirkby  of  Kirkby  aged  12  at  St. 
Georges'  Visitation  (1613).  His  eldest  son  Richard,  after- 
wards Colonel  Kirkby,  was  the  relentless  persecutor  of 
Margaret  Fell  and  George  Fox.  A  younger  son  was 
William  Kirkby  of  Ashlack,  who  was  surveyor  general 
of  all  her  Majesty's  Customs  in  all  the  Northern  ports  of 


*  This  Crosshouse  is  the  old  building  now  called  Kirkby  Hall,  and  it  therefore 
appears  that  the  orifsfinal  home  of  the  family  was  elsewhere  in  the  manor.  From 
tnis  date,  however,  Crosshouse  became  Kirkby  Hall  and  the  manor  house.  ^ 

t  There  is,  however,  a  genealogical  difficulty  here  which  is  discussed  in  the 
Appendix  (which  see). 

England. 


THE   HOMES  OF  THE   KtRKBYS.  271 

England.  This  William,  who  was  aged  29  at  Dugdale*s 
Visitation  (1664-5)  married  for  a  first  wife  Anne  daughter 
of  Anthony  Locke  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  of  this  couple 
we  have  record  in  an  inscription  and  some  architectural 
features  at  Ashlack  Hall.  Beyond  this,  it  is  unnecessary  to 
go  into  the  pedigree.  The  family  suflFered  by  its  loyalty  in 
the  time  of  Charles  I.,  and  the  estates  became  so  encum- 
bered that  they  were  never  able  to  be  cleared.  The  manor 
was  mortgaged  to  a  banker  in  1719,  who  being  the  agent 
of  the  Duchess  of  Buckingham,  and  becoming  bankrupt, 
the  manor  passed  to  that  lady  in  part  payment.  She 
left  it  to  Constantine  Phipps,  Lord  Mulgrave,  who  sold  it 
in  1771  to  the  Cavendishes,  in  which  family  it  now  is. 

An  estate,  however,  remained  for  several  generations  in 
the  hands  of  the  descendants  of  William  of  Ashlack.  It 
was,  however,  sold  off  bit  by  bit,  and  as  far  as  I  can  now 
learn  by  enquiries,  the  ancient  stock  of  Kirkby  of  Kirkby 
has  at  last  entirely  disappeared  from  among  the  land- 
owners of  Furness. 

KIRKBY    HALL  OR   CROSS   HOUSE. 

Kirkby  Hall  is  situated  on  the  summit  of  a  gentle 
eminence  at  the  base  of  that  long  range  of  ling  capped 
fells  which  form  such  a  conspicuous  feature  in  the  land- 
scape on  the  left  hand  of  the  traveller  who  journeys  by 
train  from  Foxfield  to  Barrow.  At  Broughton-in- Furness 
about  a  mile  above  the  former  station  the  river  Duddon 
having  coursed  through  Seathwaite  and  Dunnerdale  enters 
the  broad  estuary  which  forms  one  of  the  chief  gaps  in  the 
outlying  fells  of  the  Lake  District.  The  Duddon  is 
crossed  by  a  viaduct  just  before  arriving  at  Foxfield,  and 
on  leaving  that  station  the  train  makes  a  straight  run  of 
two  miles  till  it  reaches  a  smaller  stream  called  Steers 
Pool  or  Kirkby  Pool,  which  drains  a  small  valley  nearly 
parallel  with  the  Duddon,  which  it  eventually  joins  off 
MiUom.     It  is  near  the  spot  where  the  railway  crosses 

this 


272  THE   tfOMBS  OP  THB  KIRRBYS. 

this  Stream  that  the  old  house  we  are  about  to  describe  is 

situated. 

The  site  of  Kirkby  Hall  is  not,  perhaps,  the  typical  one 
for  an  old  manor  house.  It  is  neither  low,  retired,  nor 
particularly  romantic  in  any  way.  But  as  the  visitor 
makes  his  way  up  the  short  avenue,  shaded  with  old  oaks 
and  other  trees,  he  cannot  fail  to  be  at  once  struck  with 
the  massive  formality  of  the  old  place  with  its  arched 
door,  its  low  mullioned  windows,  and  its  great  cylindrical 
chimney  stacks.  The  whole  place  looks  what  it  was, — the 
residence  of  a  family  of  powerful  North  Country  squires. 

Let  us  examine  it  in  detail.  The  front  we  are  looking 
at  presents  a  range  about  80  feet  in  length,  broken  on  the 
ground  floor  by  four  windows,  one  of  which  is  a  bay,  and 
a  flat  arched  door  which  is  the  front  entrance.  The  east 
end  of  this  frontage  is  set  back  at  an  angle  from  the  rest, 
the  reason  for  which  I  hope  presently  to  make  plain.  In 
the  second  story  there  are  four  other  windows  of  the 
same  character  as  those  on  the  ground  floor.  On  the 
spectators'  left  there  is  an  outlying,  squarish  building, 
unconnected  with  the  main  block  and  facing  to  a  different 
aspect.  The  main  entrance  is  through  a  depressed  four- 
centred  arch  of  red  sandstone,  the  quoins  of  which  are 
splayed  externally  and  bear  mouldings.  There  is  no 
square  head  or  drip  moulding  above  the  arch.  This  door 
gives  entrance  to  a  straight  through  passage  leading  to  a 
great  newel  staircase,  and  on  the  left  of  which  partitioned 
off  is  the  hall  measuring  up  to  the  partition  about  25  feet 
by  24  feet.  The  partition  appears  to  be  modern,  but  not 
improbably  replaces  an  older  screen  shutting  off  the  pas- 
sage and  kitchen  wing  from  the  hall. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  passage  is  narrower  at  the 
staircase  end  than  at  the  entrance.  This  is  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  west  wing  is  not  at  right  angles  with  the 
remainder  of  the  block. 

The   great   hall  is   a   fine   apartment   lighted   by  two 

windows 


tHE   HOMfeS  01?  THE   kIRKBVS.  ±*Ji 

windows  to  the  front,  that  at  the  dais  end  being  a  bay 
thrown  out  5^  feet.  This  bay  is  not,  as  is  the  case  often, 
carried  up  to  the  floor  above.  Another  window  now 
blocked  has  been  in  the  north-east  corner.  The  windows 
to  the  front  of  the  house  are  of  the  same  character  all 
over  the  house.  They  are  plain  square-headed,  with  drip 
mouldings  and  scooped  mullions.     The  lesser  window  in 


CIRKBT    MALI  •«  CROSS  H0U6e. 


T    ,1     t*         li '  '     ft 


the  hall  has  three  lights  and  the  bay  six.  Opposite  to 
these  windows  is  the  great  hall  fireplace  about  9  feet 
wide,  crossed  by  a  segmental  arch  rounded  oflF  at  the 
junction  with  the  impost,  and  with  a  cavetto  at  the  angle. 
The  details  of  this  hall,  with  its  bay  at  the  dais  end,  no 
doubt  give  us  the  date  of  this  part  of  the  house,  namely, 
about  the  beginning  of  the  i6th  century. 

From  the  hall  a  door  opens  into  the  chief  parlour  or 
withdrawing  room,  which  is  now  cut  across  by  a  partition, 
but  originally  was  24  feet  long  and  12J  feet  wide.     Its 

front 


^74  *^^^  HOMES  Ot^  THE  KIRKBYS. 

front  window,  of  the  same  character  as  those  of  the  hall, 
was  of  four  lights.  Another  in  the  west  wall  has  now  no 
dressings  and  is  more  widely  splayed.  From  the  north- 
west corner  of  the  hall  a  diagonal  passage,  with  a  door 
with  a  hollow  chamfer,  leads  to  a  small  room  gf  by  iji 
feet.  It  has  been  lighted  by  at  least  two  windows,  one 
only  of  which  (in  the  north-west  corner)  retains  its  dress- 
ings. It  is  a  single  narrow  aperture  and  is  now  blocked. 
This  room  is  now  the  dairy,  and  was  formerly  in  all  pro- 
bability the  lord's  private  room.  The  walls  throughout 
these  parts  of  the  building  are  from  3  feet  to  3  feet  6  inches 
in  width. 

The  east  wing  is  carried  back  to  a  length  of  about  69 
feet,  and  contains  on  the  ground  floor  three  rooms  and  an 
L  shaped  passage  connecting  them  with  the  entrance 
lobby. 

The  biggest  of  these  rooms,  which  since  the  erection  of 
the  hall  and  west  wing  has  been  the  kitchen,  is  a  fine 
apartment  22  feet  by  16J  feet.  Its  great  chimney,  11  feet 
wide  at  the  north  end,  is  now  blocked  with  modern  ranges 
and  cannot  be  measured  as  to  depth,  but  it  seems  to  have 
been  at  least  four  feet  deep.  It  has  no  mouldings.  In 
the  west  face  of  this  recess  a  small  door  opens  into  a 
curious  closet,  or  hiding  place  5  feet  long  by  3  feet  wide, 
in  the  thickness  of  the  wall  beside  the  chimney.  A  small 
window,  now  blocked,  has  served  to  light  this  curious 
place.*  There  is  also  a  blocked  window  in  the  west  wall, 
and  there  was  formerly  a  door  near  the  fireplace  leading 
into  the  added  building,  which  abuts  against  this  corner. 
Neither  the  existing  door  nor  window  of  this  kitchen  have 
any  dressings,  but  outside  there  can  be  seen  in  the  north- 
west corner  of  this  wing  some  red  sandstone  quoins  with 
a  plain  round  moulding  at  the  angle. 


*  The  room  above  has  also  a  straight  closet  about  9  feet  long  in  the  thickness 
of  the  wall  immediately  above  this. 

Besides 


< 

X 

> 

OQ 


THfe   HOKiBS  OF  THE   KIRKBVS. 


275 


Besides  the  small  room  (now  called  the  coal  cellar  *) 
shown  in  this  wing  on  the  plan,  there  is  an  irregular 
shaped  room  at  the  front  of  the  house  measuring  13^  by 
i8i  feet,  and  lighted  by  a  three-iight  window  of  the  same 
character  as  those  before  mentioned.  This  was  probably 
the  buttery  of  the  reformed  house  of  the  time  of  Henry 
VIII.,  that  is  to  say,  of  the  house  as  we  now  see  it.  The 
walls  throughout  this  wing  are  four  feet  thick. 

Having  now  the  ground  plan  of  the  house  before  us,  we 
are  in  a  position  to  understand  better  its  history.     We 


have  noticed  that 
not  set  straight 
block.  It  seems 
wing  is  the  original 
plete  probably  of 
with  which  period 
cords.  In  this  form 
erected  by  Row- 
or  by  his  brother 
and  my  opinion  is 


the  east  wing  is 
with  the  main 
probable  that  this 
house  almost  com- 
15th  century  date, 
its  plan  well  ac- 
it  may  have  been 
land  of  Crosshouse 
Sir  Roger  for  him, 
that   the  hall  and 


west  wing  were  added  two  generations  later  by  Henry. 
Kirkby  of  Crosshouse,  who  eventually  succeeded  to  the 
lordship  of  Kirkby  by  his  marriage  with  his  cousin.  They 
were  probably  built  at  an  irregular  angle  with  the  old 
part  in  order  to  front  the  high  road,  and  to  secure  a 
better  aspect.  The  complete  plan  of  the  old  Crosshouse 
may  have  been  like  what  is  shown  here.  The  great 
well  staircase  which  still  remains  was  probably  con- 
tained in  a  projection  or  tower,  and  the  only  alterations 
which  were  found  necessary  when  the  new  part  was 
added  were  the  slicing  away  of  part  of  the  west  wall 
to  get  as  good  an  entrance  lobby  as  possible,  and  the 
paring  away  of  two  sides  of  the  staircase  turret  so  that 
they  did  not  project  into  the  hall.     The  well  stair,  an 

*  This  has  two  windows,  one  high  up  in  the  wall  and  oblique  as  if  to  cover  the 
door. 

unusual 


276  The  Homes  op  the  kirkbys. 

unusual  feature  in  houses  of  the  date  of  the  newer  part, 
was  thus  left  to  do  duty  for  the  whole  house.  The  hall  of 
the  old  house  then  became  the  kitchen  of  the  new  one, 
and  the  old  kitchen  (of  the  fireplace  of  which  the  recess 
can  be  traced)  became  the  "  buttery,"  while  the  little 
intermediate  room,  which  was  probably  the  old  buttery, 
perhaps  dropped  out  of  any  very  special  function.  The 
building  attached  to  the  north  end  of  this  older  building 
was  of  two  stories,  and  was  at  one  time  accessible  both 
from  the  kitchen  and  room  over.  It  appears,  however, 
to  be  a  later  addition.  The  upper  room  has  a  fireplace. 
Large  barns  and  offices  are  again  attached  to  this. 

The  only  other  feature  of  the  ground  plan  which 
requires  notice  is  the  outlying  building  at  the  south- 
west. It  is  now  cut  up  for  farm  purposes,  and  is  too 
modernised  to  make  much  of.  It  has,  however,  a  drip- 
stone of  a  wide  window  remaining  on  its  east  front  of  the 
same  character  as  the  others.  Its  walls  are  only  2  feet 
6  inches  in  thickness.  It  is  not  easy  to  conjecture  its 
special  use  now,  unless  it  was  for  holding  the  manor 
courts  in. 

The  well  stair,  8  feet  in  diameter,  consists  of  broad 
steps  of  solid  oak  winding  round  a  very  plain  wooden 
newel.  It  is  lighted  from  the  outside  and  there  is,  at  the 
completion  of  its  first  half  turn,  a  squint  or  narrow  window 
opening  into  the  old  hall  (or  present  kitchen)  by  which  the 
lord  could  unseen  observe  what  was  going  on.  The  first 
floor  is  at  different  levels  because  the  new  hall  is  loftier 
than  the  rooms  in  the  adjoining  wings.  Near  the  stair- 
case head,  and  over  the  coal  cellar,  is  a  small  apartment 
called  the  skull  room,  and  some  niches  are  pointed  out  in 
the  wall  in  which  some  human  skulls,  of  which  the  legend 
is  now  forgotten,  are  said  to  have  formerly  stood. 

From  this  passage  is  entered  a  bedroom  above  the  room 
I   have   suggested   was  the   old   kitchen.     It  contains  a 
depressed  four-centre  arched  fireplace,  over  which  is  an 
ornate  plaster  panel,  once  containing  among  floral  orna- 
mentation 


THE   HOMES  OF  THE   KIRKBYS.  277 

mentation  of  vines  and  grape  clusters,  the  atchievement 
of  the  Kirkbys.  The  mantling  crest  and  cap  of  main- 
tenance remain,  but  the  shield  (hung  cornerwise)  and  the 
helmet  placed  full  faced  or  affronU  have  disappeared,  and 
possibly  were  made  of  carved  wood.  It  should  be  noted 
that  the  helmet  put  thus  signifies  that  the  atchievement 
was  that  of  a  knight  or  baronet.  Now  the  last  of  the 
family  who  held  such  a  title  was  Sir  Roger  (knight)  who 
received  seizin  of  Kirkby  in  1431,  and  who  I  have  already 
suggested  may  have  built  this  the  older  part  of  Crosshouse. 
I  cannot,  however,  think  that  the  work  of  this  panel  is  as 
early  as  the  time  of  Sir  Roger,  and  I  am  inclined  to  think 
that  when  Henry  Kirkby  added  to  the  house  he  put  up 
this  atchievement  as  a  posthumous  memorial  of  his  grand- 
father, and  to  show  who  built  the  older  part.  Mr.  Holme 
Nicholson,  however,  suggests  that  it  might  be  an  error  of 
ignorance,  copied  from  some  older  work  about  the  place. 
If  the  shield  itself  had  been  extant  and  had  borne  quar- 
terings  it  might  have  settled  the  difficulty. 

The  space  above  the  hall  and  entrance  lobby  is  now 
occupied  by  two  rooms  and  a  passage  from  the  stairs. 
These  are  divided  by  partitions  now  papered  and  plastered, 
but  probably  ancient,  as  fireplaces  exist  in  both  of  the 
rooms.  It  is  said  also  that  some  oak  paneling  formerly 
covered  the  partition  between  the  rooms."*^  The  fireplaces 
in  these  rooms  are  of  the  three-centred  form,  which  is  prac- 
tically a  segmental  arch,  rounded  off  at  the  junction  with 
the  impost,  and  all  have  the  usual  hollow  at  the  angle.  In 
the  corner  of  this  room,  above  the  passage  from  the  hall 
to  the  present  dairy,  was  formerly  the  doorway  to  the 
upper  floor  of  the  west  wing,  which  contains  the  chapel. 
This  door  is  now  blocked,  and  the  only  means  of  access  to 


*  Some  of  the  oak  carvings  taken  from  Kirkby  to  Holker  perished,  it  has  been 
suggested,  in  the  Jire  of  1S71.  See  Tweddell,  Furness  Past  and  Present,  I.  p. 
153. 

this 


278  THB  HOMES  OP  THB  KIRltMS. 

this  room  and  that  adjoining,  is  through  a  trap  door  in 
the  ceiling  of  the  passage  mentioned,  or  out  of  the  attic 
above  the  adjoining  bedrooms.  The  chapel  floor  is  now 
disused. 

The  chapel,  which  is  above  the  withdrawing  room,  is  a 
fine  apartment  26  feet  by  14  feet.  The  floor  is  now 
removed,  and,  in  examining  it,  it  is  necessary  to  walk 
on  the  joists.  It  is  in  two  bays,  the  truss  or  framing  of 
beams  dividing  them,  consisting  of  tie  beam  and  king 
post.  Similar  trusses  fixed  against  either  end  of  the  chapel 
serve  to  support  the  roof.  At  the  south  end  there  is  a 
three-light  freestone  window  of  the  usual  character,  and 
another  small  window  in  the  west  wall  lighted  the  opposite 
end  of  the  chapel.  In  the  same  wall,  but  near  the  south 
end,  is  a  fireplace  like  those  in  the  rooms  over  the  hall. 
There  are  two  doors  which  have  been  framed  with  oak, 
one  of  which  led  to  the  rooms  over  the  hall,  as  before 
mentioned,  and  the  other  in  the  north  wall  leading  to  a 
room  over  what  is  now  the  dairy.  There  is  also  a  curious 
mural  chamber  in  the  west  end  of  this  north  wall,  which 
now  contains  a  seat,  and  the  use  of  which  is  obscure.  It 
may  have  been  appropriated  in  some  way  to  the  accessories 
of  private  worship,  or,  as  the  wall  here  has  plenty  of  room, 
it  may  be  the  head  of  a  small  blocked  newel  or  private 
stair  from  the  withdrawing  room  below. 

But  the  most  remarkable  feature  of  this  room,  if  not  of 
the  whole  place,  is  the  peculiar  mural  decoration,  con- 
sisting of  panels  with  birds  and  animals,  and  texts  and 
inscriptions,  all  of  which  were  painted  on  plaster,  and 
which  will  not  be  described  here,  as  they  form  the  subject 
of  a  separate  paper. 

The  room  behind  the  chapel  is  dark  and  floorless. 
There  does  not  seem  to  be  any  noticeable  feature  in  it. 

This  chapel  has,  as  the  roof  shows,  originally  finished 
in  a  gable  fronting  down  the  avenue.  Within  quite 
modern  times,  however,  it  has  (probably  owing  to  damp) 

been 


CARVLD  STONE  AT   KIRKBY   HALL. 


CARVED  STONE  AT  KIRKBY  HALL. 


*    •  •  .• 


THE   HOMES  OF  THE   KIRKBYS.  279 

been  re-roofed,  so  that  its  western  slope  is  continued 
straight  up  till  it  joins  the  roof  above  the  hall,  thus 
giving  the  front  of  the  house  an  unsightly  lop-sided 
appearance,  and  much  marring  the  true  proportions  of 
the  building. 

The  traditional  and  doubtless  true  site  of  the  cross  from 
which  the  house  took  the  name  by  which  it  was  formerly 
generally  known,  is  about  forty-six  yards  straight  in  front 
of  the  main  entrance.  It  is  said  to  have  been  partly 
demolished  by  the  order  of  Archbishop  Edwin  Sandys. 
In  the  yard  outside  the  east  wing  is  to  be  seen,  placed 
over  a  water  trough,  a  lion's  head  rudely  carved  in  free- 
stone. This  has  probably  been  at  one  time  a  gargoyle  or 
water  spout  in  some  part  of  the  older  house.  Another 
curiosity  consists  in  a  small  square  carved  stone,  standing 
now  on  the  wall  in  front  of  the  house.  It  bears  on  two  of 
its  sides  coats  of  arms,  ist,  2  bars,  and  on  a  canton  a 
cross  moline,  (Kirkby.)  2nd,  6  annulets  3,  2  and  i  (Lovv- 
ther.)  The  two  shields  are  joined  together  at  the  angle 
by  clasped  hands.     The  third  side  is  inscribed 

K 
R  •  A 

1639. 

and  on  the  fourth  we  find 


I  •  K      R  •  K  E  •  K 

fo  •  K      A  •  K  AL  •  K 

R  ®  .  K  F  •  K  W  •  K 

r  M  '  K  D  •  K 

These  sides  show  the  match  between  Roger  Kirkby  and 

Agnes,  daughter  of  Sir  John  Lowther,  and  the  initials 

of  five  of  their  sons  and  six  of  their  daughters. 

Roger 


280  THE   HOMES   OF  THE   KIRKBYS, 


Roger  Kirkby«  Agnes  Lowther. 
b   1601.  I 


II  I    i  I  I    I        I    I  II  It 

Richard  Roger  Christopher  Jane  Agnks  Francis  Dorothy 
John  William  Ellen  Alice     Margaret    Mary 

The  first  initial  in  the  second  line  is  somewhat  faint,  but 
appears  to  be  -j^o.     In  Baines's  History  of  Lancashire,* 

it  is  given  ^  o.  As  the  four  sons,  John,  Richard,  Roger, 
and  William  are  all  represented  in  the  inscription,  and  of 
the  daughters  the  initials  of  Jane  and  Mary  are  alone 
omitted,  this  letter  probably  stands  for  Christopher,  the 
fifth  son.  This  stone,  which  is  said  to  have  been  found  in 
the  farmyard,  probably  formed  at  one  time  part  of  a  sun- 
dial. 


Since  writing  the  above,  an  account  of  Kirkby  Hall  of  some  length 
has  appeared  in  "  Furness  and  Cartmel  Notes,'*  by  Henry  Barber, 
M.D.,  just  published.  The  author  therein  states  that  the  house 
'*  originally  stood  within  a  quadrangular  court,  three  sides  of  which 
consisted  of  brew-house,  barns,  stables,  slaughter-house,  outbuildings, 
and  other  offices,  the  entrance  being  by  a  gateway  in  the  south  side.*' 
What  Dr.  Barber's  authority  is  for  this  statement  I  do  not  know,  for 
I  have  never  heard  any  tradition  to  that  effect,  nor  when  planning 
the  hall  did  I  notice  anything  to  lead  me  to  suspect  that  such  had 
ever  been  the  case.  The  offices  at  Kirkby  are  all  in  rear  of  the 
house. 

In  the  same  account  Dr.  Barber  tells  us  that  the  floor  of  the 
present  chapel  is  not  at  its  original  level  "because  the  place  is 
reduced  to  meanness  in  size,  and  the  heraldic  devices  on  the  side 
walls  representing  the  arms  of  the  Kirkbys  in  the  various  quar- 
terings  are  nearly  divided  horizontally  by  the  joists  and  plaster." 
With  reference  to  this,  I  would  only  ask  the  reader  to  examine  the 
photographs  of  the  paintings,  which  accompany  my  descriptive 
paper  on  that  subject,  and  he  will  scarcely  find  any  difficulty  in 
deciding  if  the  designs  are  armorial  and  if  they  are  cut  in  two  by  the 
floor. 


•  IV.  694.     In  the  same  work  it  is  stated  that  "  carvings  in  cement  with  arms 
of  Kirkby  ornament  one  of  the  chambers,  many  of  which  are  wainscoated." 

In 


THE   HOMES   OF   THE    KlRKBYS.  281 

In  another  part  of  the  same  account  we  are  told  that  in  the  upper 
apartments  are  the  remains  of  oak  carvings.  For  these,  visitors  to 
Kirkby  Hall  may  search  in  vain,  for  they  do  not  exist. 

Dr.  Barber  is  further  of  opinion  that  the  house  was  **  built  for 
defence  rather  than  comfort,*'  and  that  the  bay  window  to  the  hall 
."  probably  may  have  been  added  during  the  time  of  the  Stuarts." 
It  need  scarcely  be  pointed  out  that  the  house  has  nothing  defensive 
about  it,  and  that  the  bay  window  was  a  characteristic  feature  in  the 
halls  of  houses  of  the  time  of  Henry  VIII. 

Most  of  the  above  statements  are  also  to  be  found  in  Tweddell's 
'•  Furness,  Past  and  Present,"  published  in  1870,  but  who  is 
originally  responsible  for  them  I  am  unaware.  It  is  to  be  regietted 
that  most  of  these  misstatements  have  just  been  perpetuated  in  the 
North  Lonsdale  Magazine,  Vol.  I,  No.  3,  edited  by  the  Rev.  L.  R. 
Ayre,  and  published  at  Ulverston. 


ASHLACK   HALL. 

Ashlack  Hall  is  situated  something  over  a  mile  north- 
east of  the  Crosshouse,  on  higher  ground,  and  nestles 
snugly  in  a  hollow  in  a  base  of  the  fells,  which,  rising 
almost  immediately  behind  the  house,  extend  up  to  and 
bound  the  western  margin  of  Coniston  Lake.  It  has  been 
suggested  that  the  name  bears  evidence  of  the  existence 
of  one  of  the  numerous  old  iron  smelting  forges  or 
*•  bloomeries,"  which  are  known  to  have  existed  from 
early  times  in  Furness.  1  am,  however,  informed  that 
there  are  no  heaps  of  iron  scoriae  in  the  immediate  vicinity 
of  the  hall,  and  it  appears  more  probable  that  the  true 
derivation  is  the  **  slack  "  or  hollow  among  the  ash  trees. 
The  present  tenant  (Mr.  Irving)  informs  me  that  there 
were  within  a  comparatively  short  time  ago  many  very  fine 
specimens  of  this  tree  here. 

The  house  is  of  a  totally  different  character  to  Kirkby 
Crosshouse.  So  late  as  the  beginning  of  the  16th 
century  the  old  plan  of  a  great  hall  occupying  the  centre 
of  the  house,  jostling  the  parlours  and  sitting  rooms  into 
comparatively  small  room,  still  was  much   adhered  to. 

But 


282  THE   MOMBS  OF  THE   KlRKBYS. 

But  a  hundred  years  later  a  great  change  had  taken  place. 
Houses  of  this  period  are  more  varied  in  plan,  and  the 
size  of  the  sitting  rooms  is  more  evenly  balanced,  while 
in  the  larger  houses  a  multiplicity  of  secondary  apartments 
and  parlours  is  found.  Ashlack  in  its  original  condition  is 
a  fair  sample  of  a  smaller  house  of  this  period,  but  altera- 
tions at  a  later  date  make  the  original  arrangement  some- 
what difficult  to  follow  in  its  details. 

The  house  as  it  now  stands  is  cruciform,  but  the  east 
limb  consists  of  stables  and  byres,  and  the  top  or  north 
limb,  which  is  short  and  broad,  is  the  result  of  alterations 
to  the  building,  which  apparently  were  carried  out  about 
the  time  of  Charles  II. 

The  original  building  is  therefore  L  shaped  ;  the  length 
of  the  south  limb  measured  to  the  interior  angle  being 
50^  feet,  and  that  of  the  west  limb  44  feet.  All  the  win- 
dows on  these  two  faces,  as  well  as  those  on  the  south 
front  of  the  longer  limb,  are  original,  and  consist  of 
openings  with  square  heads,  plain  chamfered  mullions, 
and  dripstones  coved  on  the  under  side.  On  the  inner 
sides  of  the  L  all  the  windows  on  the  ground  floor  are  of 
three  lights,  as  are  also  all  those  on  the  upper  floor  except 
one  above  the  door  in  the  middle  of  the  south  limb,  which 
is  of  two  lights.  The  south  gable  has  two  windows, 
each  of  three  lights,  but  the  upper  one  has  now  no  drip 
moulding. 

The  original  entrance  appears  to  be  the  one  alluded  to 
as  in  the  middle  of  the  south  limb.  It  is  a  square-headed 
opening  with  a  drip  moulding  ending  in  a  square  termina- 
tion, coved  like  the  dripstones.  Above  is  a  plaster  panel 
bearing  the  initials 

16  ^  67, 

W- A 

a   date   considerably   later  than  the  architecture  of  this 

part 


< 

X 

< 

X 
< 


THB  H0MB6  OP  THE   K(RKBY8. 


283 


part  of  the  house,  and  put  up  no  doubt  by  William 
Kirkby  of  Ashlack  when  the  additions  were  made  to  the 
back  of  the  house. 

To  understand  the  original  plan  of  the  house  one  must 
first  understand  the  alterations  which  were  made  probably 
in  the  time  of  Charles  IL  These  consist  of  the  large 
kitchen  (A)  which,  with  the  adjacent  staircase,  form  the 


ASNtACI    HALL 

MOVNOHUft 

short  north  limb  of  the  cross,  and  the  south  end  of  which 
with  its  huge  wall  containing  the  chimney  occupy  the 
centre.  The  remainder  is  probably  much  as  it  was  before, 
except  that  the  two  inner  rooms  are  abridged  to  a  now 
unknown  extent,  and  one  of  them  (B)  is  cut  up  by  thin 
walls.  This  was  probably  the  hall,  entered  directly  from 
the  garden  by  the  front  door  and  lighted  by  only  one 
window,  and  with  the  stairs  leading  straight  up  between 
two  walls  on  the  opposite  side.  The  kitchen  was  probably 
the  adjacent  room  marked  C  in  the  west  wing,  and  the 
room  terminating  this  block,  and  measuring  17  by  21  feet, 
is  called  the  ''  stone  parlour,"  and  is  now  the  dairy  (D). 
The  wall  betwixt  these  two  rooms  is  eight  feet  thick- 
There 


084  I'HB   HOMES  OP  THE   KlRKBYSl 

There  are  two  other  original  rooms  in  the  south  block. 
One,  terminating:  it,  is  a  fine  room  about  18  feet  square, 
separated  from  the  hall  by  a  6-foot  wall.  This  was  pro- 
bably' the  withdrawing  room.  The  other  was  only  13  feet 
square,  and  was  probably  a  small  parlour.  Beneath  this 
room  and  the  stairs  are  cellars,  lit  by  original  two-light 
muUionod  windows. 

It  appears  that  William  Kirkby  considered  that  a  larger 
kitchen  was  required,  and  to  gain  this  object  the  Hall  was 
sacrificed.  A  new  front,  45  feet  long  and  projecting  about 
II  feet  from  the  west  block,  was  thrown  out  to  the  north, 
and  thus  a  new  kitchen,  20J  feet  by  18J  feet,  was  formed, 
and  a  small  chamber  containing  a  new  staircase  leading 
out  of  the  old  kitchen  to  the  west  of  it.  In  doing  this  an 
enormous  amount  of  space  was  lost  by  the  immense  13-foot 
thick  wall  which  was  erected  in  the  centre  of  the  house  to 
carry  the  great  chimney  and  ovens.  There  is  within  this 
new  portion  nothing  which  merits  notice  except  the 
entrance  door  pegged  with  oak  studs,  the  great  kitchen 
chimney,  and  the  staircase,  which  is  characteristic  of  the 
period,  with  its  strong  balusters  of  turned  oak,  and  which 
winds  right  up  to  the  attics  above  the  second  floor. 

Externally  the  projection  is  finished  with  a  double  gable, 
lit  by  tall  windows  with  weak  wooden  mullions  and  tran- 
soms. There  are  the  remains  of  blocked  windows  on  this 
side  of  the  west  wing  which  are  of  this  character,  but  in 
shape  like  those  on  the  garden  front,  shewing  that  an 
attempt  was  made  to  make  this  side  uniform  in  character. 
The  additions  can  be  traced  by  a  casual  glance  at  the  roof, 
as  they  are  loftier  than  the  original  part.  The  chimneys 
are  of  the  usual  cylindrical  form  of  the  district,  adding 
not  a  little  to  the  picturesque  appearance  of  the  house. 
In  this  house  they  are  nearly  all  double,  two  joined 
together.  There  is  one  such  over  the  centre  of  each 
block,  and  another  over  the  thick  central  wall.  A  single 
one  is  over  the  gable  of  the  small  parlour  which  faces  to 
the  east.  The 


TH&  tiOM^S  OP  tHB  kiRKBVS.  285 

The  front  door,  like  that  leading  to  the  kitchen,  is  old, 
of  oak,  but  studded  with  iron  nails.  The  walls  of  the 
original  portion  are  mostly  2  feet  9  inches  in  thickness, 
those  of  the  added  part  less  :  but  a  great  amount  of  room 
is  wasted  by  the  thick  walls  dividing  the  rooms  in  the  old 
as  well  as  the  new  parts.  The  house  is  much  modernised 
inside,  and  no  old  fireplaces  remain.  There  is  some 
paneling  of  the  last  century  left  in  the  large  room  over  the 
kitchen,  which  is  now  divided  by  partitions, 

Ashlack  is  within  the  manor  of  Broughton  and  was  the 
last  possession,  at  anyrate  as  a  residence,  of  the  Kirkbys. 
It  was  bought  from  them  about  sixty  or  seventy  years  ago, 
and  has  passed  through  the  hands  of  various  owners  since. 
Though  of  less  interest  than  Kirkby  Crosshouse,  it  is 
externally  a  very  fair  example  of  the  residence  of  a  family 
of  smaller  gentry  of  the  period. 

About  a  mile  south  of  Kirkby  Crosshouse  there  is  an 
old  house  called  now  Low  Hall,  to  distin-ijuish  it  from 
Kirkby  Hall  or  Crosshouse,  (which  is  often  called  High 
Hall),  but  which  was  formerly  known  by  the  name  of 
LfOW  Barn.  This  old  house  was  a  farm-house  till  a  few 
years  ago,  when  a  new  farm  was  built  close  to  it,  and  (he 
old  place  is  now  used  for  lumber  and  for  storing  farm 
implements,  etc.,  in.  It  is  a  plain  old  place,  with 
numerous  square-headed  windows  of  two  and  three  lights, 
somewhat  similar  in  character  to  those  at  Ashlack,  but 
the  place  is  too  cut  up  by  internal  partitions  and  altera- 
tions to  see  the  original  plan  easily.  A  stone  is  fixed  in 
the  wall  near  the  front  door  inscribed 

K 
R- A 

1639    - 

the  same  initials  which  are  found  on  the  stone  at  Cross- 
house.  Another  over  the  adjacent  barn  door  has  the  same 
initials  and  the  date  1637,  and  below,  the  Kirkby  arms, 

boldly 


286  TH£  HO&IBS  Ot"  THB  KIRRBVS. 

boldly  cut.  These  dates,  no  doubt,  mark  the  erection  of 
Low  Hall  by  fioger  Kirkby,  by  whom  it  must  have  been 
built  for  a  junior  branch  of  the  family,  or  else  for  a  farm- 
house. It  is  much  inferior  in  size  to  the  Crosshouse  or 
Ashlack. 


APPENDIX. 

The  difficulty  alluded  to  on  page  270  is  as  follows : —Richard 
Kirkby  of  Kirkby  (died  1546)  whose  daughter  Anne  married  Henry 
Kirkby  of  Crosshouse,  had  also  a  son,  John  Kirkby,  who  died  5  Ed. 
VI.  (1 551)  aged  8,  and  was  therefore  born  in  1543.  Bat  Henry 
Kirkby  of  Crosshouse,  who  married  his  sister,  settled  his  estates  of 
Kirkby  manor  and  Crosshouse  to  the  use  of  himself,  his  wife  ,  and 
brother  as  early  as  15 19,  and  that  lady  must  therefore  have  been 
married  at  least  24  years  before  her  brother's  birth.  As  Richard 
Kirkby,  the  father  of  John  and  Anne,  was  married  about  1509 
(West),  it  iollows  that  Anne  must  have  been  married  about  9  years 
of  age,  and  as  her  husband  Henry  was  bom  about  1501,  he  was  then 
about  18  years  of  age.  Mr.  J.  Holme  Nicholson  has  suggested  to  me 
that  John  Kirkby  was  the  issue  of  a  second  marriage,  which  is 
possible,  but  the  difficulty  is,  that  as  Richard  Kirkby  the  father  was 
alive  till  about  1546,  how  was  Henry  in  possession  of  the  property  in 
1 519  ?  The  best  explanation  seems  to  be  that  Richard's  wife 
Dorothy  (Fleming)  died  soon  after  the  birth  of  Anne,  and  that  Henry 
Kirkby  married  her  as  a  child  to  consolidate  the  estates.  On  the 
birth  of  John  in  1543,  by  the  presumed  second  marriage,  the  entailed 
estate  would  have  to  be  surrendered,  but  the  early  death  of  that 
child  left  matters  as  they  were.  It  is  not  impossible,  however,  that 
there  are  some  errors  in  West's  dates.  The  sketch  pedigree  will 
explain  the  difficulty. 


Plate  I. 


WALL   FAINllNGS  AT   KIKKUY   HALL. 


(287) 


Art.  XXIV.— H^att  Paintings  at  Kirkby  Hall.     By  H.  S. 

CowPER,  F.S.A. 
Read  at  Kirkby  Hall^  14  June^  1894. 

THE  space  of  wall  between  the  floor  and  wall  plate  in 
the  chapel  at  Kirkby  Hall  is  about  7  feet,  and  pro- 
bably all  this  space,  except  where  broken  by  windows, 
fireplace,  and  doors,  was  at  one  time  painted.  What 
remains  at  the  present  day  is  unfortunately  very  fragmen- 
tary. The  paintings  throughout  are  on  the  plaster  which 
covers  the  rough  walling  of  Silurian  stone.  The  work  on 
the  east  wall  is  best  preserved.  Here  we  find  in  the 
northern  baj*  (Plate  No.  I.)  the  Lord's  Prayer  above, 
and  below  two  panels.  The  first  contains  in  the  centre 
a  tree  trunk,  from  which  spread,  palm-like,  eight  displayed 
peacock  plumes.  On  either  side  of  the  tree  below  the 
plumes  stand  two  strange  looking  birds,  with  tails  like 
cocks,  and  with  their  long  necks  crossed.  Behind  them 
are  distant  trees,  and  beneath  them  what  appears  to  be  a 
house. 

The  second  panel  like  the  first,  and  like  all  which  are 
well  enough  preserved  to  make  anything  of,  contains  the 
tree  of  peacock  plumes,  and  beneath  it  a  strange  double 
bodied  monster  biting  with  its  two  reversed  heads  its  two 
uptwisted  tails.  The  heads  of  this  monster  appear  jackal 
like,  and  are  affixed  to  very  long  necks,  which  are  joined 
at  the  shoulder  and  encircled  by  one  ornate  collar.  One 
of  the  bodies  of  this  fearful  beast  is  standing  and  the  other 
seated,  and  both  are  four  legged. 

Coming  to  the  southern  bay  on  the  same  side  (Plate 
No.  II.)  we  find  the  Ten  Commandments  *  above,  and 

•  These  begin   " the  commandments  of  God/'  and  the 

commandments  then  follow. 

The  mnth  commandment  e  worded  **  Thou  shalt  not  here  m  false  wutnesse 
against  thy  neighbour." 

below 


288  Wall  paintings  At  kirkby  hall. 

below  there  are  the  remains  of  three  panels.  In  each 
the  peacock  plumes  tree  as  before.  The  first  also  con- 
tains an  eared  and  beaked  head  (apparently  that  of  a 
griffin)  holding  in  its  beak  a  horse  shoe.  Its  body  is 
covered  with  feathers,  and  at  the  bottom  of  the  panel 
can  be  discerned  claws  or  feet. 

The  principal  object  in  the  next  panel  is  a  large  pigeon 
which  stands  at  the  foot  of  the  tree.  Another  bird  of 
smaller  dimensions  and  shaped  something  like  a  heron 
stands  on  the  sinister  side  of  the  tree,  and  stretches  its 
head  towards  the  back  of  the  pigeon.  It  may  be  meant 
to  be  in  the  distance,  but  its  head  is  in  front  of  the  tree 
trunk.  In  the  bottom  dexter  corner  and  close  in  front  of 
the  pigeon  are  three  houses,  probably  meant  to  be  in  the 
distance.  In  the  third  panel  on  this  side  nothing  remains 
but  the  plumes. 

Each  of  these  panels  is  contained  within  a  sort  of 
framing  consisting  of  columns  surmounted  by  ornate 
globe-like  capitals,  from  which  spring  the  two  cusps  of 
a  trefoil  arch,  which  is  cut  off  by  a  border  which  separates 
it  from  the  Lord's  Prayer  and  Commandments  above. 
The  columns  however  which  are  ornamented  below  the 
capitals  with  a  conventional  pattern,  are  continued 
through  to  the  border,  where  they  are  terminated  with 
large  lions*  heads.  Between  the  capitals  and  the  lions' 
heads  each  of  these  upper  columns  are  decorated  with 
two  or  three  oblong  windows.  Below  all  the  panels  is  a 
continuous  band  of  a  sort  of  diamond  cheque  pattern.* 
This  decorated  bordering,  dividing  and  enclosing  the 
panels,  seems  to  have  been  at  one  time  continuous  all 
round  the  chapel,  and  uniform,  except  in  the  colouring 
and  in  the  size  of  the  panels,  as  those  in  the  north  bay 


*  This  pattern  is  roodt  like  an  imitation  in  colour  of  the  Norman  square  biilet 
moulding. 

measure 


Hi  ^^W?«S^  ^^^tfS. 

1 

] 

1 

^^I^^^^^^^^^^K" 

4 

H  1. 

i 

1              ^^cac::. 

*. 

m 

1 

^^^^%|^^^^ 

7 

Ji 
< 

X 

> 


5 

O 
H 

< 


< 


WALL  PAINTINGS  AT   KIRKBY  HALL.  2&9 

measure  about  4  ft.  7  in.  by  2  ft.  4  in.,  while  those  in  the 
south  bay  are  only  3  ft.  8  in.  by  2  ft.  2  in. 

On  the  south  end  of  the  room  where  the  window  is,  the 
panels,  if  they  ever  existed,  are  gone.  On  a  level  with 
the  other  inscriptions  is  the  Creed. 

On  the  west  side  all  is  obliterated. 

The  north  end  has  two  doors  in  it,  but  faint  traces 
of  the  panels  are  visible.  Above  is  a  long  text  much 
destroyed,  but  showing  parts  of  5th  chapter  of  the  Epistle 
of  St.  Paul  to  the  Galatians,  verses  16--21  (Plate  No.  III). 
Mr.  J.  R.  Dore,  of  Huddcrsfield,  informs  me  that  the 
version  is  that  of  (Cranmer's)  Great  Bible  of  May,  1541, 
and  has  kindly  supplied  me  with  the  unreadable  parts  of 
the  text  from  that  version.  The  only  difference  is  in  the 
spelling  of  some  of  the  words,  and  in  the  use  of  **  by " 
instead  of  **  in  "  at  the  beginning  of  v.  16.  This  is, 
however,  sufficiently  indistinct  to  be  doubtful.* 

The  inscription  commences  with  a  few  almost  unde- 
cipherable words,  which  however  seem  to  read  "  The 
Epistle  to  the  Gala(tians)  ?  "     Then  follows  : 

*'  I  saye  walcke  by  (?)  the  spyrit  (and  fulfyl  not  the  lust)  of  the  fleshe. 
For  (the  fleshe  lusteth  contrary  to  the  sprete,  and  the  sprete  con- 
trary to  ye  fleshe.  These  are  contrarye  one  to  the  other  so  ye) 
cannot  do  whatsoeuer  ye  woulde.  But  yf  ye  be  led  of  ye  spyrite 
then  are  ye  not  under  ye  lawe.  The  dedes  of  ye  fleche  are  manfeste 
whyche  are  these  adultry  fornicacion  unclennesse  wantonnesse 
worshypping  of  ymages  wytchcraft  hatred  varyaunce  zele  wrathe 
(sedycyon  sects)  enuivng  murdre  dronckennes  glottonie  and  soche 
lyke  of  the  whych  I  tel  (you  before  as  I  have  told  you  in  tyme  past, 
that  they  which  comyt  such  things,  shal  not  be  inherytoures  of  the 
kyngdo  of  God.) " 

The  colours  used  in  these  paintings  are  not  bright. 
The   peacock   plumes   being  black  or  slatey  blue,  with 


*Mr.  Dore,  who  has  most  kindly  searched  his  collection  of  old  ver.^ions  of  the 
Bible  to  identify  the  passage,  informs  me  that  the  following  versions  have  not 
been  examined :  Tyndale,  1525,  and  Coverdale,  1535. 

brick 


ago  WALL  PAINTINGS  AT  KIRKBY   HALL. 

brick  red  spots.  The  lions'  heads  are  brick  red,  and  the 
cusps  of  the  arches  alternately  brick  red  and  white.  The 
animals  and  birds  are  left  the  colour  of  the  plaster  and 
the  detail  of  feathers,  &c.y  outlined  in  black.  The  in- 
scriptions are  in  black  letter,  with  some  of  the  capitals 
in  red  * 


•In  Tweddell*s  "Furness,  Past  and  Pre^nt,'*  I.  p.  153,  it  is  stated  that  the 
chapel  floor  is  not  original.  *'  as  the  decorations  upon  the  walls  comprisinfi^  the 
arms  0/  the  Kirkbm  in  their  various  quarlerines,  are  divided  by  joists  and 
plaster."  I  leive  the  reader  to  judge  for  himself  it  these  frescoes  are  heraldic. 
There  see  ns  to  be  reason  to  suppose  the  floor  level  has  t»een  altered. 


< 
> 

flQ 


I/) 

o 

Z 

H 
Z 

< 

< 


(291) 


EXCURSIONS  AND  PROCEEDINGS. 


Wednesday  and  Thursday,  June  13th  and  14th,  1894. 

11HE  first  meeting  and  excursion  for  1894  of  the  Cumberland  and 
-  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and  Archaeological  Society  was  held 
on  Wednesday  and  Thursday,  June  13th  and  14th,  when  part  of  thb 
Furness  district  between  Cark,  Lake  Side,  Windermere,  and  Kirkby 
was  visited.  The  members  and  their  friends  met  at  Ulverston 
shortly  after  noon  on  Wednesday  and  proceeded  to  Cark.  Amongst 
those  present  were  the  President,  Chancellor  Ferguson,  Carlisle ; 
Mr.  H.  S.  Cowper,  F.S.A.,  Yewfield  Castle;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  G. 
CoUingwood,  Coniston ;  Mr.  S.  S.  Lord,  Barrow ;  Mr.  J.  H.  Brai- 
thwaite,  Kendal ;  Mr.  Pollitt,  Kendal ;  Mr.  John  Robinson,  C.E., 
London;  Rev,  R.  G.  S.  Green,  Croglin  Rectory;  Miss  Lucy  Beevor, 
Carlisle ;  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Beardsley,  Grange ;  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley, 
F.S.A.,  Aspatria ;  Mr.  S.  Marshall,  Skelwith  Fold;  Mr.  T.  H.  and 
Mrs.  Hodgson,  Newby  Grange ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  Robinson,  Sed* 
bergh  ;  Rev.  W.  Lowthian,  Troutbeck  ;  Rev.  G.  M.  Townley, 
Grange ;  Mr.  T.  Machell,  Whitehaven  ;  Rev.  L.  R.  Ayre,  Ulverston ; 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Harrison,  Newby  Bridge ;  Rev.  B.  Barnett,  Preston 
Patrick;  Miss  Ullock  and  friend;  Mr.  T.  Wilson,  (hon.  secretary) 
Kendal ;  Mr.  J.  H.  Nicholson  and  party,  Wilmslow,  Cheshire ;  Mr. 
G.  Watson,  Penrith;  Mr.  Warden,  Sedbergh;  Mr.  J.  W,  Weston, 
Enyeat,  Endmoor;  Rev.  T.  Ellwood,  Torver,  and  Mr.  W.  O.  Roper, 
Lancaster.  Subsequently  the  party  was  augmented  by  Col.  Hill, 
Mr.  C.  J.  and  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Cropper,  Miss  Cropper,  Mrs.  Benson, 
Hyning;  Mrs.  Jacob  Wakefield,  Mrs.  Weston,  Mr.  H.  and  Miss 
Alice  Jones,  Mr.  Little  and  party.  Chapel  Ridding;  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
T.  A.  Argles,  Mrs.  and  Miss  Poynting,  Arnside ;  and  the  Rev.  W. 
Summers,  Cartmel  Fell. 

On  the  arrival  of  the  party  at  Cark  Hall,  Mr.  W.  O.  Roper  made 
the  following  remarks 

ON  THE  DESCENT  OF  THE  CARK  HALL  ESTATES. 

Our  earliest  knowledge  of  the  Cark  Hall  Estate  is  in  the  year  1582,  when  it 
belonged  to  Thomas  Pickering,  who  settled  Cark  Estate  on  the  marriage  of  his 
daughter  with  Robert  Curwen,  cup  bearer  to  Queen  Elizabeth. 

Robert 


292  EXCURSIONS  AKD  PRbCBCDlNGS. 

Robert  Curwen  died  in  1649,  leaviogr  Cark  Estate  to  his  nephew  Robert  Raw- 
linson. 

Robert  Rawlinson,  Jbarrister-at-Iaw,  was  a  J. P.  for  the  counties  of  Lancaster 
and  Chester,  and  an  active  mafnstrate  in  persecuting^  the  members  of  the  Society 
of  Friends.  Georigfe  Fox  relates  that  in  1663  he  was  broogrht  before  the  magis- 
trates at  Holker  Hall,  where  he  says  "  was  one  Rawlinson,  a  Justice,  and  one 
called  Sir  Georg^e  Middleton  and  many  more  that  I  did  not  know,  besides  old 
Justice  Preston  who  li^ei  there."  After  an  altercation  with  Sir  Geoi^  Middle- 
ton,  the  oaths  of  allegiance  and  supremacy  were  tendered  to  Fox,  who  refused  to 
take  them,  and  he  was  therefore  bound  over  to  appear  at  the  Sessions  at  Lan- 
caster. Fox  duly  appeared,  and  amongst  the  magistrates,  he  says,  was  "old 
Rawlinson,  the  lawyer,  who  gave  the  charge,  and  was  very  sharp  against  truth 
and  Friends."  Fox  offended  Mr.  Rawlinson  by  not  removing  his  hat  on  coming 
into  the  Court,  and  entered  into  a  lengthy  argument  on  his  reasons  for  refusing 
to  take  the  oaths.  In  the  end  Fox  was  committed  to  prison,  where  he  remained 
in  close  confinement  more  than  two  years.  Robert  Rawlinson  died  in  1665 
leaving  a  son,  Curwen  Rawlinsop,  and  several  other  children. 

Curwen  Rawlinson  married  in  1677  the  daughter  of  Nicholas  Monk,  Bishop 
of  Hereford,  and  niece  of  General  Monk,  created  Duke  of  Albemarie  by  Charles 
II.  Curwen  Rawlinson  was  M.P.  for  Lancaster,  and  died  in  1689,  having  devised 
all  his  lands  to  his  elder  son  Monk  Rawlinson,  who  only  survived  his  father  about 
five  years.  On  his  death  the  estates  passed  to  his  brother  Christopher  Rawlinson, 
who  erected  a  marble  monument  in  the  east  wall  of  the  south  transept  of  Cartmel 
Church  in  memory  of  his  grandfather,  grandmother,  father,  mother,  and  brother. 
The  epitaph  on  this  monument  describes  Robert  Rawlinson  as  "that  most 
learned  and  honest  counsellor-at-law  .  .  .  whose  great  integrity  joined  with 
a  profound  knowledge  of  ye  Law  made  him  esteemed  and  admired  by  all  yt  knew 
him  .  .  .  (he  was)  a  great  sufferer  for  his  loyalty  to  King  Charles  II.  .  .  . 
he  lived  beloved  of  all  and  so  he  dyed  lamented.  ...  he  married  ye  prudent 
Jane  Wilson  (of  Heversham)  by  whom  he  left  Curwen  Rawlinson  (who)  was  a 
most  accomplished  and  ingenious  gentleman  and  a  true  Patriot  so  succeeded  his 
father  in  ye  service  and  love  of  his  country  and  dyed  in  it  in  16S9  .  .  .  Next 
R.  R.  lyeth  ye  remains  of  ye  truly  pious  and  religious  Elizabeth  Rawlinson  wife 
of  Curwen  Rawlinson  Daughter  and  coheir  of  ye  loyall  Dr  Nichollas  Monk,  Lord 
Bishop  of  Hereford  (a  great  assistant  in  ye  Restoration  to  his  brother  ye  most 
noble  George  Monk  Duke  of  Albemarle  *'....)  She  was  a  most  dutyfull 
Daughter  of  ye  Church  of  England  as  well  as  of  a  Prelate  of  it    .    .    . 

Christopher  Rawlinson,  who  erected  this  monument,  claimed  through  his  mother 
to  be  the  last  of  the  Plantagenets  by  the  mother's  side.  He  was  skilled  in  Saxon 
and  Northern  literature,  and  he  published  a  beautiful  edition  of  King  Alfred's 
Saxon  Translation  of  Boethius.  He  was  a  great  collector  of  manuscripts, 
particularly  such  as  related  to  the  history  of  Lancashire  and  Westmorland.  He 
died  in  1733  aged  55,  having  previously  ordered  his  under  coffin  to  be  made 
of  heart  of  oak  and  to  be  covered  with  red  leather.  At  the  north  end  of  the 
north  transept  of  the  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Albans  is  a  white  marble  sarcophagus, 
with  a  figure  of  History  and  an  epitaph  in  memory  of  Christopher  Rawlinson. 
As  he  died  intestate  the  estates  reverted  to  the  descendants  of  his  aunts,  Ann 
and  Catherine,'  the  sisters  of  his  father  Curwen  Rawlinson,  and  remained  un- 
divided until  i860  when,  at  the  request  of  Henry  Wm.  Askew,  who  had  succeeded 
to  a  moiety  and  with  the  approval  of  the  joint  heirs,  they  were  divided  under  the 
Enclosure  Commissioners  who  awarded  to 

Henry 


BXCURSIONS  AND   PROCEBDIKGS*  293 

Henry  Wm.  Askew  one  moietjr — 1001  a.  2  r.  18  p. 

Henry  Fletcher  Rigfire— 2/3  of  one  moiety— 656  a.  including  Cark  Hall  and 

Hampsfield  Hall. 
Trustees  of  S.  R.  Moore — 1/3  of  one  moiety — 318  a.* 

The  building  itself  will  repay  examination.  The  front,  in  which  stands  the 
door,  may  have  been  built  by  Christopher  Rawlinson,  the  other  side  having  been 
erected  half  a  century  earlier. 

The  arms  over  the  door  are  those  of  Christopher  Rawlinson.— viz. 

Quarterly,  First  and  fourth-— Gu.  2  bars  gemelles  between  3  escallops  arg. 

for  Rawlinson. 
Second — Arg.  frett^  gu.  a  chief  az.  for  Curwen. 
Third — Gu.  a  chevron  between  3  lions'  heads,  erased  arg.  for  Monk. 
Crest— a  shelldrake  proper,  in  its  beak  an  escallop  arg. 

Cartmel  Church  was  the  next  place  to  be  visited,  and  here  Mr.  W. 
O.  Roper  read  the  following  notes : — 

CARTMEL  CHURCH. 

A  church  so  imposing  as  that  of  Cartmel  tells  to  a  great  extent  its  own  history, 
but  in  trespassing  upon  your  time  by  drawing  attention  to  its  principal  features, 
I  may  perhaps  be  allowed  to  supplement  the  tale  which  the  architectural  details 
cf  the  building  tell  by  a  few  pieces  of  documentary  evidence.  Camden  relates 
that  the  land  of  Cartmel  with  all  the  Britons  in  it  was  granted  by  Ecgfrith,  King 
of  Northumbria,  to  Saint  Cuthbert  late  in  the  seventh  century.  And  from  various 
deeds  of  gift  to  the  neighbouring  Abbey  of  Furness  being  attested  in  the  middle 
of  the  12th  century  by  Parsons  of  Cartmel,  we  may  conclude  there  was  a  church 
at  Cartmel  before  the  foundation  of  the  Priory  in  1 188.  In  that  year  King  John, 
then  Earl  of  Moreton,  granted  to  William  Mareschal,  Earl  of  Pembroke,  lands 
in  Cartmel  for  the  purpose  of  endowing  a  House  of  Religion,  and  accordingly 
the  Earl  of  Pembroke  founded  at  Cartmel  a  Priory  of  Canons  Regular  of  the 
Order  of  Saint  Augustine,  endowing  the  Priory  with  all  his  lands  in  Cartmel. 
The  Earl  directed  that  the  house  should  be  free  and  released  from  subjection 
to  any  other  house  and  that  it  should  never  be  made  an  abbey.  This  house 
— continues  the  foundation  charter — have  I  founded  for  the  increase  of  holy 
religion,  giving  and  conceding  to  it  every  kind  of  liberty  that  the  mouth  can  utter 
or  the  heart  of  man  conceive ;  whosoever  therefore  shall  cause  loss  or  injury  to 
the  said  house  or  its  immunities  may  he  incur  the  curse  of  God  and  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary  and  of  all  the  other  Saints  of  God,  besides  my  particular 
malediction. 

The  history  of  the  Priory  follows  the  usual  course — gifts  of  land  flowed  in — the 
town  of  Kilross  in  Ireland,  the  land  of  Humphreyhead,  rights  of  fishing  in  the 
Kent.  Indulgences  were  granted  to  all  who  should  relieve  with  their  goods  the 
building  of  the  church  at  Cartmel,  and  in  1233  Gregory  IX.  issued  a  bull  "to 
his  beloved  children  the  Prior  of  St.  Mary  of  Karmel  and  his  brethren  present 
and  future  professing  the  religious  life  for  ever,"  stating  that  having  taken  the 


*  A  fuller  account  of  the  descent,  with  wills  and  other  illustrative  documents,  is 
given  in  the  Annates  Cacrmolenses,  pp.  433-639. 

Church 


294  EXCURSIONS  AND   PROCE£DINGS. 

Church  of  the  Holy  Mother  of  God  the  Virgin  Mary  of  Karmel  under  Papal  pro- 
tection that  church  should  enjoy  certain  immunities.  After  ordaining  that  the 
Order  ol  St.  Augustine  should  be  observed  there  he  confirmed  to  the  Priory  its 
various  possessions  and  granted  licence  to  perform  during  a  general  interdict 
religious  service  provided  it  was  done  in  a  low  voice  without  ringing  of  bells, 
those  excommunicated  and  interdicted  being  excluded  and  the  doors  closed. 
Power  was  conferred  to  prohibit  the  building  of  any  chapel  or  oratory  within  the 
limits  of  the  parish,  and  any  contravening  the  provisions  of  that  bull  were 
threatened  with  the  terrors  of  excommunication. 

In  1322  the  Scots,  in  one  of  their  numerous  raids  into  the  North  of  England, 
marched  forward  unto  Cartmel  and,  according  to  the  Chronicler,  "burnt  and 
spoiled  all  the  countrie  about  except  a  priorie  of  blacke  chanons  which  stood 
there." 

More  lands  and  privileges  flowed  in  upon  the  priory,  but  with  the  fifteenth 
century  the  donations  almost  ceased. 

In  the  visitation  of  monasteries  by  Norroy  in  1530  the  arms  of  the  priory  are 
given  as :  Per  pale  or  and  vert,  a  lion  rampant  gules. 

When  the  Act  passed  confiscating  to  the  Crown  all  the  religious  houses  whose 
yearly  revenue  was  less  than  ^200,  the  prior  and  canons  petitioned  for  a  new 
survey  on  the  ground  that  a  previous  valuation  varying  from  ^89  to  ^124  was 
below  the  proper  sum.  Accordingly  commissioners  were  sent  down  and  the  prior 
and  canons  shewed  their  possessions  to  be  worth  ^212  by  the  year.  This  income 
was  chiefly  derived  from  rents  of  land,  tithes,  and  oblations  "  at  the  Relyke  of 
the  Holy  Crosse  "  preserved  in  the  Priory  Church. 

In  hunting  through  some  old  papers  at  the  Record  Office  some  years  ago  I  cam: 
across  a  list  of  the  canons  and  their  servants  at  the  time  of  this  survey  :  The 
prior,  Richard  Preston,  was  41  years  old,  the  sub-prior,  James  Eskriggs,  36  years 
of  age,  and  of  the  eight  canons  the  oldest  was  6S  and  the  youngest  25  years. 
Then  came  two  waiters,  two  woodleaders,  two  shepherds  and  one  hunter,  a 
brewer,  a  baker,  a  barber,  a  cook,  a  scullion,  a  butler  of  the  fratry,  a  keeper  of 
the  wood,  a  miller,  a  fisher,  a  maltmaker  and  four  other  servants,  with  eight 
hinds  of  husbandry.* 

The  muniments  of  the  priory  with  the  plate  and  jewels  were  placed  in  the 
*'  coffer  remaining  in  the  treasury  of  the  said  house,  the  same  coffer  fast 
lokked  with  three  lokks  and  the  lokks  sealyd,  the  oon  key  therof  remaynyng  with 
the  Abbot  there  and  the  other  two  k eyes  remaynyng  with  the  said  Comyssioners." 
The  rest  of  the  effects  of  the  priory  were  left  in  the  custody  of  the  prior  who  was 
compelled  to  sign  a  document  containing  provisions  as  to  the  management  of  the 
estates,  the  custody  of  the  plate,  and  the  receiving  of  rents  and  tithes,  which 
practically  deprived  him  of  any  authority  in  his  priory. 

Then  the  hand  of  the  destroyer  was  laid  upon  the  priory  and  the  lead  was 
being  torn  off  the  roof  of  the  church  when  the  parishioners  interposed  with  the 
objection  that  the  church  was  a  parish  church  and  should  be  left  to  them  as  such. 
The  commissioners  wrote  up  to  London  for  advice  on  three  questions : 

Itm  for  ye  Church  of  Cartmell  being  the  Priorie  and  alsoe  Parish  Church ^ 
whether  to  stand  unplucked  downe  or  not  ? 


*  For  details  see  the  account  of  Cartmel  Church  in  '*  The  Churches,  Castles, 
and  Ancient  Halls  of  North  Lancashire,"  page  57. 

Answer  ; 


EXCURSIONS  AND   PROCEEDINGS.  295 

Answer :  Ordered  by  Mr.  Chancellor  of  the  Duchie  to  stand  still. 

Itm  for  a  suit  of  Coopis  claymed  by  ye  inhabitants  of  Cartmell  to  belonge  to  ye 
Church  therof  ye  g^uift  of  oon  Brig^jsfs? 

Answer :  Ordered  that  the  Parochians  have  them  styll. 

Itm  for  a  Chales  a  Mass  Book  a  Vestyment  with  other  thyn^es  necessarie  for  a 
Parish  Church  claymed  by  saide  Parochians  to  be  customablie  found  by  ye  Parson 
of  saide  Church  ? 

No  answer. 

For  eighty  years  the  church  remained  almost  roofless,  but  in  161S  Mr.  Georee 
Preston,  of  Holker,  repaired  the  church,  and  according  to  the  inscription  to  his 
memory  in  the  south  aisle  of  the  chancel,  "  he  beautified  it  within  very  decently 
with  fretted  platster  work,  adorned  the  chancell  with  curious  carved  wood  worke 
and  placed  therein  a  pair  of  organs  of  great  value." 

In  1623  it  was  ordered  that  *'  the  bodystead  of  the  church  bee  decently  formed," 
and  in  1626  the  present  porch  was  erected  and  a  wall  built  enclosing  the  church- 
yard. Down  to  the  nineteenth  century  the  fine  appearance  which  the  interior  of  the 
church  now  presents  was  marred  by  a  gallery  erected  across  the  top  of  the  screen, 
in  which  was  placed  in  17S0  a  large  barrel  organ.  Across  the  north  transept  was 
another  gallery  which  extended  under  the  first  arch  of  the  north  aisle  of  the  nave. 
The  pulpit  stood  against  the  south-west  pillar  of  the  crossing  and  beside  it  was  a 
large  pew  with  a  canopy  belonging  to  the  BiglanJs  of  Bigland.  The  chancel 
walls  were  covered  with  plaster,  the  triforium  had  been  filled  up,  and  the  roofs 
were  of  fretted  plaster  work.  The  pillars  were  whitewashed,  and  the  whole  church 
looked  bare  and  glaring. 

In  1830  the  floor  of  the  church  was  re-laid,  in  1S49  and  1850  the  plaster  ceilings 
were  removed  and  the  whitewash  scraped  off  the  pillars.  The  work  of  restoratian 
was  carried  on,  the  galleries  cleared  away,  the  triforium  opened,  and  in  1867  the 
whole  was  completed. 

The  exterior,  from  the  length  of  the  choir  and  the  peculiar  position  of  the 
tower,  presents  a  striking  appearance.  The  building  bears  marks  of  adaptation 
to  the  various  styles  of  architecture,  the  elevation  of  the  transepts  shewing  dis- 
tinctly the  earlier  and  perhaps  ruder  form  of  the  original  structure,  and  the 
windows  in  particular  indicating  the  changes  which  have  been  made  at  various 
times.  In  the  north  transept  are  some  of  the  original  windows,  all  with  one 
exception  now  blocked  up.  The  east  window  is,  of  course,  much  later.  The 
windows  in  the  south  aisle  of  the  chancel  known  as  the  Town  choir  are  beautiful 
specimens  of  the  decorated  period,  and  those  in  the  transepts,  nave,  and  Pyper 
choir  are  perpendicular.  The  principal  feature  in  the  exterior  is  the  manner  in 
which  the  upper  part  of  the  tower  is  placed  on  the  lower,  a  square  placed  on  a 
square  diagonally  to  its  base. 

The  interior  is  lofty.  The  pillars  supporting  the  tower  are  Norman  (the  square 
abacus  being  used  in  the  capitals)  with  pointed  arches. 

The  choir  is  divided  from  the  aisles  by  massive  round  arches,  which  on  the  sides 
fronting  the  choir  are  richly  carved.  Between  these  arches  and  the  east  window 
there  has  been  on  each  side  a  lancet  window,  but  both  have  been  filled  up  with 
masonry,  that  on  the  south  side  having  been  partially  re-opened  to  admit  the 
Harrington  tomb.  Originally,  therefore,  the  choir  projected  beyond  the  side 
aisles 
The  triforium  arcade,  which  consists  of  22  arches  on  each  side  springing  from 

shafts 


296  EXCURSIONS  AND  PROCBBDINOS. 

shafts  haviiifir  the  square  abacus,  has  probably  crossed  the  east  end  between  the 
original  lancet  windows,  traces  of  which  can  be  seen  on  the  external  wall. 

I'he  monks'  seats  are  of  the  perpendicular  period,  and  under  the  seats— 26  in 
number — ^are  the  usual  curious  devices,  including: 

South  Side.  North  Side. 

The  Trinity  (3  faces.)  A  lamb  at  an  altar. 

A  Pelican  in  her  piety.  A  hedgehogr. 

A  mermaid  with  comb  and  mirror.  Three  dogs  chasing  a  hare. 

A  man  standing  on  a  dragon.  An  elephant  and  castle. 

The  canopies  are  part  of  the  restoration  of  the  17th  century  by  Geoige  Preston, 
of  Holker,  whose  arms — arg.  2  bars  and  a  canton  gu.,  the  last  charged  with  a 
cinquefoil  or,  a  crescent  for  difference, — appear  on  the  south  »de  of  the  gates  into 
the  choir.  The  stalls  are  elaborately  carved  with  emblems  of  our  Saviour's  pas- 
sion— the  crown  of  thorns,  the  sponge  filled  with  vinegar,  the  hammer  and  nails, 
the  vesture  and  the  dice,  the  ear  which  Peter  cut  off  and  the  sword  he  nsed. 

A  little  stained  glass  still  remains  in  the  east  window  and  much  more  existed  at 
the  commencement  of  the  present  century.  The  old  glass,  or  a  considerable  part 
of  it,  is  still  preserved  in  the  east  window  of  Bowness  Church. 

The  Parish  or  Town  choir  is  on  the  south  side  of  the  chancel.  The  windows 
are  good  specimens  of  early  decorated  work  :  their  form  is  somewhat  uncommon, 
for  although  they  contain  the  usual  geometrical  figures,  their  arrangement  is  pecu- 
liar. The  mouldings  are  exceedingly  plain  and  of  one  order  only.  In  the  east 
window  is  some  stained  glass  in  which  may  be  read  the  names  of  several  of  the 
descendants  of  King  David.  On  the  north  side  are  two  sedilia,  the  canopies  of 
which  are  formed  of  a  block  of  red  sandstone. 

To  the  north  is  the  Pyper  choir,  which  still  retains  its  groined  roof.  The  win- 
dows  here  are  perpendicular.  A  flight  of  six  steps  leads  into  the  vestry,  built  in 
167S  by  a  legacy  left  by  William  Robinson. 

The  windows  of  the  transepts  present  a  variety  of  styles.  In  the  south  end  are 
two  perpendicular  windows,  and  in  the  north  end  a  perpendicular  above  two 
lancets.  The  latter  are  now  blocked,  but  in  one  of  them  has  been  inserted  a 
curious  round  arch  with  numerous  mouldings. 

In  the  south-east  corner  of  the  south  transept  is  a  staircase  (amilar  to  that  in 
north-west  corner  of  north  transept)  leading  to  the  roof  and  communicating  with 
the  triforium. 

The  nave  is  extremely  plain,  with  windows  of  the  perpendicular  period.  That 
at  the  west  end  formerly  contained  eflfigies  of  two  knights — one  bearing  the  arms 
of  the  founder,  the  other  argent  fret  tee  sable. 

In  the  ceiling  of  the  crossing  are  four  shields  bearing 

1.  The  arms  of  the  founder. 

2.  The  arms  of  Preston  of  Holker. 

3.  The  arms  of  the  Province  of  York. 

4.  The  arms  of  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle. 

The  chandelier  in  the  centre  was  the  gift  of  Margaret  Marshall,  of  Aynsome, 
in  1734. 

The  interior  of  the  lower  part  of  the  tower  shews  that  from  the  centre  point  of 
each  side  of  the  lower,  and  perhaps  earlier,  tower,  the  canons  raised  four  pointed 

arches. 


EXCURSIONS  AND   PROCEEDINGS.  297 

arches,  afad  on  these  arches  built  their  upper  tower.  The  bells  are  four  in  number, 
two  cast  in  1661,  one  in  1726,  and  one  in  1729. 

The  monuments  are  numerous,  but  few  of  them  are  of  earlier  date  than  the 
middle  of  the  1 7th  century.  The  principal  one  is  that  known  as  the  Harrington 
monument.  On  a  base  of  masonry  carved  with  quatrefoils  are  the  recumbent 
figures  of  a  knig^ht  and  his  lady,  the  arms  on  the  heater  shaped  shield  of  the 
former  being*  a  fret  of  five  points.  The  shafts  rising  from  the  base  and  supporting 
the  canopy  are  carved  with  curious  figures.  At  the  foot  of  the  eastern  shaft  on 
the  north  side  is  a  figure  of  John  the  Baptist  holding  in  his  hands  an  Agnus  Dei. 
Above  is  a  group  shewing  Mary  anointing  the  feet  of  our  Lord  and  wiping  them 
with  her  hair.  On  the  western  shaft  is  a  figure  holding  a  long  cross,  possibly  St. 
Gregory,  and  behind  him  is  a  figure,  perhaps  of  St.  Alphege.  Above  is  a  repre- 
sentation of  the  scene  when  the  men  who  held  our  L.ord  blindfolded  him  and 
struck  him,  saying  **  Prophesy  who  is  it  that  smote  thee."  The  centre  shaft  bears 
three  shields,  on  the  uppermost  is  the  fret,  as  on  the  knight's  shield,  and  on  one 
of  the  lower  ones  the  Dacre  escallops  were  formerly  painted.  At  the  apex  of  the 
arch  on  each  side  is  a  figure  being  drawn  up  in  a  sheet  by  angels— representin;; 
the  passage  of  the  soul  to  heaven.  At  the  foot  of  the  eastern  shaft  on  the  south 
side  is  St.  Catherine  with  her  wheel,  and  above  her  the  Crucifixion.  On  the 
western  shaft  are  figures,  perhaps  of  St.  Margaret  and  St  Peter,  and  an  angel 
with  a  large  trumpet.  Above,  again,  Christ  being  scourged  by  the  Roman 
soldiers.  Above  the  cross  beam  (which  bears  oak  leaves  and  acorns)  are  various 
curious  figures,  and  round  the  base  are  carved  monks  in  various  postures.  Who 
the  figures  under  the  canopy  represent  it  is  difficult  to  say.  The  canons  would 
hardly  have  suffered  the  monument  to  mutilate  their  sedilia,  and  as  there  is  no 
mention  of  it  in  the  church  bo)ks  it  seems  probable  that  it  was  placed  in  its  pre- 
sent position  between  the  dissolution  of  monasteries  in  1537  and  1597  when  the 
records  of  the  twenty-fourty  commence.  Further,  considering  the  marks  of 
dislocation  which  the  canopy  bears  and  the  few  remains  of  bones  found  inside  the 
base  on  being  opened  in  1832,  the  monument  may  have  been  moved  from  some 
distance  at  or  after  the  dissolution.  It  may  have  stood  in  some  other  part  of  the 
priory,  but  there  are  suggestions  that  it  came  from  Furness,  from  Gleaston  Castle, 
or  from  Hornby  Priory.  The  distance  of  these  places  is  a  strong  objection  to 
such  suggestions,  and  it  seems  most  probable  that  the  monument  was  moved 
from  some  other  part  of  the  priory.  Then  again  there  is  a  difference  in  style 
between  the  effigies  and  the  canopy.  Further,  if  the  painted  shield  of  arms  of 
Dacre  is  to  be  relied  upon  the  canopy  may  have  been  part  of  a  monument  to  Sir 
Thomas  Harrington  of  Hornby  Castle,  who  married  Elizabeth  Dacre,  and  who 
died  from  wounds  received  at  Wakefield,  or  to  his  son  John,  killed  at  the  same 
battle.  The  effigy  of  the  knight,  however,  shews  him  in  armour  of  an  earlier 
date  than  the  Battle  of  Wakefield. 

In  the  chancel  is  a  slab  of  grey  marble  inscribed  with  a  cross  and  inscription 
to  the  memory  of  William  de  Walton,  Prior  of  Cartmel.  Close  to  is  a  stone  on 
which  a  small  cross  is  carved,  and  southwards  is  a  stone  which  bore  the  inscrip- 
tion :  "  Hie  jacet  Wills  Br quondam  P*or." 

In  the  Town  choir  is  the  recumbent  figure  of  a  canon  holding  a  chalice  in  his 
hands.  Here  also  are  the  monuments  of  the  Prestons  and  the  Lowthers  of  Holker. 
There  are  also  stones  to  the  memory  of  the  Barrow,  Michaelson,  and  Roper 
fomilies.    Under  the  organ  is  an  inscription  to  the  "  memory  of  Agnes  Brown, 

died 


300  fiXCURSlOKS  AND   ^ROCEE£)INGS. 

the  road  by  an  ivy-mantled  stone  porchway,  over  which  is  placed 
the  inscription  "  Leonard  Newton,  1677."  The  building  is  perfectly 
plain  and  unpretending,  whitewashed  inside,  and  with  benches  of 
plain  unpolished  oak,  and  a  simple  raised  portion  for  the  elders,  no 
"  pulpit,  drum  ecclasiastick  "  for  the  itinerant  preachers,  who  when 
they  came  to  preach  were  lodged  in  a  room  above.  *'  Inaudible 
and  noiseless  time  **  has  worked  few  changes,  and  still,  though 
rarely,  do  the  successors  of  those  old  Puritans  worship  in  their  old 
'*  meeting  "  placed  high  on  the  hills.  The  next  and  in  some  ways  the 
most  interesting  of  all  the  places  visited  was 

HODGE   HILL, 

which,  Mr.  H.  S.  Cowper  explained,  was  a  fine  type  of  the  old 
Westmorland  statesmen's  dwellings.  It  is  still  kept  up  in  its  ancient 
form  by  the  tenant,  Mr.  Taylor.  It  formerly  belonged  to  a  certain 
Philipson,  alderman  and  tanner,  who  lies  buried  in  Kendal  Parish 
Church,  but  whether  of  the  Crook  or  Calgarth  Philipsons  is  unknown. 
It  is  now  the  property  of  Mr.  Birkett,  of  Birkett  Houses.  Among 
the  curiosities,  attention  was  directed  to  a  cradle  of  Christopher 
Philipson,  1663,  a  fine  old  oak  kitchen  table,  a  pillion,  and  the  dog 
gates  at  the  foot  of  the  stairs  to  keep  down  the  dogs  that  wandered 
about  in  the  kitchen.  Above  the  door  is  an  interesting  balcony  with 
''vooden  balusters,  giving  the  house  a  very  picturesque  appearance, 
a  house  that  bears  the  marks  of  a  happy  youth  and  whose  old  age 
is  beautiful  and  free. 

CARTUEL   FELL  CHURCH 

was  the  last  place  visited.  Of  its  history  little  is  known.  In  1604  it 
was  held  by  an  old  "  malignant,"  whom,  however,  it  seems  that  it 


Fell.  The  earliest  of  such  minutes  relates  to  a  monthly  meeting  held  at  Newton; 
it  is  written  in  the  quaint  handwriting  of  that  date  and  is  not  easily  to  be 
deciphered  : — '*The  14th  of  5  Mo.  166S.  attye  monthly  meeting  of  men  ffriends 
at  Newton  to  consider  of  tntngs  relating  to  church  affairs  and  for  ye  rieht 
ordering  of  all  things  according  to  truth  and  ye  practise  of  our  Brethern  in  other 
places."  One  of  the  earliest  references  I  can  find  about  Height  is  the  following : 
— "Att  our  meeting  at  Swarthmore  yc  12th  day  of  ye  I3th  month  1678  it  was 
agreed  upon  as  followeth,  etc."  The  nrst  minute  of  any  meeting  held  a  Height 
that  we  have  is  found  in  some  loose  minutes : — '*  Att  our  meeting  at  Height  ye 
26th  day  of  ye  7th  month  1682,  etc,"  the  first  minute  of  which  meeting  refers  to  a 
previous  meeting  held  there,  loth  of  3rd  month  1681.  On  a  stone  over  the 
entrance  to  the  Meeting  House  are  the  initials  L.  N.  Anno  Domini  1677, 
Lawrence  Newton  having  by  will,  dated  19th  of  August,  1676,  devised  certam 
messuages  &c.,  for  maintenance  of  poor  Quakers,  members  of  the  three 
meetings  of  Cartmel,  Swarthmoor,  and  Hawkshead,  and  other  purposes. 

Yours  sincerely, 

Elizabeth  Newbold. 

was 


EXCURSIONS  AND    PROCEEDINGS.  3OI 

was  not  worth  while  to  eject.  It  is  dedicated  to  St.  Anthony, 
probably  by  the  basket  makers  and  charcoal  burners  who  used  the 
hazel  trees  grown  largely  there,  St.  Anthony  being  the  patron  saint 
of  such  industries.  In  the  east  window,  which  consists  of  five  lights, 
there  is  a  strange  medley  of  fragmentary  portions  of  coloured  win- 
dows, which  probably  came  originally  from  Cartmel  Priory  Church. 
Chancellor  Ferguson  and  the  late  Rev.  Thomas  Lees  have  published 
an  account  of  The  Ancient  Glass  and  Wood  Work  at  St.  Anthony*s 
Chapelt  Cartmel  Fell,  in  the  second  volume  of  the  Transactions  of 
this  Society. 

After  tea  at  Strawberry  Bank,  the  route  was  continued  over  Gum- 
mers,  or  Gunners  How,  and  the  party  drove  to  Lakeside  Hotel  for 
the  night,  passing  Staveley  Church,  which  it  had  been  arranged  to 
visit.     Papers  were  laid  before  the  Society  as  follows  : — 

The  Homes  of  the  Kirkbys  of  Kirkby  in  Furness.  Mr.  H.  S.  Cowper. 
A  Grasmere  Farmer's  Sale  Schedule  in  17 10.  Mr.  H.  S.  Cowper. 
More  Local  Notices  from   Privy  Council  Records.      Mr.  T.  H. 

Hodgson. 
A  Tullie  and  Waugh  Pedigree.     Mr.  H.  Waqner. 
Local  Chap  Books.    The  President. 

Kirkoswald,  Find  of  Incense  Cup  and  Beads.    The  President. 
Touching  for  the  King's  Evil.     Mr.  H.  Barnes,  M.D. 
Hardknott.    Rev,  W.  S.  Calvbrley. 

At  the  meeting  held  in  the  evening  the  officers  were  elected  as 
follows : — 

Patrons: — The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Muncaster,  F.S.A.,  Lord 
Lieutenant  of  Cumberland;  the  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Hothfield,  Lord 
Lieutenant  of  Westmorland. 

President  and  Editor:— The  Worshipful  Chancellor  Ferguson, 
M.A.,  LL.M.,  F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents  :— W.  B.  Amison,  Esq.,  E.  B.  W.  Balme,  Esq., 
The  Right  Rev.  the  Bishop  of  Barrow-in-Furness,  The  Right  Rev. 
the  Lord  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  The  Very  Rev.  the  Dean  of  Carlisle,  the 
Earl  of  Carlisle,  James  Cropper,  Esq.,  J.  F.  Crosthwaite,  Esq.,  F.S.A., 
H.  F.  Curwen,  Esq.,  Robt.  Ferguson,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  C.  J.  Ferguson, 
Esq.,  F.S.A.,  G.  J.  Johnson,  Esq.,  Hon.  W.  Lowther,  W.  O.  Roper, 
Esq.,  and  H.  P.  Senhouse,  Esq. 

Elected  Members  of  Council:— Rev,  R.  Bower,  M.A.,  Carlisle; 
H.  Barnes,  M.D.,  Carlisle;  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley,  F.S.A.,  Aspatria; 
H.  Swainson  Cowper,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Hawkshead ;  J.  F.  Haswell, 

M.D. 


302  EXCURSIONS  AND   PROCEEDINGS. 

M.D,,  Penrith ;  T.  H.  Hodgson,  Esq.,  Newby  Grange  :  Rev.  Canon 
Mathews,  M.A.,  Appleby ;  E.  T.  Tyson,  Esq.,  Maryport ;  George 
Watson,  Esq.,  Penrith  ;  Rev.  H.  Whitehead,  M.A.,  Lanercost ; 
Robert  J.  Whitwell,  Esq.,  Kendal  ;  Rev.  James  Wilson,  M.A., 
Dalston. 

Auditors: — ^James  G.  Gandy,  Esq.,  Heaves;  Frank  Wilson,  Esq., 
Kendal. 

Treasurer  : — W.  D.  Crewdson,  Esq.,  Helme  Lodge,  Kendal. 

Secretary  : — T.  Wilson,  Esq.,  Aynam  Lodge,  Kendal. 

The  next  meeting  was  fixed  for  September  to  be  in  the  Isle  of  Man. 

The  following  new  members  were  elected,  viz: — Mr.  J.  Cowper, 
Penrith;  Rev.  D.  Harrison,  Cockermouth;  Mr.  W.  G.  Strickland, 
Dublin;  Dr.  Bowser,  Musgrave  Hall;  Mr.  Todd,  Harraby ;  Mr.  C. 
W.  Dymond,  F.S.A.,  Ambleside ;  Miss  Amy  Beevor,  Carlisle ;  Rev. 
A.  Wright,  Gilsland;  Miss  A.  F.  Walker,  Whitehaven;  Mr.  A. 
Satterthwaite,  Lancaster ;  Mr.  S.  Marshall,  Skelwith  Fold ;  Mr.  W. 
Rawlinson,  Duddon  Hall ;  and  Rev.  C.  H.  Lowry,  Kirkby  Ireleth. 

Considerable  delay  took  place  in  making  a  start  on  the  second  morning 
owing  to  a  want  of  punctuality  on  the  part  of  some  members,  and 
further  time  was  lost  at  Haverthwaite  Station  in  waiting  for  a  train, 
which  was  expected  to,  but  did  not,  bring  additions  to  the  party. 
The  first  stop  was  made  at  Colton  Church,  of  which  the  vicar,  the 
Rev.  A.  A.  Williams,  gave  an  account.  Mr.  H.  S.  Cowper,  F.S.A., 
then  took  the  party  in  charge,  and  under  his  guidance  they  walked 
and  drove  to  the  Stone  Circle  at  Knapperthaw,  the  Stone  Rings 
Camp  near  Burney,  and  the  British  Settlement  on  Heathwaite  Fell.* 
The  wind  on  the  fells  was  cold,  and  the  members  were  pleased  to 
descend  into  a  warmer  climate,  and  visit  Kirkby  Hall,  which  was 
described  by  \Tr.  Cowper.  Time  did  not  permit  the  proposed  visit 
to  Ashlack  Hall,  and  the  meeting  practically  ended  at  Kirkby  Ire- 
leth Church,  which  is  close  to  Kirkby  Station. 

Monday  to  Friday,  September  24-28,  1894. 

The  second  meeting  and  excursion  for  the  year  1S94  of 
the  members  of  the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Archasological 
and  Antiquarian  Society  was  on  a  more  extended  scale  than 
usual,  and   took  the  shape  of  a  delightful   excursion   to   the  Isle 


*  Accounts  of  these  will  be  found  in  The  Ancient  Setllements,  Cemeterie*, 
and  Earthworks  of  Furness,  by  H.  S.  Cowper,  F.S.A.,  printed  in  Archceohgia, 
vol.  liii.,  p.  389. 

of 


EXCURSIONS  AND   PROCEEDINGS.  3O3 

of  Man.  The  party,  numbering  nearly  fifty  members  of  the 
Society  and  friends,  left  Barrow  shortly  before  two  o'clock  on 
Monday,  September  24th,  and  had  a  delightful  passage  across 
the  Irish  Sea  in  bright  sunshine  until  nearing  the  Manx  coast, 
when  the  voyagers  began  to  recall  the  local  legend  that  the  magician 
Mannanin  kept  the  island  to  himself  by  concealing  it  from  the  sea 
under  a  cloud  of  mist.  The  beautiful  Bay  of  Douglas  was  much 
admired.  The  party  was  landed  at  the  Victoria  Pier  at  about  a 
quarter  to  six.  They  were  met  and  cordially  welcomed  by  his 
Honour  Deemster  Gill,  Mr.  P.  M,  C.  Kermode,  F.S.A.,  honorary 
secretary  to  the  Isle  of  Man  Natural  History  and  Antiquarian 
Society,  the  Rev.  S.  A.  P.  Kermode,  vicar  of  Kirk  Onchan,  and 
others  interested  in  archaeological  and  antiquarian  studies.  The 
visitors  included  the  following:— Chancellor  Ferguson,  F.S.A.,  pre- 
sident ;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  G.  Collingwood,  Coniston ;  Mr.  James  P. 
Watson,  Appleby;  Miss  Noble  and  party,  Penrith;  Mr.  G.  H. 
Nelson,  Kendal;  Mr.  Swainson  Cowper,  F.S.A.,  Coniston;  Rev.  W.  S. 
Calverley,  F.S.A.,  and  Mrs.  Calverley,  Aspatria  ;  Mr.  W.  H.  R. 
Kerry,  Windermere;  Mr.  W.  L.  Fletcher,  Workington;  Mr.  J.  H. 
Nicholson,  Wilmslow ;  Rev.  B.  Barnett,  Preston  Patrick;  Miss 
Gibson,  Whelprigg;  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robinson,  Sedbergh  ;  Miss  Bow- 
stead,  Sedbergh  ;  Rev.  R.  S.  G.  and  Miss  Green,  Croglin ;  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Simpson,  Kendal;  Mr.  A.  Satterthwaite,  Lancaster;  Mr.'E. 
T.  Tyson,  Maryport ;  Mr.  W.  G.  M.  Townley,  Grange-over-Sands ; 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Little,  Maryport;  Miss  Piatt,  Kirkby  Lonsdale;  Mr. 
E.  H.  Banks,  Highmoor,  Wigton  ;  Mr.  T.  H.  Hodgson,  Newby 
Grange  ;  Mr.  James  Harrison,  Newby  Bridge ;  Mr.  George  Watson, 
Penrith ;  Mr.,  Mrs.  and  the  Misses  Wrigley,  Seascale  ;  Mr.  Pollitt, 
Kendal ;  Mr.  T.  Wilson  (hon.  secretary)  and  Miss  Wilson,  Aynam 
Lodge,  Kendal,  and  others. 

The  Society's  headquarters  in  the  island  were  at  the  Castle  Mona 
Hotel,  an  imposing  building  which  stands  in  the  centre  of  the 
crescent  of  Douglas  Bay,  and  was  formerly  the  residence  of  the 
Dukes  of  Athole,  **  Lords  of  Man,'*  by  whom  it  was  built  at  a  cost 
of  ^£'40,000.  After  dinner  a  meeting  was  held,  the  President,  Chan- 
cellor Ferguson,  occupying  the  chair.  Mr.  W.  G.  Collingwood,  M. A., 
read  an  interesting  paper  on  **  Manx  Names  in  Cumbria,"  which  will 
appear  in  the  Transactions. 

A  brief  discussion  took  place  upon  the  subject  of  Mr.  Collingwood's 
paper.  The  President  then  gave  a  description  of  a  figure,  which  had 
recently  been  found  in  or  near  Old  Carlisle,  which  he  believed  to  be 
nlodern. 

The  following  new  members  (16)  were  elected:— Mr.  R.  G.  Graham, 

Beanlands 


304  EXCURSIONS  AND    PROCBBDINGS. 

Beanlands  Park,  Irthington ;  the  Rev.  Samuel  Barber,  West  Newton; 
Miss  Catherine  D.  Holt,  Windermere;  Mr.  W.  W.  R.  Binning,  Car- 
lisle; Mr.  Wm.  H.  R.  Kerry,  Wheatlands,  Windermere;  Dr.  Mason, 
Windermere;  the  Rev.  E.  P.  Kimbley,  Staveley  Vicarage,  Leeds; 
Miss  H.  M.  Donald,  Stanwix ;  Professor  Pelham,  Brasenose  College, 
Oxford;  Mr.  Samuel  Taylor,  Haverthwaite ;  Mrs.  Frederick  Brock- 
Hollinshea<',  Crosby  Ravensworth  ;  Mr.  J.  R.  Marshall,  Keswick; 
Rev.  A.  J.  Heelis,  Borrowdale,  Keswick :  the  Rev.  George  Rubie, 
Cartmel ;  Miss  Twentyman,  Wigton  ;  and  Dr.  Manning,  Kendal. 

The  party  was  early  astir  on  Tuesday  morning  (the  25th  Sept.), 
and  the  weather  being  bright  and  fme  the  bay  and  its  surroundings 
were  seen  to  great  advantage.  The  day's  work  lay  in  the  southern 
district  of  the  island,  and  extended  as  far  as  Port  St.  Mary.  The 
first  halt  was  made  at  Oatlands  in  Santon  parish  to  view  a  stone 
circle,  with  cup  and  ring  markings.  By  an  unlucky  accident  only 
the  first  carriage,  in  which  were  the  guides  for  the  day,  Mr.  Deemster 
Gill  and  Mr.  P.  M.  C.  Kermode,  got  to  the  right  place,  the  second 
carriage  having  taken  a  wrong  turn  of  the  road  and  led  all  the  rest 
astray.  A  re-union  was  effected  at  Ballasala  where  the  puzzling 
ruins  of  Rushen  Abbey  were  inspected :  they  are  so  lumbered  up 
with  a  modern  hotel,  stables,  coach  and  cart  sheds,  a  joiners'  shop  and 
garden  walls  as  to  be  unintelligible  without  a  good  guide  or  a  good 
plan,  but  neither  was  forthcoming.  The  tower  which  puzzles  many 
people  seems  to  have  been  the  Abbot's  culver-house  or  pigeon-house. 
The  next  halt  was  made  at  Ma  lew  church,  where  the  party  was 
received  by  the  vicar,  the  Rev.  S.  H.  Gill,  and  under  his  guidance 
and  that  of  Mr.  P.  M.  C.  Kermode  they  made  their  first  acquaintance 
with  the  Manx  crosses,  and  saw  the  familiar  representation  of  Sigurd 
toasting  the  dragon's  heart  from  the  Saga  of  "Sigurd  Pafni's  Bane." 
The  Malew  pre- Reformation  chalice,  assigned  by  experts  to  c.  1525, 
was  also  exhibited. 

At  Rushen  Castle,  Castletown,  the  Society  was  received  by  Sir 
James  Gell,  the  Attorney-General  of  the  island,  who,  with  the  assist- 
ance of  Mr.  Keene»  the  superintendent  of  the  Castle,  courteously 
showed  the  visitors  round  the  old  fortress.  Chancellor  Ferguson 
pointed  out  that  the  Castle,  as  it  at  present  exists,  was  of  the 
Edwardian  type  of  concentric  castles,  as  distinguished  from  the  solid 
square  keep  of  earlier  ages.  It  appeared,  however,  that  an  earlier 
fortress  of  smaller  size  had  been  in  existence.  The  great  thickness  of 
the  walls  and  the  strength  and  solidity  of  the  Castle  and  its  defences 
were  features  that  attracted  notice.  The  vault  under  the  eastern 
wall,  opened  in  Governor  Loch's  time,  and  the  sluice  for  flooding  the 
moat  were  examined,  as  also  the  apartments  formerly  occupied  by 

the 


EXCURSIONS  And  proceedings.  305 

the  Lords  of  Man,  and  the  cell  eroneously  thought  to  have  been  the 
place  where  the  Countess  of  Derby  was  imprisoned.  Actually  she  was 
only  living  under  surveillance  in  a  house  within  the  Castle  walls.  In 
the  room  used  as  a  museum  there  were  several  interesting  objects, 
including  a  bog-oak  canoe  from  Santon,  some  querns,  a  cinerary  urn, 
a  Roman  altar  (at  once  identified  by  the  Cumbrians  as  having  been 
brought  from  Maryport)*  and  a  number  of  plaster  casts  of  Manx 
crosses.  The  castle  clock,  presented  by  Queen  Elizabeth  in  1597, 
was  viewed  with  interest.  At  the  close  of  the  inspection  of  the 
Castle,  a  vote  of  thanks  was  cordially  passed,  on  the  motion  of 
Chancellor  Ferguson,  to  the  Attorney-General  and  Mr.  Keene  for 
their  kindness  in  conducting  the  visitors  around. 

From  Castletown  the  members  of  the  Society  drove  to  Ballaquin- 
ney,  in  Rushen,  where  they  were  met  by  Mr.  Henry  Kelly,  who 
showed  them  two  interesting  stones  with  Ogham  inscriptions,  which 
have  been  read  by  Professor  Rhys.  One  of  the  stones  was  inscribed 
Bivaidouas  maqi  mucoi  Cunava — the  stone  of  Bifaidon,  the  son  of 
Mucoi  Conaf.  The  larger  stone  was  deciphered  as  follows:  — 
Dovaidona  maqi  Droath,  meaning  **  The  stone  of  Dovaidon,  son  of  the 
Druid."  These  stones  were  found  in  graves  in  an  ancient  buiial 
mound,  close  to  the  road,  where  both  Christian  and  pagan  inter- 
ments had  evidently  taken  place.  Amongst  other  discoveries  made 
in  this  mound  about  20  years  ago,  were  stone  celts,  coins  of  the 
reigns  of  Edwy,  Edred,  and  Athelstane,  partially  burnt  bones,  and 
skulls  of  two  distinct  types  of  men.  The  shape  of  the  graves  also 
indicated  both  pagan  and  Christian  modes  of  burial.  Within  almost 
living  mcmor}'  there  were  the  ruins  of  a  chapel  on  this  spot.  The 
discoveries  in  the  mound  are  set  forth  in  a  paper  on  the  subject 
written  by  Mr.  Kelly  for  the  Isle  of  Man  Antiquarian  Society. 

The  party  drove  home  by  way  of  Arbory  Church,  where  an  old  roof- 
beam,  said  to  have  been  given  by  the  Abbot  of  Rushen,  was  seen,  as 
well  as  other  objects  of  interest.  The  reputed  site  of  Bimaken  Friary 
was  pointed  out  a  little  further  on.  The  Castle  Mona  Hotel  was 
reached  about  a  quarter-past  seven. 

On  Wednesday  the  26th  September,  favoured  again  with  capital 
weather,  the  excursionists  proceeded  in  carriages  on  their  way  to 
Peel,  leaving  Douglas  at  nine  o'clock.  They  called  at  Kirk  Braddan 
for  the  purpose  of  inspecting,  under  the  guidance  of  the  Rev.  W.  S. 


•This  altar  is  No.  S60  in  the  Lapidarium  Septentrionale,  and  No.  371  C.l.L. 
It  is  first  described  by  Gordon  in  his  Ithierarium  Septentrionale,  p.  183,  where  it 
is  stated,  in  March  1725-6,  to  have  been  just  found  at  Elenborough  upon  the  river 
Ehen  in  Cumberland.    See  also  Kerroode's  Manx  Crosses,  2nd  edition,  p.  56. 

Calverley 


3o6 


EXCURSIONS   ANt)   JPROCEEDtNGS. 


Calverley,  F.S.A.,  the  runic  crosses  and  other  monuments  of  antiquity 
in  the  interesting  churchyard.  Resuming  the  carriages,  the  party 
drove  on  to  St.  John's.  On  the  way  the  ruins  of  St.  Trinian*s  Chapel 
were  pointed  out.  Shortly  afterwards  St.  John's  was  reached.  On 
the  invitation  of  Deemster  Gill  the  party  entered  the  church  ;  where 
his  Honour  explained  the  order  of  proceedings  of  the  Tynwald  Court, 
and  pointed  out  the  positions  occupied  by  the  two  legislative  bodies, 
and  by  the  clergy  and  the. officials.  He  then  led  the  way  to  the 
Tynwald  Hill,  where  he  made  the  following  speech : — 

We  stand  on  a  spot  as  interesting  to  the  antiquary  as  it  is  dear  to  the  heart  of 
every  Manxman.  In  it  we  recognise  the  pivot  round  which  for  well  nigh  a  thousand 
years  has  revolved  the  political  life  of  this  diminutive  kingdom.  Here  new  laws 
have  been  made  and  old  ones  declared  and  explained,  grievances  disclosed  and 
redressed,  differences  between  litigants  adjudicated  on  and  settled^  criminals 
punished  or  outlawed.  Here  in  the  open  air  for  many  centuries  the  inhabitants 
of  this  happy  Isle  have  assembled  to  meet  their  kings,  their  governors,  their 
judges,  and  their  lawgivers,  and,  improving  the  occasion,  they  have  established 
here  their  fair  ground,  wherein  to  transact  their  commercial  business.  In  the 
construction  of  this  mound  we  feel  a  peculiar  interest,  for  tradition  tells  us  that 
it  is  composed  of  soil  brought  from  each  of  the  17  ancient  parishes  of  the  Island. 
We  stand  on  representative  ground.  It  consists,  as  you  will  observe,  of  four 
circular  platforms,  the  lowest  having  a  circumference  at  the  bottom  of  256  and 
at  the  top  of  240  feet ;  the  second  has  a  circumference  at  the  bottom  of  162  feet; 
the  third  of  102  feet ;  and  the  topmost  of  60  feet.  The  total  height  of  the  mound 
is  about  12  feet.  A  writer  in  Notes  and  Queries  of  February,  1871,  traces  a 
symbolical  meaning  in  and  gives  several  interesting  results  from  these  figures.  I 
am  unable  to  follow  him,  but  I  think  it  right  to  point  to  the  existence  of  these 
speculations.  The  hill  and  the  purposes  for  which  it  exists  are,  of  course,  of 
Scandinavian  origin.  The  mound  is  known  as  the  Tynwald  Hill,  modernised  or 
Anglicised  from  the  Norse  Thing  f^otla — Parliament  field— of  the  Middle  Ages. 
There  is  a  striking  resemblance  between  our  Tynwald  arrangements  here  and 
those  of  the  ancient  Norse  Moot-places,  remains  of  which  are  to  be  found  in  Ice- 
land, in  Norway,  and  elsewhere.  Dr.  Vigfusson  points  out  some  of  these.  There 
was  always  a  plain  {voU) — here  we  have  a  plain  flanked  by  rising  ground.  There 
was  a  hillock  or  mound ;  here  we  have  this  artificial  mound  constructed  for  the 
purpose.  There  was  a  Court  situate  due  east  of  the  hill ;  here  we  have  the  Court 
at  the  distance  of  about  140  yards  east  of  the  hill.  There  was  a  temple — a  place 
of  religious  worship  ;  here  we  have  a  church,  dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist, 
on  the  site  of  older  churches.  There  was  a  path  for  proceeding  from  one  to  the 
other ;  here  we  have  such  a  path.  The  whole  was  enclosed  by  a  fence ;  here  an 
encircling  wall  exists.  When  the  king  sat  on  the  hill,  it  was  with  his  visage  unto 
the  east;  the  arrangement  is  the  same  here,  as  I  shall  explain  later.  All  these 
points  of  resemblance  exist,  but  there  is  one  essential  and  vital  difference  between 
the  institution  here  and  what  exists  there.  There  we  find  only  evidence  of  a  life 
which  has  long  ago  become  extinct,  we  find  the  skeleton  from  which  we  may 
guess  what  manner  of  man  it  supported ;  here  we  have  the  complete  body,  living 
and  moving  and  having  its  being  in  the  same  form  and  to  the  same  extent  as  it 

had 


ttXCUftStON^  ANb   t>R6CEteDtN(iS.  307 

had  when  it  was  borne  hither  in  the  gfalleys  of  the  Vikings  x,ooo  years  ago.  It  is 
remarkable,  indeed  it  is  romantic,  that  this  interesting  and  picturesque  institution 
which,  centuries  ago,  died  out  in  the  mother  country  should  have  survived  in  this 
remote  little  colony  and  taken  such  firm  root  in  a  land  where  it  was  exotic;  that 
in  the  midst  of  so  many  changes  in  the  neighbouring  countries,  our  home  rule 
should  have  remained  practically  unaltered,  so  that  we  can  boast  of  possessing 
the  most  ancient  constitution  in  Europe.  The  Danes  and  Norwegians  who  occu- 
pied this  Island  for  some  three-and-a-half  centuries,  ending  about  1264,  brought 
with  them  here,  as  to  other  places  conquered  by  them,  their  laws  and  form  of 
government.  They  established  here  a  kingdom,  the  territorial  limits  of  which 
comprised,  as  well  as  the  Isle  of  Man,  all  the  islands  of  the  Hebrides  which  lie 
south  of  Ardnamurchan  Point.  The  kingdom  was  designated  "  Man,  and  the 
Isles,"  and  its  king  "  Rex  Manniz  et  Insularum.*'  The  seat  of  government  was 
in  the  Isle  of  Man,  probably  at  Castletown  ;  and,  of  the  twenty-four  free-holders 
comprising  the  House  of  Keys  (the  representative  branch  of  the  Legislature), 
eight  were  chosen  in  the  "  Out  Isles,"  and  sixteen  in  the  '*  Land  of  Man."  The 
number  of  the  Keys  appears  to  have  been  originally  fixed  at  twenty-four,  it 
remained  unaltered  after  the  extent  of  the  kingdom  was  reduced  by  the  separation 
of  the  out  isles,  and  it  is  the  same  to  this  day.  The  Keys  were  known  by  the 
Manx  people  as  the  "  Kiare-as-feed,"  the  four-and-twenty,  and  this  is  probably 
the  origin  of  the  name  *'  Keys."  It  is,  by  some,  thought  to  be  derived  from 
"  Keise,"  the  Norse  equivalent  of  '*  Chosen,"  and  other  suggestions  as  to  the 
derivation  have  been  made,  but  none  appears  quite  satisfactory.  The  Keys  were 
the  third  Estate  in  the  Manx  Constitution,  the  second. Estate  consisted  of  the 
Council — the  Lord's  principal  officers,  including,  or  having  associated  with  them, 
the  two  Deemsters,  and  the  first  Estate  was  the  Sovereign  or  Lord  of  the  Island. 
The  formal  designation  of  the  Legislature  is  "The  Governor,  Council,  Deemsters 
and  Keys  in  Tynwald  assembled."  Thus  constituted  this  national  Council  or 
Thing,  in  later  days  known  as  Tynwald,  met  from  time  to  time  for  judicial,  legis- 
lative, and  administrative  purposes.  For  judicial  and  administrative  purposes  it 
appears  to  have  met  in  other  places  besides  the  hill  at  St.  John's,  for  instance  at 
Castletown,  at  Reneurling  in  Kirk  Michael,  at  Kiel  Abban  in  Kirk  Braddan,  and 
elsewhere,  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  for  the  purpose  of  the  promulgation  of  laws 
it  ever  met  except  at  St.  John's.  It  has  been  suggested,  but  I  think  there  is  little 
foundation  for  the  suggestion,  that  Tynwalds,  each  comprising  12  Keys  and  one 
Deemster,  met  respectively  at  the  South  and^North  of  the  Island.  It  is  undoubted 
that  very  marked  differences  have  existed  between  the  two  districts,  diflPerent  laws 
and  customs  have  existed  and  still  exist  in  each,  and  the  people  speak  with  a 
noticeable  difference  in  the  intonation  of  voice.  But  I  cannot  find  that  there  was 
even  this  splitting  of  the  Tynwald.  There  is  evidence  of  the  Tynwald  having  sat 
at  Reneurling  in  1433,  and  at  Keil  Abban  in  1429 ;  but  I  think  the  Court  sat  as  a 
whole.  Keil  Abban  is  situated  as  nearly  as  possible  in  the  centre  of  the  Island. 
It  is  exactly  equidistant  between  the  Point  of  Ayre  on  the  north,  and  the  Land  of 
the  Calf  on  the  south ;  and,  within  half-a-mile,  equidistant  between  the  east  and 
west  coasts.  Whether  this  placing  was  the  result  of  accident  I  do  not  know. 
There  was  a  hill,  and  an  ancient  church ;  but  the  church  was  not  east,  but  south 
of  the  mound.  More  might  be  said  as  to  Keil  Abban — or  Keil  Ammon — but  time 
forbids.  We  must  turn  to  the  modern  use  of  the  Tynwald  Hill.  After  the  Norse, 
men,  the  Scots  ruled  here  for  over  a  century ;  after  them,  the  Earls  of  Derby 
were  lords.    Sir  Stanley,  second  of  his  line,  visited  his  kingdom  and  held  a 

Tynwald 


3o8  EXCURSIONS  AND   PROCBBDtNGS. 

Tynwald  in  1414 ;  for  his  instruction  the  followiugf  document  was  prepared : — 
"  Our  Doughtful  and  Gracious  Lord,  thb  is  the  constitution  of  old  time,  the 
which  we  have  given  in  our  days,  how  ye  should  be  governed  on  your  Tynwald 
Day.  First,  ye  shall  come  thither  in  your  royal  array,  as  a  King  ought  to  do,  by 
the  prerogatives  and  royalties  of  the  Lord  of  Man ;  and,  upon  the  hill  of  Tynwald, 
sit  in  a  chair  covered  with  a  royal  cloth  and  cushions,  and  your  visage  unto  the 
east,  and  your  sword  before  you  holden  with  the  point  upward,  your  Barons  (in 
the  third  degree)  sitting  beside  you,  and  your  beneficed  men  and  your  Deem&ters 
before  you  sitting,  and  your  clerks,  your  knights,  esquires,  and  yeomen  about 
you  (in  the  third  degree),  and  the  worthiest  of  your  land  to  be  called  in  before 
your  Deemsters,  if  you  will  ask  anything  of  them,  and  to  hear  the  Government  of 
your  land  and  your  will,  and  the  Commons  to  stand  without  the  circle  of  the  hill 
with  three  clerks  in  their  surplices,  &c."  This  imposing  ceremonial  in  the  pre- 
scribed form  continues  to  take  place  here  annually  on  the  5th  July  (the  24th  of 
June,  old  style— St.  John's  Day),  and  all  the  laws  which  have  during  the  year 
been  passed  by  the  Legislature  and  received  the  Royal  assent  are  promulgrated 
in  .English  and  in  Manx  to  the  assembled  multitudes.  No  statute  is  of  any 
validity  until  it  has  thus  been  promulgfated.  After  it  has  been  passed  by  all  the 
estates  of  the  Legislature,  it  lies  dormant  until  it  has  been  proclaimed  f  roni  the 
Tynwald  Hill. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  Deem.ster*s  interesting  exposition,  on  the 
motion  of  Chancellor  Ferguson,  a  hearty  vote  of  thanks  was 
accorded  to  him  by  acclamation.  Prom  the  Tynwald  Hill  the 
Society  went  to  Peel,  and  there,  of  course,  they  explored  the  picture- 
sque ruins  on  Peel  Hill.  The  custodian  of  the  building  did  the 
honours  of  the  ruins  in  a  truly  '*  popular  **  style,  but  the  bitter  cold 
wind  drove  many  of  the  party  to  the  shelter  of  the  Creg  Malin 
Hotel,  where  lunch  was  provided. 

Kirk  Michael  was  next  visited  and  the  crosses  there  were  explained 
by  Mr.  P.  M.  C.  Kermode,  whose  work  on  Manx  Crosses  should  be 
in  the  hands  of  everyone  interested  in  the  subject.  One  of  the 
crosses  here  has  Runic  inscriptions  on  it,  and  also  an  Ogham  one 
and  an  Ogham  alphabet  lightly  scratched  on  it,  no  doubt  by  the 
mason  for  his  guidance  in  cutting  the  inscription.  Prom  Kirk 
Michael  the  party  drove  home  through  the  beautiful  pass  of  Glen 
Ellen.  They  were  fortunate  in  escaping  a  heavy  local  shower 
which  had  evidently  fallen  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Greeba  before 
they  reached  that  place.  They  arrived  at  Castle  Mona  shortly  after 
seven  o^clock. 

The  route  on  Thursday  morning,  the  29th  September,  was  by  car 
to  Ramsey  and  back.  The  first  call  was  made  at  Kirk  Onchan, 
where  several  interesting  crosses  were  described  by  the  vicar,  the 
Rev.  S.  A.  P.  Kermode — himself  a  lover  of  antiquarian  lore.  After- 
wards, the  party  took  the  mountain  road,  and  had  a  most  delightful 
drive  over  the  hills.  The  weather  was  charming,  and,  the  atmos- 
phere 


EXCURSIONS  AND    PROCEEDINGS.  309 

phere  being  clear,  they  had  a  fine  view  from  Snaefell  over  an 
immense  tract  of  country,  reaching  from  South  Barrule  to  North 
Barrule.  At  Sulby,  a  pause  was  made  for  refreshment,  and  then 
the.  party  drove  on  to  Ramsey  where  luncheon  was  had.  An 
adjournment  was  then  made  to  the  Masonic  Lodge  Rooms,  where 
the  Rev.  S.  N.  Harrison,  president  of  the  Isle  of  Man  Natural 
History  and  Antiquarian  Society,  welcomed  the  visitors.  Chancellor 
Ferguson  replied  on  their  behalf,  and  assured  the  Manx  friends  pre- 
sent of  the  pleasure  which  the  visitors  had  experienced  in  visiting  the 
various  localities  and  inspecting  the  numerous  objects  of  antiquity 
which  they  had  seen  during  their  excursion  to  the  Isle  of  Man.  Mr. 
P.  M.  C.  Kermode,  whose  attention  to  the  north  country  visitors  all 
through  was  most  assiduous,  had  taken  the  trouble  to  collect  a  large 
number  of  drawings  of  the  various  crosses  in  the  Island,  and  after 
the  Chancellor*s  reply,  these  drawings  were  described  by  Mr.  Ker- 
mode. After  an  hour  thus  agreeably  spent,  the  party  left  Ramsey 
and  drove  to  Maughold  Church,  where  there  is  a  fine  collection  of 
crosses.  Here  the  Rev.  S.  N.  Harrison  took  the  visitors  in  charge  and 
explained  the  several  crosses  and  other  objects  of  antiquarian  in- 
terest about  the  church.  The  party  then  returned  to  Douglas,  being 
accompanied  part  of  the  way  by  a  waggonette  containing  several 
members  of  the  Manx  Society.  At  Castle  Mona  Hotel  dinner  was 
served  about  half-past  eight  o'clock,  and  ai^erwards  a  short  meeting 
was  held,  when  cordial  votes  of  thanks  were  passed  to  all  the  friends 
resident  in  the  Island  who  had  so  courteously  helped  the  members 
of  the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Society  to  enjoy  their  visit  to 
Mona's  Isle. 

On  Friday  28th  September  the  members  departed  for  home  by  the 
Barrow  boat,  though  some  half-dozen  prolonged  1  their  stay  in  the 
island  for  a  day  or  two. 


(310) 


Art.XXW.— Church  Belts  in  Leaih  Ward.  No.  4.    By  the 
Rev.  H.  Whitehead. 

Communicated  at  the  Isle  of  Man,  Sept.  24,  1894. 
DENRITH  parish  church  has  eight  bells;  the  treble  and 
tenor  of  which  were  cast  in  1889  by  Messrs.  Taylor, 
of  Loughborough,  who  at  the  same  time  recast  the  fourth 
bell  of  the  old  ring  of  six. 

On  each  of  the  other  five  bells,  cast  at  the  Whitechapel 
foundry,  is  inscribed 

LESTER  &  PACK  LONDON   FECIT   I763. 

Lester  and  Pack,  who  were  better  bell-founders  than  Latin 
scholars,*  became  partners  in  1752,  the  foundry  since  1739 
having  been  held  by  Lester  alone,  t  foreman  and  successor 
to  Richard  Phelps,^  whose  predecessors  were  the  Bartletts 
for  three  generations,  and  the  Carters  for  two,  the  elder  of 
whom  in  1606  succeeded  Robert  Mot,  the  earliest  known 
proprietor  of  this  celebrated  foundry. 

The  names  and  date  in  the  above  inscription  impair  the 
accuracy  of  the  following  story,  which  has  long  been  cur- 
rent at  Keswick : — 

The  tradition  is  that  there  were  three  sets  of  six  bells  each,  cast  by 
Pack  and  Chapman,  for  Penrith,  Cockermouth,  and  Keswick — ^some 
say  there  were  four  sets,  adding  Workington — and  that  Dr.  Brown- 
rigg,  who  built  Ormathwaite,  and  was  one  of  the  chief  residents  here, 
gave  /"lo  10.  to  the  collection,  on  the  condition  that  Keswick  had 
the  first  pick  of  the  three,  or  four  sets,  as  the  case  may  have  been, 
and  that  this  accounts  for  the  Crosthwaite  bells  being  of  a  sweeter 


*  On  Stanwix  church  bell,  cast  in  1779  by  Pack  and  Chapman,  occurs  the 
word  fbcbrunt;  which  in  1775,  when  castingr  the  Crosthwaite  and  other  Cum- 
berland bells,  they  had  not  yet  learned  to  substitute  for  fecit. 


fin  17^3  Lester  recast  the  Hexham  bells. 
%  Founder  of 


the  old  great  bell  of  St.  Paul's  (London). 

tone 


CHURCH    BELLS  IN   LfiATH   WARD.  3II 

tone  than  either  those  at  Penrith  or  those  which  were  destroyed 
when  All  Saints  church,  Cockermouth,  was  burned  down"^^  (Cros- 
ihwaiU  Parish  Magazine,  October,  1882). 

Never  yet  was  there  a  ring  of  bells  which  was  not  regarded 
by  the  inhabitants  of  the  parish  to  which  it  belonged  as 
the  best  anywhere  known.  But  Keswick  folk  must  seek 
some  other  explanation  of  the  alleged  superiority  of  Cros- 
thwaite  bells  to  those  of  Penrith.  Pack  and  Chapman  did 
certain!}'  cast  the  Workington  as  well  as  Crosthwaite  bells 
in  1775.  In  what  year  they  cast  the  late  Cockermouth 
bells  is  not  exactly  known ;  destroyed  bells,  like  dead  men, 
telling  no  tales.  But  Penrith  bells,  as  shewn  above,  were 
cast  in  1763  by  Lester  and  Pack. 

The  Whitechapel  foundry — ^which  after  Lester's  death 
in  1769  was  held  by  Pack  and  Chapman  until  1781,  by 
Chapman  &  Mears  from  1781  to  1783,  then  by  successive 
members  of  the  Mears  family  until  1868,  since  which  year 
the  firm  has  been  known  as  Mears  &  Stainbank — has 
supplied  many  excellent  bells  to  Cumberland  churches, 
€.g.y  besides  those  already  mentioned,  six  for  Brampton  in 
1826,  six  for  Thursby  in  1846,  eight  for  Cockermouth  in 
1856,  eight  for  St.  Bees  and  three  for  Skirwith  in  1858, 
eight  for  St.  Stephen's  (Carlisle)  in  1864,  and  numerous 
single  bells  of  various  dates  from  the  Holme  Cultram 
tenor  of  1771  down  to  the  Addingham  treble  of  1893. 

The  Penrith  (Whitechapel)  tenor,  now  No.  7,  in  addition 
to  the  inscription  common  to  the  ring,  bears  the  names  of 
the  then  vicar  and  churchwardens : 

REV.   INO  COWPER   MA 
WM.   RICHARDSON      INO   SHARP 
THOS   SHEPHERD        ADAM   DIXON 

The  vicar,  Mr.  Cowper,  was  long  connected  with  Penrith, 


*  Cockermouth  church  was  burnt  down  in  1S49. 

having 


312  CHURCH    BELLS  IN   LBATH   WARD. 

having  in  1729  been  appointed  master  of  the  Grammar 
School,  the  governors  of  which,  on  Feb.  25,  1733,  as 
recorded  in  the  school  register, 

certifye  that  Mr.  John  Cowper  Master  of  the  said  School  is  a  person 
of  Regular  Life  and  Conversation,  ha«  very  much  improved  the 
school,  and  behavM  himself  for  these  five  years  to  our  entire  satis- 
faction and  aprobation,  for  which  Sr  Chr  Musgrave  has  added  the 
chapel  of  Soulby  for  his  encouragement. 

The  "encouragement"  thus  received  consisted  of  a  stipend 
of  about  3^20  (Nicolson  and  Burn,  i,  552),  out  of  which  he 
paid  a  substitute  to  perform  the  duty.  There  is  extant  a 
letter  from  Dr.  Richard  Burn  of  Orton,  the  historian,  to 
Sir  Philip  Musgrave,  son  and  successor  of  Sir  Christopher, 
in  which,  speaking  of  the  clergy  who  within  his  knowledge 
served  the  chapel  of  Soulby,  he  says  that 

Mr.  Cowper  employed  Mr.  Pindar  of  Musgrave,  who  for  half-a-crown 
each  Sunday,  after  having  officiated  in  the  afternoon  at  his  own 
church,  travelled  thro*  thick  and  thin,  in  bad  road,  mostly  on  foot, 
and  (to  use  his  own  expression)  thundered  them  a  march  '-s 

From  1743  to  1750,  still  continuing  to  reside  at  Penrith, 
and  retaining  his  mastership  of  the  Grammar  School,  Mr. 
Cowper  was  rector  of  Kirkbride  ;  where,  as  at  Soulby,  he 
probably  performed  his  duties  by  deputy.  At  all  events 
we  catch  a  glimpse  of  him  during  that  period  himself 
acting  as  a  clerical  deputy  elsewhere  ;  for  Chancellor 
Waugh,  writing  in  1749,  in  his  notes  to  Bp  Nicolson's 
Miscellany  Accounts,  speaking  of  Mr.  Wilkinson,  vicar  of 
Bromfield,  who  was  at  the  same  time  vicar  of  Lazonby, 
says ; — 

Mr.  Wilkinson  resides  at  Lazonby,  where  he  has  built  himself  a  good 
house    .     .     .    but  the  unhappy  man,  soon  after  he  finished  it,  for 


•  For  this  information  I  am  indebted  to  the  Rev.  W.  Lowthian,  vicar  of  Trout- 
beck,  formerly  curate  of  Soulby,  who  had  it  from  Mr.  Bowstead,  steward  at 
Edenhall. 

want 


CttORCH  BBLLS  IN  LEATH  WARD. 


313 


want  of  his  school,*  I  think,  was  moped,  and  so  remains.  The 
schoolmaster  of  Penrith,  Mr.  Cowper,  supplies  the  duty.  He  has 
no  other  curate. 

In  1750  Mr.  Cowper  was  collated  to  the  vicara«:e  of  Pen- 
rith ;  which,  together  with  the  school,  he  held  until  his 
death  at  the  age  of  80  in  1788,  having  been  master  of  the 
school  59  years. 

The  weights  of  the  bells  of  1763,  as  given  in  the  fol- 
lowing table,  are  taken  from  the  founders'  invoice,  or 
rather  from  a  copy  of  it  in  the  churchwardens'  accounts, 
which  from  1655  to  1801  are  contained  in  what  is  called 
*•  The  Old  Church  Book  "  : 


No. 

Note 

Diameter 

Cwt. 

qrs. 

lb. 

I 

^f 

28i  inches 

4 

3 

9 

2 

^i 

30 

5 

I 

21 

3 

B 

3H       ., 

6 

I 

14 

1         -* 

A# 

34i       » 

7 

0 

17 

i      ^ 

""i 

37*       » 

8 

3 

26 

'         6 

F* 

41 

II 

3 

22 

These  bells  were  paid  for  by  a  rate  of  gd.  in  the  pound, 
and  every  item  of  expenditure  for  their  purchase  and 
hanging  is  minutely  recorded.  Lester  and  Pack's  account 
with  the  churchwardens  was  3^334  on,  from  which 
£164  2  4  was  deducted  in  allowance  for  the  old  bells. 
This  amount,  however,  did  not  include  the  hanging,  which 
was  done  by  local  men,  at  a  cost  of  ;f  37  i  8,  care  being 
evidently  taken  to  distribute  the  work  amongst  as  many 
as  possible,  under  the  superintendence  of  Mr.  William 
Porthouse,   who    seems    to   have   been   regarded   as   an 


*  Lowther  School ;  established  by  the  second  Lord  IjonsdaIe>  "  with  an  ample 
foundation,  for  the  benefit  of  all  the  northern  counties ;  and,  as  longr  as  Mr. 
Wilkinson  directed  it,  never  was  a  school  in  higher  repute  "  (Hutchinson,  ii, 
311). 

authority 


3t4  CHURCH   BBLLS  IN   LfeATH  WARD. 

authority  on  the  subject  of  bells,  and  on  much  else  be- 
sides*. For  three  years  he  had  charge  of  the  "water 
engine  **,  bought  in  1763-4  "  by  order  of  the  Vestry  "  ; 
which  duty,  afterwards  successively  performed  by  John 
Pattinson  and  James  Mounsey,  was  in  1780  assigned  by 
the  vestry  to  the  bellringers : — 

Jan.  I,  1780.  At  a  Vestry  meeting  held  this  day  it  is  agreed  by  the 
Churchwardens  Overseers  and  principale  inhabitants  assembled  that 
the  underwritten  men  be  appointed  ringers  for  the  future  &  that  they 
are  to  have  the  usual  Salary  viz  15s  per  annum  each  man  And  also 
that  the  Ringers  be  appointed  to  take  care  of  the  Engine  to  the 
Satisfaction  of  Mr.  Isaac  Pattinson  and  that,  they  have  the  yearly 
salary  for  the  same : — i  John  Porthouse ;  2  Thos  Cockin  ;  3  Jas 
Birbeck;  4  Edwd  Parcivale;  5  Wm  McHenry;  6  Thos  Birkett 
Junr. 

When  a  fire  occurred  the  ringers  worked  the  engine,  for 
which  they  received  extra  payment.  They  also  received 
extra  payment,  at  the  rate  of  is.  6d.  each  per  day,  on 
what  are  called  in  the  churchwardens'  accounts  '*  rejoicing 
days".  At  the  time  now  under  notice  (George  III)  the 
regulation  "  rejoicing  days  "  seem  to  have  been  :  May  29, 
King  Charles'  Restoration ;  June  4,  King's  birthday ;  Sept. 
22,  King's  Coronation ;  Oct.  26,  King's  Proclamation  ; 
Nov.  5,  Gunpowder  Treason.  But  when  news  of  some 
victory  arrived  there  was  an  extra  rejoicing  day;  for  which 
also  the  ringers  received  extra  payment.  Nor  was  this  all 
that  they  received  on  such  days.  No  year  passed  without 
its  item  of 

Ale  to  the  ringers  on  rejoicing  days. 
Other  persons  also  enjoyed  themselves  at  the  ratepayers' 


•  Nor  was  his  reputation  confined  to  Penrith,  since  in  1767  the  Crosthwaite 
churchwardens'  accounts  have  this  item  :  "Mr.  Porthouse  for  the  bells  £z4  7^ 
6d."  These  were  the  old  Crosthwaite  bells,  which  in  1775  were  superseded  by 
Pack  and  Chapman's  ring  of  six.  What  was  done  to  them  in  1767  there  is 
nothing-  to  shew;  probably  they  were  then  rehung. 

expense 


CHURCH  feELLS  iU  LBAtH  WARD.  3l5 

expense  on  these  festive  occasions.  At  least  that  is  the 
inference  to  be  drawn  from  a  constantly  recurring  item, 
of  which  the  following  is  an  average  specimen  : 

1765    Spent  on  rejoicing  days  £2. 

Of  specimens  exceeding  the  average  the  most  notable  is 
that  supplied  by  the  year  which  closed  the  i8th  century  : 

1800  *    Xmas  Day  and  sundry  rejoicings   £y   i8s.   2d. 

There  are  no  such  "  rejoicings"  now  at  Penrith,  and  not 
many  such  anywhere  else.  They  probably  disappeared 
with  the  church-rate. 

Among  the  items  in  the  accounts  for  1763-4  was  this  : 

To  Dawson  &  Storey  for  carrying  the  old  Bells  to 
N*castle  &  bringing  the  new  ones  £1^  3s  gd. 

There  is  a  tradition  that  these  old  bells  "  went  to  Kirkos- 
wald".  It  is  likely  enough  that  they  went  there,  but  not 
to  stay  there.  They  would  have  to  pass  through  Kirkos- 
wald  on  their  way  to  Newcastle,  thence  to  be  conveyed  by 
sea  to  London.  Doubtless  they  "  went  to  "  the  White- 
chapel  furnace ;  but  not  without  leaving  behind  them  the 
materials  for  a  partial  recovery  of  their  story.  The  terrier 
of  the  year  1749,  signed  by  "  Battie  Warsop,  Vicar  ",  thus 
describes  them  : 

Five  Bells  the  least  weighing  Five  hundred  weight  the  Second  is  six 
hundred  weight  and  a  half  the  third  eight  hundred  and  a  half  the 
Fourth  ten  hundred  and  a  half  the  biggest  weighing  twelve  hundred 
weight. 


*  In  this  year  (iSoo)  also  occurs  the  following  item,  which  however  did  not 
greatly  exceed  the  average  annual  expenditure  for  the  same  purpose  in  the  last 
decade  of  the  century :  **  Bread  and  wine  for  Sundry  Sacrements  ^"8  5s.  6d.** 
The  wine,  as  shewn  by  the  accounts  of  some  other  years,  cost  2s.  per  quart,  and 
the  annual  cost  of  the  bread  was  about  lod. ;  from  which  it  appears  that  in  this 
year  the  wine  provided  "  for  sundry  Sacrements  "  amounted  to  77  quarts. 

These 


3i6 


CHdRCH   BBLLS  IN   LBATH  WARI). 


These  weights  do  not  agree  with  those  allowed  for  in  the 
invoice  of  Lester  and  Pack,  who  in  1763  took  the  old  bells 
in  part  payment  for  the  new.  I  here  place  the  two 
estimates  side  by  side: 


No, 

Terrier 

Invoice 

Cwt.        Qr. 

Cwt.        qr. 

lb. 

I 

5            0 

3            3 

13 

2 

6            2 

4            3 

13 

3 

8            2 

6            0 

10 

4 

10            2 

7            I 

13 

5 

12            0 

9            0 

6 

Terrier  weights  are  often  inaccurate ;  but,  when  they  are 
so,  they  for  the  most  part  virtually  confess  as  much,  saying 
that  the  bells  are  about  such  and  such  a  weight.  The 
Penrith  terrier  contains  no  "about",  but  speaks  with  a 
decision  which  suggests  that  whoever  drew  it  up  either 
called  in  the  aid  of  an  expert  or  had  before  him  some 
authoritative  memorandum  on  the  subject.  Nevertheless 
it  is  obvious  that  Lester  and  Pack,  when  the  bells  were 
taken  down  in  1763,  had  better  means  of  ascertaining 
their  weight  than  anyone  could  have  had  in  1749,  when 
they  were  still  hanging  in  the  tower. 

A  good  deal  of  information  concerning  them  is  supplied 
by  the  "  old  church  book"  ;  which  in  the  year  at  which  it 
begins  at  once  introduces  them  to  our  notice : 

1655    To  the  ringers  in  decembr   5s. 

During  the  next  two  years  they  appear  not  to  have  been 

rung  at  all.    It  was  the  time  of  the  Commonwealth  ;  and, 

though  the  Puritans  were  by  no  means  universally  hostile 

to  church  bells,  it  would  seem  as  if  the  Presbyterian  vicar 

of  Penrith,  Roger  Baldwin,  had  no  great  lovd  for  them, 

and  allowed  them  to  fall  into  disuse,  but   was  perhaps 

induced  by  public   opinion   to  allow  them  to  be  heard 

again.     Hence  in  1658  this  item  : 

To 


s.  d. 

..... 

4  to 

..... 

6    8 

<••• 

2      0 

..... 

i8    4 

..... 

10     o 



2      O 

».... 

6    o 

CHURCH   BELLS   IN   LEATH  WARD.  317 

To  ringers  of  the  church  as  hath  formerly  been  used    58. 

In  each  of  the  next  two  years  the  ringers  receive  their  5s 
at  Christmas.     But  the  items  for  1661  tell  a  livelier  tale  : 


Iron  worke  for  ye  Great  Bell    

For  a  bell  rope      « -. 

To  the  Ringer  for  drinke. .- 

To  W.  Burton  for  iron  work  for  3  bells  and 
a  Key  for  ye  Steeple  doore 

To  the  Ringers 

For  drinke  when  ye  bells  was  amending 
For  the  ringers     

Clearly  an  episcopalian  revival.  The  local  historians, 
from  Nicolson  and  Burn  down  to  Walker,  all  say  that  old 
Mr.  John  Hastie,  who  had  been  collated  to  the  vicarage 
of  Penrith  in  1600,  and  ejected  by  the  Long  Parliament, 
was  restored  in  1660.  But  this  is  an  error,  as  is  con- 
clusively shown  by  the  parish  register : 

1659-60  Jan  6— Mr,  J.ohn  Haisty  Late  vicar  of  Penrith  buried. 

All  the  same  Mr.  Roger  Baldwin  had  to  vacate  the  living 
soon  after  the  Restoration,  when  an  Act  was  passed  which 
deposed  all  incumbents  who  had  been  put  into  the  place 
of  others  by  the  parliament,  even  if  those  they  superseded 
had  since  died.  Mr.  Baldwin's  successor  was  Mr.  Simon 
Webster,  inducted  October  25,  1660,  to  whose  appoint- 
ment may  be  ascribed  the  activity  we  have  observed  in 
the  belfry  in  166 1  ;  which  activity  certainly  indicates  that 
that  the  bells  had  been  allowed  to  get  into  some  disorder, 
and  perhaps  had  suffered  rough  usage,  during  the  Com- 
monwealth. But  the  remedy  applied  does  not  seem  to 
have  been  thorough ;  for  the  tinkering  at  the  bells  con- 
tinues at  intervals  all  the  way  down  to  the  hanging  of  the 
new  bells  in  1763,  the  "  great  bell  *'  especially  causing  a 
great  deal  of  trouble  and  expense.    How  many  of  the  bells 

were 


3l8  CHURCH    BELLS    [N   LEATH   WARD. 

were  in  use  at  any  given  time,  at  least  for  some  years,  or 
what  sort  of  system  regulated  the  ringing,  it  is  not  easy  to 
say.  The  5s.  at  Christmas,  which,  notwithstanding  the 
increased  amount  given  to  the  ringers  in  1661,  was  all 
they  got  in  other  years  down  to  1666,  looks  like  a  Christ- 
mas box,  given  to  men  who  had  no  regular  salary,  and 
who  doubtless  did  very  little  work.  In  1666  they  get 
I2s.  6d.  at  Christmas,  which  they  continue  to  receive  at 
Christmas  until  1686,  when  it  rises  to  15s.  In  1692  it  is 
increased  to  22s.,  and  for  the  first  time  is  mentioned  as 
their  "yeare's  salary".  In  1696,  the  ringers  probably 
striking  for  more  pay,  we  meet  with  this  item  : 

Ye  ringers  as  by  agreement  by  ye  parishioners    £z. 

At  which  figure  the  wage  stands  until  1739,  when  it  rises 
to  £2  10,  the  reason  for  the  rise  being  apparent  in  the 
following  entries  : 

1738.  Paid  the  four  ringers  for  their  wages  at  Christmas  £7,. 

1739.  Paid  to  ave  ringers •    .    .    .  ;£*2  10. 

From  this  it  might  be  supposed  that  before  1739  there 
had  only  been  four  bells,  and  that  a  fifth  bell  was  now 
added.  But,  as  will  presently  appear  from  Bishop  Nicol- 
son's  notes,  one  of  the  bells  had  long  been  out  of  order, 
and  seems  now  to  have  been  put  right.  No  further 
alteration  of  wages  occurs  until  the  arrival  of  the  new 
bells  in  1763.  But,  as  in  later  years,  the  ringers  received 
extra  payment  for  "  rejoicing  days  "  ;  which  however  were 
not  much  observed  in  Penrith  until  the  very  end  of  the 
17th  century,  though  Mr.  Webster,  the  first  post-Restora- 
tion vicar,  appears  to  have  done  his  best  to  encourage 
their  observance.  Thus  the  bells  were  rung  on  May  29 
and  Nov.  5  in  1662  ;  and  in  the  following  year  the  ringing 
on  Coronation  day,  or  at  all  events  the  payment  for  it,  is 

expressly  ascribed  to  the  vicar's  influence  : 

Pd 


CHURCH   BELLS   IN    LEATH   WARD.  3T9 

Pd  the  coronation  day  to  ringers  at  re- 
quest of  Mr.  Webster  our  Vicker  is. 

What  further  in  this  direction  Mr.  Webster  might  have 
instituted,  whether  he  would  have  anticipated  the  develop- 
ment of  later  years,  we  cannot  say,  as  he  did  not  see  that 
year  out,  i.e.,  as  vicar  of  Penrith.*  Nor  amongst  his 
immediate  successors,  with  one  exception,  did  anyone 
arise  at  all  equal  to  the  carrying  out  of  the  principle  which 
he  had  laid  down.  Here  we  must  note  the  extraordinary 
rapidity  with  which  these  successors  came  and  went.  In 
seven  years  Penrith  had  as  many  as  five  vicars  :  Simon 
Webster,  Rt.  Fisher,  Chas.  Carter,  Marius  d'Assigny,  and 
Joshua  Bunting.  The  seven  years  covered  the  whole 
period  of  these  five  vicars.  This  quick  succession  of 
vicars  seems  to  have  had  a  damping  effect  on  the  growth 
of  Penrith  festivity,  and  indeed  to  have  checked  it  alto- 
gether, except  during  the  brief  incumbency  of  Mr.  Carter, 
when,  in  1665,  the  bells  were  rung  on  the  Restoration  and 
Coronation  Days,  and  for  "  a  victory  at  sea  ",  which  must 
have  been  the  defeat  of  the  Dutch  on  June  3  in  that  year. 
In  no  other  year  of  the  period  in  question  was  there  any 
extra  ringing  at  all  except  on  an  occasion  which  cannot 
exactly  be  called  a  festivity  : 

1668    Paid  the  ringers  att  the  burall  Mr.  Rabon  son    3s. 

Some  may  be  surprised  to  hear  of  a  peal  being  rung  at  a 
funeral.  But  such  was  formerly  the  prevalent  custom, 
and  indeed  was  in  strict  accord  with  the  67th  canon  of  the 
Church,  which  directs  that  •*  after  the  party's  death  (if  it 
so  turn  out)  there  shall  be  rung  no  more  than  one  short 
peal,  and  one  other  before  the  burial,  and  one  other  after 
the  burial  *',  the  intention  being  to  call  upon  friends  to 
give  thanks  for  the   deliverance   of  a   soul   "from    the 


*  He  was  collated  in  1663  to  the  vicarage  of  Dufton. 

miseries 


320  CHURCH  BELLS  IN   LEATH  WARD. 

miseries  of  this  sinful  world  '*.  The  funeral  knell,  there- 
fore, is  a  modern  innovation  ;  and  this  entry  is  only 
strange  as  indicating  that  the  peal  "  at  the  burail  Mr. 
Kabon  son  "  *  was  paid  for  by  the  churchwardens.  The 
first  vicar  to  break  the  spell  of  quick  succession  was  Mr. 
J.  Child,  who  was  instituted  in  1688  and  died  in  1694. 
But  Mr.  Child  fell  on  evil  times ;  for  in  1671  there  occurs 
a  total  break  in  the  annals  of  the  parish,  lasting  three 
years,  during  which  even  the  names  of  the  churchwardens 
are  not  recorded,  the  only  entry  being  this : 

The  plait e  was  gone  &  linen  belonging  ye  church  in  the  yeare  1672  in 
which  yeare  Allan  Mawson  was  noe  churchwarden. 

Allan  Mawson  had  been  one  of  the  churchwardens  in 
1670,  and  this  entry  in  the  church  book  may  be  regarded 
as  his  protest  against  the  idea  that  he  was  in  any  way 
responsible  for  the  disappearance  of  the  ''  plaite  and  linen  " 
How  or  why  it  "  was  gone  "  there  is  nothing  to  shew. 
Whatever  became  of  it  no  steps  were  taken  to  procure 
new  plate  until  1678,  when  a  subscription  of  £g  1  10 
was  raised  as  a  "  free  gift  for  ye  plaite  and  linen  in  Pen- 
rith Church  ".  We  need  not,  therefore,  be  surprised  that 
it  is  not  until  1685  that  we  meet  with  any  indication  of 
public  rejoicings  during  Mr.  Child's  incumbency.  In  that 
year  there  was  ringing  on  May  29  and  Nov.  5 ;  for  which, 
however,  the  ringers  got  nothing  but  drink,  is.  on  May  29, 
and  6d.  on  Nov.  5.  Still  a  principle  was  established,  or 
rather  re-established,  which  in  the  following  year  expands 
into  "Ale  to  ringers  at  severall  times  33";  and  in  1688 
into  "  Given  the  ringers  upon  publick  days  to  drink  5s  ", 
as  well  as  12s.  6d.  in  money  for  **  five  public  days  ringing  ", 
But  1688,  being  the  year  of  the  Revolution,  was  of  course 

*  Mr.  George  Watson  informs  me  that  no  such  name  as  Rabon  occurs  in  ihe 
parish  register  either  in  i66S  or  in  any  other  year,  and  he  ^ves  good  reason  for 
identifying  the  "Mr.  Rabon  son'*  of  the  church  books  with  "Mr.  Edward 
Robinson  "  recorded  in  the  register  as  "buried  November  i6,  i66S". 

an 


CHURCH    BELLS    In    LfeATH    WARD.  ^21 

an  exceptional  year  for  public  rejoicing.  During  the  rest 
of  William's  reign  the  standard  of  pubh'c  rejoicing  at 
Penrith  was  not  kept  up  to  this  mark.  It  was  reserved 
for  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne  and  the  incumbency  of  Dr. 
Todd  to  witness  the  next  decided  advance  in  this  matter ; 
and  in  1706  we  recognise  the  beginning  of  a  custom  which 
prevailed  more  or  less  at  Penrith,  sometimes  to  a  remark- 
able degree,  during  the  whole  of  the  i8th  century,  viz., 
the  burning  of  **  tar  barrels  at  the  Cross  ".  Mr.  Walker, 
in  his  history  of  Penrith,  referring  to  this  practice,  says 
(P.79)  : 

It  was  customary  during  the  early  part  of  the  last  century  for  the 
parishioners  to  assemble  round  the  Cross  whenever  any  great  occa- 
sion for  rejoicing  presented  itself;  and,  while  there,  a  quantity  of  ale 
was  consumed,  and  a  number  of  tar  barrels  burnt,  which  on  some 
occasions  were  paid  for  out  of  the  church  money. 

It  would  perhaps  be  nearer  the  mark  to  say  that  on  all 
occasions  these  proceedings  were  "  paid  for  out  of  the 
church  money  **  ;  which,  being  provided  by  a  rate,  the 
parishioners  naturally  regarded  as  their  own.  So  far  from 
the  drinking  of  ale  on  these  occasions  being  confined  to 
the  ringers,  it  would  almost  seem  as  if  they  were  at  first 
in  danger  of  not  coming  in  for  their  fair  share,  and  the 
vicar  had  to  come  to  their  assistance : 

1706.     Pd  to  Alexander  Hewer  for  Ale  to  the  Ringers  as 

he  says  per  Dr.  Tod's  orders  as  per  acquittance    7s. 

The  victory  of  Ramillies,  the  victory  before  Turin,  the 
raising  of  the  siege  of  Barcelona,  the  news  of  "  the  happy 
Union  of  England  and  Scotland  ",  the  thanksgiving  day 
for  the  same,  and  the  anniversary  of  the  Queen's  accession, 
were  all  occasions  in  this  year  for  "  ale  at  the  Cross  "• 
Tar  barrels  seem  only  to  have  been  burnt  for  the  battle  of 
Ramillies  ;  but  in  later  years  they  figure  more  con- 
spicuously.    In  1708  we  get  another  new  item  : 

Ale 


322  CHURCH   BfiLLS   IN  LBAtH  WARD. 

Ale  for  Ringers  and  treating  the  Soldiers 
at  severall  public  Rejoyceings  14s. 

On  the  accession  of  George  I  there  is  yet  another  new 
departure : 

1 7 14     Wine  att  the  King's  Proclamacon    £1  5s. 

Which  however  does  not  preclude  ale  on  the  same  occa- 
sion: 

Ale  to  the  Cross  4th  Aug.  att  the  King's  Proclamacon     8s. 

Ale  again  at  the  Cross  to  same  amount  "  when  the  King 
landed  ",  and  twice  as  much  the  day  he  was  crowned.  No 
doubt  the  bells  rang  in  the  king.  But  the  days  when  there 
was  extra  ringing  in  this  year  are  not  specified.  They  are 
grouped  in  a  single  comprehensive  item  : 

A  shillinge  a  man  p  day  for  seaven  days  ringmge 

by  the  Order  of  the  Doctor  and  other  gentlemen    £1     8    o. 

There  is  nothing,  then,  to  show  whether  the  bells  were 
.  rung  on  the  following  occasion : 

1714-5. — Ale  at  the  Cross  on  January  20 

beinge  the  General!  ffast  day    .    .     los. 

The  ensuing  year,  1715,  was  a  memorable  one  in  the 
annals  of  Penrith,  where  on  November  2  the  Chevalier 
de  St.  George  was  proclaimed  at  the  Cross  as  James  III 
by  Mr.  Forster,  the  commander  of  his  forces ;  who,  says 
Mr.  Walker  (p.  61),  "  collected  the  money  belonging  to 
the  revenue,  but  in  other  respects  conducted  themselves 
in  the  most  orderly  manner,  doing  no  harm  either  to  the 
inhabitants  or  their  property ".  All  the  same  when  his 
cause  collapsed  there  was  exultation  at  Penrith : 

Nov  14. — Aile  to  the  Cross  at  newes  of  the  defeate  of  the 
Rebels  6s. ;  to  the  Ringers  4s. ;  Tar  Barrels  3s. 

Dec    5. — ^When  Stanhop's  Horse  came  thro  paid  the  Ringers  2s. 

ifeb  12. — At  the  Pretenders  leaving  Scotland,  aile 

at  the  Cross  58. ;  the  ringers  that  night  2s. 

Yet 


CHURCH   BELLS  IN   LEATH  WARD.  323 

Yet  with  inconsistent  impartiality,  brought  out  into  strong 
relief  by  a  curious  juxtaposition  of  days,  they  continue  to 
celebrate  Charles  II's  restoration  : 

1718. 
May  28. — Expenses  att  night  with  ye  officers  *    £1      56. 
May  29. — Expenses  that  night  per    bill    and 

receipt  made •    ;^2     18    6. 

King  George's  birthday  and  King  Charles's  restoration 
were  in  the  next  year  occasions  for  yet  another  step  in 
advance : 

May  28 — Music     12 J. 
May  29 — Music     i2i. 

Nor  in  succeeding  years  was  the  music  restricted  to 
those  two  days  or  to  so  small  an  expenditure,  but  was 
repeated,  at  2s.  per  day,  on  every  "  rejoicing  "  occasion, 
What  with  bell-ringing  at  the  Church,  tar  barrels,  music, 
and  ale  at  the  Cross,  the  Penrith  people  of  those  days 
were  a  jovial  folk.  And  so,  year  after  year,  the 
"  rejoicings "  went  on,  reaching  their  climax,  as  they 
were  bound  to  do,  in  1745,  when  Penrith,  having  again 
undergone  the  experience  of  being  occupied  by  an  invading 
army,  again  had  to  celebrate  the  triumph  of  the  king. 
Mr.  Walker,  at  p.  73,  to  which  page  he  prefixes  the 
heading  *'  Twelve  days'  rejoicing ",  says  : 

The  inhabitants  of  Penrith  had  a  fortnight's  rejoicing  after  the  danger 
to  which  they  had  been  exposed  was  past,  as  will  appear  from  the 
following  extract  from  the  old  church  book : 

.      ^   B.   d. 
1745.    To   expenses  in  securing  church  plate  in 

Rebellion  ».    o  10    o 

To  ringers,  12  rejoicing  days 300 

To  expenses  in  12  rejoicing  days     ^..    8  10    o 

Hence  it  would  appear  that  the  bells  were  rung  for  12  days  in  suc- 
cession ;  and  the  item  of  £%  10  would  certainly  indicate  that  the 
spirits  of  the  people  generally  had  been  somewhat  elevated. 

But 


324  CHURCH   BELLS   in    LEATH   WARD. 

But  Mr.  Walker,  who,  by  the  way,  has  made  the  mistake 
of  transcribing  los.  instead  of  lod.  as  the  amount  paid  for 
securing  the  church  plate,  has  here  fallen  into  a  further 
mistake  through  not  observing  that  since  the  year  1741 
the  church  book  had  ceased  to  record  the  separate  items 
of  expenditure  for  the  several  rejoicing  days  during  the 
year,  and  lumped  them  altogether.  So  that  the  entry 
relating  to  "  12  rejoicing  days  "  in  1745  does  not  mean 
that  the  bells  were  rung  and  ale  drunk  at  the  Cross  for 
twelve  successive  days,  but  that  there  were  in  all  twelve 
public  rejoicing  days  throughout  the  year ;  an  unusual 
number,  it  must  be  admitted,  the  regulation  number  being 
five.  They  may  have  kept  up  their  rejoicing  for  a  day  or 
two  when  Prince  Charles  left  Penrith  behind  him  on  his 
march  northward,  after  the  *'  skirmish  nigh  Clifton  Moor", 
and  when  Carlisle  was  retaken  by  the  Duke  of  Cumber- 
land. But  there  were  certainly  not  twelve  successive 
rejoicing  days.  In  the  following  year  they  had  eight 
rejoicing  days — for  which  the  ringers  got  jf2,  and  the 
other  expenses  were  £^ — ^which  again  was  more  than  the 
regulation  number.  One  of  the  extra  three  days  was  no 
doubt  for  the  battle  of  Culloden,  and  another  for  the 
arrival  of 

two  large  gilt  chandeliers,  which  are  still  to  be  seen  in  the  parish 
church,  and  which,  although  rendered  useless  by  the  introduction  of 
gas,  are  daily  becoming  more  interesting  as  mementoes  of  the  march 
and  retreat  of  the  Highlanders.    (Walker,  p.  73). 

Their  arrival  and  fixing  are  thus  recorded  : 

£  s.  d. 

1746.     For  carriage  of  chandelears  from  London —    318    o 

To  Wm.  Porthouse  for  putting  up  chandelers    200 

They  tell  their  own  story,  each  bearing  this  inscription : 

These  Chandeliers  were  purchased  w*  ye  fifty  guineas  given  by  the 
most  noble  William  Duke  of  Portland  to  his  Tenants  of  y«  Honor  of 

Penrith 


CHURQH   BELLS   IN   LBATH   WARD.  325 

Penrith :  who  under  his  Grace's  encouragement  associated  in  defence 
of  the  Government  and  town  of  Penrith  against  the  Rebels  in  1745. 

To  the  right  of  this  inscription  are  the  Portland  arms,  on 
the  other  side  of  which  the  narrative  continues  thus  : 

The  Rebells  after  their  retreat  from  Darby  were  put  to  flight  from 
Clifton  and  Penrith  by  his  Royall  Highness  William  Duke  of  Cum- 
berland after  a  short  skirmish  nigh  Clifton  Moor'^''  which  began  at  4  in 
ye  afternoon  of  Wednesday  ye  18  Deer  1745  Rebell  Prisoners  taken  by 
ye  Tents  of  Penrith  and  ye  neighbourhood  were  upwards  of  80. 

The  impetus  given  by  the  suppression  of  the  rebellion  to 
festivity  at  the  Cross  did  not  at  once  subside  ;  for  in  1747 
there  were  nine  rejoicing  days,  with  £2  5  for  ringing, 
and  £4  II  II  at  the  Cross.  In  1748  it  drops  to  five 
days,  with  £1  5  for  ringing,  and  only  £1  17  at  the 
Cross.  In  1749  it  shews  a  tendency  to  rise  again,  viz., 
seven  days,  with  22s.  for  ringing,  and  ^^3  4  11  at  the 
Cross.     In  this  year  a  new  vicar  is  thus  welcomed  : 

Treating  the  Rev  Mr  Worsop  at  his  first  coming    £1    4. 

Notwithstanding  this  cordial  welcome  his  stay  was  short, 
for  on 

Nov.  2,  1750,  the  Rev  Mr  John  Cowper  MA  Rector  of  Kirkbride  was 
collated  to  the  vicarage  of  Penrith  by  the  Rt  Rev  the  Bishop  of 
Carlisle  void  by  the  cession  of  the  Rev  Mr  Battie  Warsop  LLB  on 
the  22  of  September  1750  (Parish  Register), 

During  his  brief  incumbency  the  vestry  passed  the  fol- 
lowing resolution  : 

July  ye  9th,  1750. — It  is  hereby  agreed  yt  no  Sum  or  Sums  of  money 
expended  on  ye  usual  rejoyceing  Days  be  for  ye  future  charged  on 
acct  of  ye  Parish  except  ye  expences  of  ye  Bonefire  and  ye  Ringers 
and  ye  Ale  which  shall  be  then  drunk  at  ye  Cross. 


•  For  full  particulars  concerninfi^  the  "skirmish  nigh  Clifton  Moor"  see 
Chancellor  Ferguson's  paper  on  **T^*  Retreat  of  the  Highlanders  through 
Westmorland  in  1745  {ante,  vol.  viii>  pp.  186—228). 

Yet 


326  CHURCH   BELLS  IN   LEATH   WARD. 

Yet  it  does  not  appear  that  there  ensued  much  diminution 
in  the  expenses  of  the  rejoicing  days,  which  seem  to  have 
gone  on  at  about  the  same  rate  as  before,  and  in  1762, 
which  was  the  last  year  of  the  old  bells,  reached  the  fol- 
lowing amount : 

Eight  days — £2  for  ringing ;  Tar  barrels,  £1  4s.  6rf. ; 
Music  and  ale  at  Cross  £z  17s.  6</. 

Of  ale,  no  doubt,  whether  at  the  Cross  or  elsewhere,  the 
ringers  consumed  a  fair  amount ;  and  the  writer  of  a 
review  of  the  Carlisle  Diocesan  Church  Plate  Book,  in 
which  some  of  these  entries  are  given,  says : 

We  may  remark  that  the  ringers  at  Penrith  in  the  i8th  century  were 
by  no  means  wearers  of  the  blue  ribbon.  The  members  of  that  pro- 
fession have  indeed  been  seldom  famous  for  temperance  (Saturday 
Review^  Sept.  23,  1882). 

But  it  would  be  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  the  Penrith 
bellringers  of  the  i8th  century  were  disorderly  men.  Their 
rules  breathe  the  very  spirit  of  order : 

INTRODUCTION 

You  ringers  all  observe  these  Orders  well. 

ORDER   I 

He  forfeits  sixpence  who  overthrows  a  bell. 

ORDER   II 

Who'er  shall  ring  with  either  Spur  or  Hat 
Shall  pay  his  sixpence  certainly  for  that. 

ORDER   III 

In  falling  bells  one  penny  must  be  paid 
By  him  who  stops  before  the  signal's  made. 

ORDER   IV 

Each  Peal  required  for  Church -service  Divine 
Who  don't  attend  must  send  in  proper  time 
A  substitute ;  sixpence  shall  be  his  fine. 

ORDER  V 


CHURCH   BELLS   IN    LEATH   WARD.  327 

ORDER  V 

A  brother  knowing  and  shall  absent  be 
When  others  ring  to  catch  the  pecuny 
Of  what  arises  he  shall  have  no  share 
Except  force  not  choice  causM  absence  there. 

ORDER  VI 

Who'er  profanely  takes  God's  name  in  vain 
Shall  sixpence  pay ;  in  future  must  refrain 
From  said  practice  or  no  ringer  remain. 

ORDER  VII 

To  cause  to  cease  from  wrangling  debate 
For  every  Ringer  standing  obstinate 
Against  a  fairly  polled  majoritie 
Sixpence  for  each  a  fixed  fine  shall  be. 

ORDER  VIII 

It  is  agreed  all  fines  they  must  be  spent 

What  in,  when,  where,  by  major  part's  consent. 

CONCLUSION. 

With  heart  upright  each  individual  ring 

For  health  &  peace  to  Country  Church  &  King. 

Bishop  Nicolson,  when  inspecting  the  bells,  on  the 
occasion  of  his  visit  to  Penrith  in  1704,  did  not  omit  to 
notice  the  clock  : 

They  have  also  a  good  clock ;  which  is  commonly  under  such  dis- 
cipline as  is  usiial  in  Mercate-Towns  (Bp.  N*s  Miscellany  Accounts, 
p.  153)- 

At  what  time  it  was  placed  in  the  tower  we  have  no 
means  of  knowing ;  but  that  it  was  already  there  in  1655 
appears  from  the  item  of  "  mending  a  clocke  wheele  is  4d** 
in  the  first  page  of  the  church  book.  Its  "discipline", 
prior  to  1704,  does  not  seem  to  have  been  of  a  very 
systematic  character.  One  John  Washington,  first  men- 
tioned in  1664,  was  called  in  at  intervals  to  "  mend  clock 

and 


328  CHURCH    BELLS   IN    LEATH   WARD. 

and  chime  ",  or  was  paid  for  "  work  about  the  clock  and 
chime  " ;  but  there  is  no  record  of  any  regular  payment  to 
to  a  caretaker.  John  Washington,  we  remark,  may  have 
been  akin  to  the  ancestors  of  the  illustrious  George 
Washington,  whose  grandfather  John  is  believed  to  have 
sailed  from  Whitehaven  in  1657,  and  to  have  been  a 
Cumberland  man.  "^  Our  John  Washington  disappears 
from  the  church  book  in  1692,  from  which  year  to  1704 
there  were  occasional  repairs  to  "  clock  &  chyme  **  by 
nameless  persons.     In  1704  there  occurs  this  item  : 

Mending  Clock  &  Chimes  &  putting  all 
in  order  relating  to  them     .     .    .    ;f 3    i    6 

In  1 7 12  the  clock  gives  place  to  a  successor : 

£    8.    d. 
To  Aaron  Cheasbrough  for  the  new  Clock       —      16    o    o 
Lant.  Holme  for  makeing  the  Clock  case 
and  finding  wood  as  per  recpt  226 

That  the  "  discipline  "  of  the  new  clock  was  more 
systematic  than  that  of  its  predecessor  may  be  inferred 
from  the  constantly  recurring  item  of  "  Wm.  Browne  as 
usual  I2S  6d.",  sometimes  varied  by  "  Wm.  Browne  for 
taking  care  of  clock  and  chimes ".  William  Browne, 
sexton  and  captain  of  the  bell-ringers,  had  a  long  innings, 
his  name  not  disappearing  from  the  accounts  till  1748. 
His  •'  taking  care  "  of  the  chimes  was  probably  a  light 
duty,  as  they  seem  to  have  fallen  into  disuse,  until  Wm. 
Porthouse  took  them  in  hand,  repairing  them  for  £y  in 
1740.  In  1748  Mr.  Porthouse  mends  the  clock;  the  first 
time  the  new  clock  seems  to  have  required  mending.  In 
1755  he  mends  both  clock  and  chimes.     In  1765,  two 


•  On  which  subject  see  a  paper  by  Mr.  W.  S.  Harper  in  vol.  v,  pp.  qS-ioS,  of 
these  Transactions. 

years 


CHURCH    BELLS   iN    LEATH   WARD.  329 

years  after  the  hanging  of  the  new  bells,  he  supplies  new 
chimes  at  a  cost  of  3^53  211.  In  fact,  for  a  quarter  of 
a  century  or  more,  he  appears  to  have  reigned  supreme 
over  clock,  chimes,  and  bells.  Dr.  Michael  Taylor,  F.S.A., 
speaking  at  a  meeting  of  the  Penrith  Literary  Society, 
"  said  that  it  was  perhaps  in  the  knowledge  of  many  there 
present  that  among  the  lost  trades  of  Penrith  was  that  of 
clock  making;  and  Mr.  Wm.  Porthouse  was  one  of  the 
great  clock  makers  at  Penrith.  At  that  time  Penrith  was 
very  celebrated  for  clocks,  and  many  of  these  clocks  were 
still  in  the  county.  The  clocks  were  of  very  excellent 
manufacture,  in  the  old  fashioned  style,  and  the  business 
was  continued  by  his  son.  He  thought  the  last  Wm. 
Porthouse  died  in  Penrith  in  1820,  and  it  might  interest 
many  to  know  that  the  shop  in  which  he  lived  was  in 
Post  Office  Lane,  very  near  the  shop  now  occupied  by 
Mrs.  Miller"  {Penrith  Observer,  Dec.  25,  1883). 

But  to  return  to  the  Bells.     Bishop  Nicolson  says : 

In  the  Tower  there  are  five  Bells ;  whereof  the  largest  seems  to  be 
the  oldest,  haveing  only  these  words  Ora  Jesu  Maria  twice  inscribed 
upon  it.  The  Second  was  new  cast  about  60  years  agoe  ;  and  has 
Thomas  Stafford  (the  name  of  the  Bell-founder)  and  the  Initial 
Letters,  as  supposed,  of  the  names  of  the  then  Church  Wardens.  The 
Third  appears  to  have  been  cast  in  1639.  The  Fourth  has  no  Legend 
on  it ;  but  the  Fifth  has  Exsurgite  Mortui  ct  VeniU  ad  Judicium ;  and 
was  cast  in  1595.  This  last  is  either  faulty  in  the  Frame  or  some 
other  way  in  disorder ;  For  'tis  never  rung  out,  or,  at  least,  has  not 
been  so  of  late  years. 

It  is  necessary  to  notice  that  the  bishop  and  the  terrier, 
in  their  numbering  of  the  bells,  do  not  follow  the  same 
order,  the  bishop  beginning  with  the  "  largest ",  and  the 
terrier  with  the  "  least  ",  as  first  bell.  The  right  order  is 
that  of  the  terrier,  which  accordingly  will  be  adopted 
whenever  reference  is  made  in  this  paper  to  any  particular 
member  of  the  ring.  It  will  be  convenient,  however,  for 
avoidance  of  confusion,  to  place  the  two  arrangements 

side 


33^ 


CHURCH    BELLS   IM    LfiATH  WARD. 


side  by  side  in  the  following  table ;  the  weights  in  which 
are  as  reported  by  Lester  and  Pack : 


Bp.  N. 

1  erner 

Cwt.  qr.  lb. 

Date 

Inscription 

No.  5 
».    4 
»    3 

,»      2 

„    I 

No.  T 

,»      2 

..    3 
«    4 

"    5 

3  3     13 

4  3     13 

6  o     10 

7  I     13 
909 

1595 
1639 

Exsurgite  &c. 
Blank 

? 
T.  Stafford 
Orajesu  Maria 

The  bishop,  for  an  antiquary,  is  rather  loose  in  his  account 
of  these  bells,  especially  of  that  which  he  says  "  was  new 
cast  about  60  yeares  agoe  "  by  T.  Stafiford,  and  that  which 
he  says  "  appears  to  have  been  cast  in  1639 ".  In  all 
probability  these  two  bells  (Nos.  3  and  4)  were  cast  at  the 
same  time  and  by  the  same  founder.  The  treble,  dated 
1595,  seems  from  its  legend  to  have  been  originally  in- 
tended to  toll  the  death  knell,  and  was  just  in  time  to  do 
a  deal  of  work,  as  in  1597-8  the  northern  counties  were 
severely  ravaged  by  the  plague.*  This  was  the  bell 
which  in  1704  was  "  some  way  in  disorder ",  and  had 
"  not  been  rung  out  of  late  years ".  Nor  was  it  again 
"  rung  out  "  until  1739.  The  bishop  showed  good 
judgment  in  not  taking  it  for  granted  that  it  was  mute 
from  any  fault  of  its  own.  Many  a  sound  bell  has  been 
condemned  as  cracked  when  the  only  fault  was  in  its 
gear.  The  tenor,  with  its  mediaeval  legend,  Ora  Jesu 
Maria^  was  rightly  regarded  by  Bishop  Nicolson  as  the 
''  oldest  "  bell  of  the  ring ;  and  it  is  well  that  he  specified 


*  On  a  stone  slab,  now  on  the  inside  of  the  wall  of  the  north  aisle,  but  in  the 
old  church  in  Bishop  Nicolson's  time  "on  the  outside  of  the  north  wall  of  the 
vestry  ",  is  inscribed 

Pestts  fuic  Ao  1598,  unde  moriebantur 
2200, 


apud  Kendal  2,^00,  Richmond  ; 
Penrith,  2266,  Karliol  1196. 


This  cannot  mean  that  2266  persons  died  in  the  parish  of  Penrith,  which  in  159S 
had  not  more  than  2000  inhabitants.  It  must  refer  at  least  to  the  deanery  of 
Penrith,  at  that  time  coincident  with  Leath  Ward. 

it 


CHURCH   BELLS  IN  LEATH  WARD,  33I 

it  as  the  "  largest ",  or  we  should  not  have  known  that  he 
inverted  the  order,  and  should  have  supposed  that  this 
bell  was  the  treble,  instead  of  the  tenor.  The  regular 
sequence  of  the  weights  of  the  five  bells,  and  the  proba- 
bility of  Nos.  3  and  4  having  been  cast  at  the  same  time, 
are  suggestive  of  a  work  done  in  1639,  ^^^  object  of  which 
was,  by  casting,  recasting,  or  tuning,  as  the  case  required, 
to  secure  a  complete  and  harmonious  ring.  On  which 
hypothesis  I  assign  the  blank  bell  (No.  2)  to  no  later  date 
than  that  year.  Either  it  was  found  in  the  tower,  or 
placed  there,  by  Thomas  Stafford.  This  founder,  if  not 
a  native  of  Penrith,  had  resided  there  some  years  before 
he  did  the  work  now  under  notice ;  for  at  Cartmel  there 
is  extant  an  agreement,  dated  July  20,  1630,  between  the 
churchwardens  and  "  Tho  Stafford,  of  Penrith,  in  the 
county  of  Cumberland,  bell-founder,  for  the  new  castinge 
of  the  greate  bell  of  the  P'ish  Churche  of  Cartmel " 
(A  finales  Caermoelenses,  p.  61) ;  and  the  treble  of  the  old 
Kirkby  Stephen  ring,  as  stated  by  the  late  vicar  {antCf  iv, 
239),  bore  this  inscription  : 

BE   IT   KNOWN  TO  ALL   MEN  THAT  ME  SEE 
THOMAS   STAFFORD   OP   PENRITH   MADE   MB. 
163I. 

In  this  couplet  I  at  one  time  thought  we  had  a  clue  to  the 
authorship  of  the  "  Ringers'  Orders  ",  which  I  was  dis- 
posed to  include  among  the  poetical  works  of  Thomas 
Stafford.  But  I  now  know  them  to  be  a  compilation, 
taken  a  bit  here  and  a  bit  there  from  similar  **  Orders  ". 
Nor  was  Stafford  the  original  composer  even  of  the 
couplet  on  his  Kirkby  Stephen  belK  The  late  Mr.  T. 
North,  in  his  "  Church  Bells  of  Rutland  ",  says  (p.  53) : 

At  the  commencement  of  the  seventeenth  century  the  Newcombes 
began  to  use  the  form  to  which  they  subsequently  as  a  rule  adhered : 
Be  yt  knowne  to  all  that  doth  me  see 
That  Newcomhe  of  Leicester  made  mee. 

Possibly 


332  CHURCH   6£LLS  IN   LfeATH  WARD. 

Possibly  Thomas  Stafford  served  his  apprenticeship  to  the 
Newcombes.  Perhaps,  as  there  is  no  trace  of  him,  nor  of 
any  one  of  his  name,  in  Penrith  parish  register,  it  may  be 
no  gpreat  stretch  of  imagination  to  suppose  him  to  have 
been  a  native  of  Leicester,  and  a  descendant  of  the 
earliest  known  Leicester  bell-founder,  thus  mentioned  by 
Mr.  North : 

Johannes  de  Stafford  had,  there  are  good  reasons  for  believing,  a 
foundry  at  Leicester  at  least  as  early  as  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth 
centuiy  (ib.  p.  48). 

So  Thomas   Stafford   may   have   come   from   Leicester, 
bringing  with  him  thence  his  couplet,  and  perhaps  also 
the  "  Ringers'  Orders  " ;    for  the  adoption  of  which  his 
reform  of  the  Penrith  belfry  in  1639  was  a  suitable  occa- 
sion.     Nor  was  there  ever  a  time  when  it  was  more 
needful   to    "  ring    for   health    and    peace    to    Country, 
Church,  and  King".     But  the  ringers,  unless  they  im- 
partially welcomed  whatever  happened,  must  soon  have 
been  in  great  perplexity  what  to  ring  for.     Penrith  people 
were  tolerably  well  affected  to  the  king.      But  there  were 
times  when  their  town  was  occupied  by  parliamentary 
forces.  General  Lambert  in   1648   making  it  his  head- 
quarters ;  and  if  when  Charles  II  passed  through  Penrith 
on  his  way  to  Worcester,  in  1651,  "  no  merry  peal  from 
the  old  church  steeple  bade  him  welcome "  (Walker,  p. 
5q),  it  may  have  been   because   the  then  vicar,  Roger 
Baldwin,  had  no  love  for  Charles.     Perhaps,  as  we  have 
already  had  occasion  to  notice,  he  had  no  love  for  the 
bells  themselves.    The  churchwardens*  accounts  prior  to 
1655,  had  they  been  extant,  would  probably  have  shown 
that  Mr.  Hastie's  ejectment  from  the  vicarage  was  at  once 
followed  by  neglect  of  the  bells.    The  loss  of  those  early 
accounts  is  the  more  to  be  regretted,  as  they  would  have 
thrown  much  light  on  Stafford's  work  in  1639,  which  was 
an  event  of  someinterest  in  the  annals  of  Penrith.  Browne 

Willis 


CHURCH  BELLS  IN  LEATH  WARD.        333 

Willis,  writing  of  Cariisle  cathedral  tower  in  1727,  says  : 
"  In  it  hang  five  bells,  the  only  peal  of  so  great  a  number 
in  the  diocese,  except  at  Penreth  *'  {Survey  of  English 
CatJtedralSf  vol.  i,  p.  280).  Willis  is  wrong  as  to  the 
cathedral,  which  since  1658  had  possessed  six  bells.  But 
even  down  to  1775  no  parish  church  in  Cumberland  had 
as  many  as  five  bells,  except  Penrith,  which  meanwhile, 
in  1763,  had  got  six.  The  year  1608,  in  which  a  fifth  bell 
was  added  to  the  cathedral  ihediaeval  ring  of  four,  seems 
to  mark  the  introduction  to  Cumberland  of  the  change- 
ringing  movement,  then  in  its  infancy  (ante,  viii,  135-165). 
It  may  have  reached  Penrith  from  Carlisle.  More  likely 
it  came  from  the  south.  Perhaps  Stafford  himself  brought 
the  new  learning,  and,  preaching  the  necessity  of  Penrith 
keeping  pace  with  the  times,  succeeded  in  making  con-* 
verts  of  the  churchwardens,  whose  initials  he  inscribed 
on  the  3rd  bell  of  the  reformed  ring.  But  he  was  unfor- 
tunate in  the  time  of  his  work  ;  which,  as  we  have  seen, 
was  destined  to  be  much  marred  during  the  Common- 
wealth. 

Must  we  stop  here,  or  may  we  endeavour  to  carry  our 
story  still  further  back  ?  What  bell  was  that  which  was 
**  new  cast "  in  1639  ?  Thomas  Stafford  saw  it,  consigned 
it  to  his  furnace,  but  has  left  no  record  of  it.  But,  on 
hypothesis  of  its  having  been  a  pre- Reformation  bell, 
Edward  VI's  commissioners  must  have  seen  it  in  1552. 
It  was  their  duty  to  report  what  they  saw,  and  their 
report  is  still  preserved  at  the  Record  Office.  To  the 
Record  office,  then,  we  repair,  and  find-^alas,  we  find  the 
names  of  half  the  Cumberland  churches  torn  off,  and 
Penrith  among  the  lost  names  (ib.  viii,  186-204).  But, 
though  the  names  of  the  churches  are  missing,  the  lists  of 
their  goods  remain,  and  in  some  cases  it  is  possible  to 
restore  a  lost  name  to  its  surviving  list.  Thus  we  at  once 
identify  the  Greystoke  list  by  its  item  of  "  iiij  gret  belles  ", 
which  still  remain.    Only  three  other  churches  in  Leath 

Ward 


334  CHURCH  BELLS  IN   LEATH  WARD. 

Ward  had  ^''gret  belles"  in  1552.  All  three  of  them  are 
among  the  nameless  churches;  but  one  of  them  must 
certainly  be  Penrith,  which  we  know  had  at  least  one  bell, 
viz.,  "  Jesu  Maria",  which  was  great  as  well  as  mediaeval. 
The  following  list,  then,  which  stands  next  to  that  of 
Greystoke,  was  probably  the  list  of  Penrith  church  goods 
in  1552 : 

Item  ij  chalesses  of  silvr  with  coverings  one 
vestement  of  white  silk  ij  vestements  of 
bustenge  with  albes  to  the  same  ij  vestements  for 
.     .     .    .    iiij  alterclothes  ij  gret  belles. 

One  of  these  bells,  if  the  royal  commissioners  had  strictly 
carried  out  their  instructions,  would  have  been  confiscated 
"  for  ye  Kinges  use  " ;  but,  as  has  been  shewn  elsewhere 
(ante 9  vi,  426),  the  Cumberland  church  bells  seem  not  to 
have  been  molested  by  Edward  VI's  commissioners.  In 
the  massive  tower  of  Penrith  parish  church  I  cannot  but 
think  there  may  at  some  time  or  other  have  been,  as  at 
Greystoke,  "  iiij  gret  belles  ".  Assuming,  however,  that 
this  tower  once  had  its  ring  of  at  least  three,  what  became 
of  the  third?  Did  Henry  VIII's  "visitors"  take  it  and 
sell  it  for  "ye  Kinges  use " ?  We  know,  on  the  authority 
of  Philip  and  Mary's  commissioners,  what  Henry's  visitors 
did  with  one  Penrith  bell : 

Jeffrey  Thomson  Stephen  Robinson  and  Anthonie  Robinson  of  Peh- 
rithe  yomen  saythe  that  Richarde  Wasshingstone  besydes  Kendal 
bought  the  layte  howse  of  the  ffreers  in  Penrithe  and  hadd  the  bell 
of  the  sayde  ffreers  {MS  in  Record  Office). 

But  Henry  Vni,  though  he  despoiled  the  religious  houses 
and  abbeys,  did  not  molest  the  parish  churches.  By  his 
treatment  of  the  religious  houses,  however,  he  set  a  bad 
example,  which  patrons  of  livings,  churchwardens,  and  the 
parishioners  generally,  in  many  parts  of  the  counti-y  were 
not  slow  to  imitate,  betaking  themselves  to  spoliation  of 

the 


CHURCH    BELLS   IN    LEATH    WARD.  335 

the  churches  on  their  own  account;  and  in  some  such 
way  the  parish  church  of  Penrith  may  have  lost  one  and 
perhaps  two  of  the  bells  which  had  hung  in  its  tower — 
since  when  ?  Well,  a  likely  man  to  have  had  a  hand  in 
providing  Penrith  church  with  "  gret  belles ",  worthy  of 
its  fine  tower,  was  William  Strickland,  bishop  of  Carlisle 
from  1400  to  1419,  who  gave  to  the  cathedral  "  quatuor 
MA,GNAS  CAMPANAs  "  (Leland,  i,  472),  one  of  which,  weigh- 
ing about  17  cwt.,  still  remains  as  a  memorial  of  his 
munificence.     Camden,  in  his  account  of  Penrith,  says  : 

For  the  benefit  of  the  Town  W.  Strickland,  Bishop  of  Carlisle, 
descended  from  a  famous  family  in  these  parts,  did  at  his  own  charge 
draw  hither  a  Chanel  or  Water-course,  irom  Peterill,  or  the  little 
river  Peter. 

Nor  was  this  his  only  known  benefaction  to  Penrith. 
Hutchinson  (i,  333)  says : 

William  de  Strickland  founded  a  chantry  in  this  church  in  honour  of 
St.  Andrew  with  a  yearly  stipend  of  £6  to  a  chantry  priest  who 
should  teach  church  music  and  grammar. 

He  also  added  a  tower,  known  as  the  "Strickland  tower", 
to  Penrith  Castle.  Let  us  then  believe  that  he  was  the 
donor  of  the  church  bells,  the  last  survivor  of  which  served 
as  the  tenor  of  the  Stafford  ring. 

Must  we  stop  even  here  ?  Surely  he  must  be  an  un- 
imaginative man  who  can  have  spent  but  a  few  days  in 
Penrith  with  never  a  thought  bestowed  upon  the  far  dis- 
tant past,  the  memory  of  which  still  lingers  in  the  tones 
of  the  curfew.  Common  report  ascribes  the  origin  of  the 
curfew  to  William  the  Conqueror.  But  in  Cumberland 
we  do  not  recognise  William  the  Conqueror,  and  refuse 
to  admit  that  he  instituted  anything  in  this  county.  Yet 
does  not  the  very  name  of  the  **  curfew  ",  it  may  be  asked, 
reveal  its  Norman  origin  ?     Well,  even  in  other  parts  of 

England 


336  CHURCH   BELLS  IN   LEATH   WARD. 

England  the  evening  bell,  whatever  may  have  been  its 
name,  was  wont  to  be  rung  as  a  signal  for  the  extinction 
of  fires  long  before  the  Norman  conquest.  The  late  Miss 
Powley,  in  her  interesting  paper  on  the  Curfew  (anU^  vol. 
iii,  pp.  127-133),  whilst  admitting  that  "through  the 
Conqueror's  edict  the  practice  acquired  new  authority, 
and  through  his  language  a  new  name,  at  least  in  the 
south  of  England  *\  patriotically  contends  not  only  that 
William's  edict  had  no  force  in  Cumberland,  but  that  his 
language  did  not  here  succeed  in  imposing  upon  the 
evening  bell  the  new  name  of  Curfew  ;  which  she  says  is 
in  Cumberland  "  quite  a  lately  acquired  piece  of  book 
knowledge  ".  It  was  **  communicated  by  the  late  Mrs. 
Brown  that  in  her  childhood  the  eight  o'clock  bell  was 
popularly  named  't'  Taggy  bell ',  and  she  remembered  old 
persons  saying  to  children  that  if  they  were  out  after  it 
was  rung  Taggy  would  get  them".  Then  follows  a 
learned  disquisition,  some  authorities  recognising  in  the 
word  Taggy  a  corruption  of  the  Danish  word  "  toekke  ", 
which  means  "  cover",  and  thus  connected  with  "couvre 
feu  "  (curfew).  But  Miss  Powley  gives  in  her  adhesion 
to  another  Danish  word,  "  taage  ",  mist  or  gloom,  and  in 
the  warning  "  Taggy  will  get  you  "  sees  "  a  simple  appeal 
to  the  terror  of  children  against  the  personification  of  the 
power  that  walketh  in  darkness  ".  Nor  was  Taggy  a  terror 
only  to  children.  "  In  the  early  days  of  the  Northmen  in 
England  there  must  have  been  great  distress  and  discom- 
fort in  districts  with  such  a  rainfall  as  ours,  with  such 
abundant  streams  and  undrained  lands,  with  their  dense 
fogs,  and  exaggerated  mists,  and  misleading  lights  ".  We 
recognise,  then,  a  use  of  the  evening  bell  distinct  from  its 
function  as  the  signal  for  extinction  of  fires.  "  From  very 
early  times  there  appears  to  have  been  an  idea  of  safety 
connected  with  bells.  Besides  the  wide  spread  super- 
stition of  their  power  against  evil  spirits  .  .  .  they 
had  other  claims  to  regard.    There  are  on  record  many 

instances 


ChUkCH   feELLS   IN   LEA'TH   WARb.  ^3^ 

instances  of  life  havin^^  been  saved,  when  benighted 
travellers,  at  the  sound  of  the  familiar  bell,  recognised 
their  locality,  and  regained  their  home,  after  being  utterly 
lost  amid  the  swamps  and  fogs  of  yore  ".  Such  considera- 
tions, she  concludes,  **  surely  may  have  some  association 
with  or  influence  on  the  name  of  *  Taggy  bell ',  if  it  is  a 
Danish  word  .  .  .  and  as  Bell  of  the  Gloaming,  the 
Mist  or  the  Darkness,  it  is  a  more  natural  as  well  as  a 
more  powerful  and  poetical  term  than  if  it  is  considered 
merely  as  that  for  the  Norman  extinguisher ".  Penrith 
people,  then,  would  perhaps  do  well  to  discard  the  modern 
innovation  of  calling  their  evening  bell  the  "  curfew  ",  and 
restore  to  it  the  traditional  name  of  Taggy,  especially  as 
they  would  thereby  be  assisting  Chancellor  Ferguson  in 
his  laudable  efforts,  in  which,  as  he  told  Mr.  Freeman 
during  the  visit  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  to  Carlisle 
in  1882,  he  has  been  engaged  for  several  years,  to  keep 
the  name  of  William  the  Conqueror  out  of  Cumberland, 
where  when  living  he  never  set  foot  and  had  no  authority* 
Let  not  the  spirit  of  William,  eight  centuries  after  his 
death,  triumphantly  ensconce  itself  in  the  tower  of  Penrith 
parish  church. 

But  the  "  knell  of  parting  day  ",  still  tolling  from  eve 
to  eve,  as  from  century  to  century  through  bygone  ages, 
whilst  taking  us  back  in  thought  to  the  remote  past, 
serves  also  to  remind  us  that  the  story  of  Penrith  church 
bells  would  be  incomplete  without  some  reference  to  their 
present  uses.  Each  member  of  the  old  ring  had,  and  (with 
one  exception)  still  retains,  its  distinctive  name,  indicative 
of  the  office  it  has  long  discharged.  The  exception  is  the 
old  6th  (now  7th)  bell,  which  has  been  superseded  as 
"  death  bell "  by  the  new  tenor. 

2  Town  Fire  Bell         5     Market  Bell 

3  Country  Fire  Bell     6     Curfew 

4  Prayer  Bell  8    Death  Bell  - 

In 


338  CHURCH   BELLS    EN   LEATH  WARD. 

In  some  places  all  the  bells  are  "jangled"  to  give  alarm 
of  fire.  Bishop  Hall  says :  "  So  when  we  would  signify 
that  the  town  is  on  fire  we  ring  confusedly "  {Occasional 
Meditations  Lxxx).  But  here  the  2nd  or  3rd  bell,  according 
as  the  fire  is  in  town  or  country,  is  rung  alone.  The  late 
vicar  on  the  occasion  of  "  ringing  himself  in  "  is  said  to 
have  caused  consternation  by  ringing  one  of  the  fire  bells. 
Which  bell,  by  the  way,  ought  he  to  have  rung  ? 
Probably  the  "  prayer  bell  ",  so  called  from  being  used 
for  the  daily  service,  and  therefore  the  least  likely  to  cause 
disturbance  when  rung  unexpectedly.  The  ancient  custom 
of  ringing  a  bell  to  announce  the  opening  of  the  market 
has  now  in  many  places  fallen  into  disuse.  Thirteen 
years  ago  it  was  proposed  to  abolish  it  at  Carlisle  ;  but  at 
a  meeting  of  the  town  council 

Mr.  R.  S.  Ferguson  thought  the  bell  should  not  be  abolished.  He  did 
not  think  the  market  legally  began  until  the  bell  was  rung.  There 
had  been  such  a  bell  as  long  as  the  corporation  had  existed  {Carlisle 
Journal,  March  ti,  1881). 

The  custom  was  therefore  retained  with  only  two  dis- 
sentients. At  Carlisle,  however,  the  market  is  not  opened 
as  at  Penrith  by  a  church  bell.  The  curfew,  rung  nightly 
for  about  ten  minutes  at  eight  o'clock,  ending  with  the 
requisite  number  of  strokes  to  indicate  the  day  of  the 
month,  is  a  unique  survival,  at  least  in  Cumberland.  An 
evening  bell  at  Rocliffe,  called  the  "  curfew  ",  is  a  modern 
institution.  The  Carlisle  municipal  accounts  contain 
items  of  this  kind  : 

1603    Unto  henry  Warwicke  for  curfewe  bell    xiiis  iiiji. 

But  at  Carlisle  the  curfew  has  long  been  obsolete.  The 
tenor  (No.  8),  besides  its  use  as  the  "death  bell",  serves 
also  as  the  clock  bell.  The  death  "  knell ",  sometimes 
erroneously  called  the  "  passing  bell ",  is  a  rarity  in  this 

county 


CHURCH  BELLS  IN  LEAtH  WARD.        339 

county.  In  Penrith,  as  in  many  places  further  south,  it 
indicates  the  sex  of  the  deceased  by  thrice  three  quickly 
repeated  tolls,  called  the  **  tellers",  for  a  man,  thrice  two 
for  a  woman,  and  thrice  one  for  a  child;  whence  the 
saying  "  Nine  tailors  make  a  man  ",  a  corruption  of  "  Nine 
tellers  mark  a  man  ". 

It  has  been,  as  the  reader  will  have  noticed,  the  practice 
of  the  good  people  of  Penrith,  at  least  in  post-Reformation 
times,  to  wake  up  once  in  a  century  to  a  sense  of  the  need 
of  putting  their  bells  in  order.  Nor  will  the  present 
century  be  unmarked  by  an  important  work  of  belfry 
reform,  owing  to  the  munificence  of  the  late  Miss  Har- 
rison, of  Lynnwood,  at  whose  cost  the  following  improve- 
ments were  made  in  i88g  : 

Taylor  &  Co.,  of  Loughborough,  to  rehang  and 
quarter-turn  the  bells,  with  entire  new  fittings 
and  iron  framework  —        ..«.        ;fi44 

New  eight  days'  clock,  by  Potts  &  Sons,  of  Leeds,  of 
best  construction,  with  all  modern  improvements  .        100 

Instead  of  three  hours  chimes  the  Cambridge  quarter 
hour  four  bell  chimes « ^ 55 

Total  cost     »,       ....    ;f299 

Tradition  says  that  the  oak  of  the  old  bell-frame  came 
from  Brougham  Castle.  The  late  Canon  Simpson,  quoting 
from  Machel,  says  that  "  Lord  Thomas  Tufton  pulled 
down  a  great  portion  of  the  castle  in  1691,  and  in  1719 
the  timber  and  lead  was  sold,  and  purchased  by  Mr. 
Markham  and  Mr.  Anderton  of  Penrith  "  (ante,  i,  70). 
This  brings  the  oak  of  Brougham  Castle  to  Penrith.  But 
there  is  nothing  in  the  churchwardens'  accounts  to  con- 
firm the  belief  that  any  of  it  found  its  way  into  the  belfry 
of  the  parish  church ;  nor  anything  to  shew  that  the 
framework  was  renewed  when  Mr.  Porthouse  hung  the 
bells  in  1763.     In  all  probability,  with  such  alterations  as 

were 


340  CHURCH   BELLS  IN   LBATH  WARD. 

were  rendered  necessary  by  the  sixth  bell,  the  framework 
had  remained  much  the  same  as  Thomas  Stafford  left  it 
in  1639.  I'o  say  nothing  of  other  defects,  it  impinged  on 
the  walls,  an  arrangement  which  has  caused  serious  injury 
to  many  a  church  tower.  The  ringers*  **  gallery  ",  so 
called  in  the  accounts  for  1741,  when  it  was  erected  at  a 
cost  of  £t  2  6,  was  unsuitable  for  the  purpose  for 
which  it  was  intended,  as  it  only  admitted  of  the  ropes 
falling  in  a  line.  With  such  an  arrangement  change- 
ringing,  worthy  of  the  name,  was  out  of  the  question.  To 
remedy  this  state  of  things  by  enlarging  the  gallery  would 
still  further  have  spoilt  the  beauty  of  the  vaulted  basement 
of  the  tower,  already  disfigured  by  such  an  excrescence. 
The  ringers  therefore  now  use  the  upper  chamber,  which 
formerly  contained  a  cumbrous  and  complicated  chiming 
apparatus,  the  superseding  of  which  by  the  Cambridge 
chimes  allows  plenty  of  room  for  the  ropes  to  fall  in  a 
circle. 

These  chimes,  first  used,  in  1793,  for  St.  Mary's  church, 
Cambridge,  are  said  to  have  been  composed  by  Crotch, 
then  a  mere  lad,  who,  says  Dr.  Raven  in  his  book  on 
Cambridgeshire  Church  Bells,  pp.  105-6, 

may  be  credited  with  the  idea  of  taking  a  movement  in  the  5th  bar 
of  the  opening  symphony  of  that  most  sublime  air  of  HandePs  *'  I 
know  that  my  Redeemer  liveth  ",  and,  by  a  system  of  variations,  not 
unworthy  of  Fabian  Stedman,  expanding  them  into  the  annexed 
musical  chime.  .  .  .  Very  few,  except  those  who  had  known 
Crotch,  were  aware  that  he  had  anything  to  do  with  their  com- 
position, and  till  they  were  copied  for  the  Royal  Exchange  their 
merits  were  but  little  appreciated.  But  now  they  sound  from  many 
towers. 

They  are  here  subjoined  as  arranged  for  the  Penrith 
bells  : 


CHURCH   BBLLS   IN   LEATH  WARD. 

i 


341 


i*<fH.-r:77 


zee 


^ 


:pS 


=^£^ 


^=^ 


r-r-i-T7 


^fe 


I 


zcn 


The  hour  is  struck  on  the  tenor  E. 

The  parishioners,  whilst  these  alterations  were  in  pro- 
gress, by  a  praiseworthy  effort,  in  which  nonconformists 
heartily  co-operated  with  churchmen,  raised  £"220  to 
complete  the  octave,  and  also,  owing  to  change  of  key  by 
new  tenor  in  E,  to  recast  the  old  fourth  (but  now  fifth) 
bell  from  A|  to  A ;  and  the  ring,  by  the  addition  of  the 
new  treble  and  tenor,  is  thus  constituted  : 


No. 

Note 

Diameter 

Cwt 

qrs 

lbs 

Date 

1889 

I 

E 

27  inches 

4 

2 

I 

2 

^ 

m    „ 

4 

3 

9 

1763 

5 

^# 

30 

5 

I 

21 

1763 

4 

B 

324 

6 

I 

14 

1763 

5 

A 

35 

8 

I 

9 

1889 

6 

G# 

374 

8 

3 

26 

1763 

7 

F« 

414  1 

, 

II 

2 

22 

1763 

8 

E 

464 

18 

3 

6 

1889 

f 


On  the  treble  is  inscribed 

ME   DEDIT   HUIC   MDl   POPULUS  :    SIT   GLORIA   PaTRI. 


On 


343  CHURCH    BELLS   IN    LEATH   WARD, 

On  the  tenor 

ME   DEDIT   HUIC  JBDl   POPULUS :   SIT  FAX,   PaTER,    URBI. 

The  Messrs.  Taylor,  of  Loughborough,  to  whom  the 
work  of  rehanging,  casting,  and  recasting,  was  entrusted, 
are  the  present  representatives  of  the  ancient  bell-founders 
of  Leicester.  The  chief  specimens  of  their  work  for  this 
county  are  rings  of  six  at  Bridekirk,  Cleator  Moor,  and 
Great  Salkeld,  a  ring  of  eight  at  Silloth,  and  Mr.  Edwin 
Banks'  great  bell  at  Highmoor,  weighing  8}  tons,  and 
only  exceeded  in  magnitude  by  three  other  English  bells, 
viz. :  the  new  Great  Paul,  i6/j^  tons,  cast  by  J.  Taylor  in 
1882 ;  Big  Ben,  13J  tons,  by  G.  Mears  in  1857  »  ^"^ 
Peter  of  York,  loi  tons,  by  C.  &  G.  Mears  in  1845. 


Correction,  p.  311,  line  25,  for  "1893"  read  "1888". 


(343) 


Art.  XXVI.— On  Touching  for  the  King's  Evil.  By  Henry 

Barnes,  M.D.,  F.R.S.E. 
Read  at  Lakeside,  Windermere,  June  13,  1894. 
^HE  miraculous  healing  of  some  diseases  has  attracted  a 
good  deal  of  attention,  and  the  records  go  back  to  a 
very  early  period.  It  is  not  necessary  to  enter  into  a  dis- 
cussion of  those  which  took  place  at  such  a  remote  period 
that  the  evidence  of  their  authenticity  is  open  to  question, 
but  if  we  take  those  only  which  occurred  during  the  first 
three  centuries  of  the  Christian  era,  we  find  much  difference 
of  opinion,  especially  as  to  the  period  when  the  miraculous 
gifts  of  the  Apostolic  age  ceased  to  operate.  Some  of  the 
best  informed  writers  have  divided  miracles  of  healing  into 
four  distinct  classes  or  periods.  The  first  contains  those 
which  are  related  in  the  New  Testament  and  reaches  to 
about  A.D.  70.  Of  these  there  can  be  no  doubt  among 
Christians.  The  next  period  may  be  of  37  years  and  ends 
about  A.D.  107.  There  is  reason  to  think  that  some 
miracles  were  performed  by  those  who  preached  and 
planted  the  Gospel  in  pagan  countries.  The  third  reaches 
from  A.D.  107  to  the  time  of  Constantine,  and  the  last  is 
from  Constantine  to  when  you  please,  and  abounds  in 
miracles.  From  the  third  century  to  Gregory  the  Great 
(540-604)  there  are  many  scattered  cases  of  healing.  Such 
are  recorded  in  the  fourth  century  by  Athanasius,  Ambrose, 
Chrjsostom  and  Augustine ;  in  the  fifth  by  Hilary  and 
Jerome ;  and  in  the  sixth  by  Gregory  the  Great,  Augustine 
of  Canterbury,  and  Cyril.  During  the  middle  ages  the  use 
of  charms  and  amulets,  idols  and  relics,  and  various 
superstitious  practices  too  numerous  to  mention  were 
widely  accepted  as  articles  of  faith  by  a  large  proportion 
of  the  people.  Even  in  the  present  day  it  is  not  unusual 
to  find  people  who  believe  in  charms.     Only  about  two 

years 


344  ON   TOUCHING   FOR  THE   KING'S   EVIL. 

years  ago  a  patient  came  to  me  from  a  remote  village  on 
the  shores  of  the  Solway  with  some  disfigurement  of  the 
face  which  had  persisted  in  spite  of  a  charm  which  had 
been  used  and  which  was  supposed  to  be  infallible.  We 
frequently  read  of  the  doings  of  people  who  place  their 
reliance  on  most  extraordinary  remedies.  Underlying  all 
these  impostures,  wheher  they  be  ancient  or  modem,  there 
is  generally  to  be  found  an  element  of  faith.  Sometimes 
the  cures  have  been  obtained  by  faith  in  the  personal 
power  of  an  individual,  or  it  may  be  in  the  magnetic 
influence  of  a  man,  and  at  others  we  find  that  they  have 
been  effected  by  faith  in  medical  remedies  or  in  appliances 
wholly  ineffectual  or  inadequate  in  themselves. 

Among  the  inhabitants  of  the  mixed  races  settled  in 
this  country  one  of  the  most  common  and  distressing 
diseases  was  scrofula.  It  was  a  perfect  scourge  in  the 
country,  and  still  continues  to  afflict  large  numbers  in 
our  day.  Its  first  outbreaks  are  seen  generally  in  the 
glands  ;  they  swell,  become  inflamed,  and  the  skin 
ulcerates.  In  mild  cases  the  mischief  is  soon  over,  but 
in  all  its  phases  it  is  lingering  and  it  often  causes  con- 
siderable personal  disfigurement.  One  cannot  therefore 
wonder  that  any  procedure  which  offered  a  reasonable 
prospect  of  success  in  its  treatment  should  obtain  a  great 
hold  on  the  minds  of  the  community.  During  the  middle 
ages  the  most  popular  and  effectual  remedy  was  con- 
sidered to  be  the  Royal  Touch,  and  it  was  sought  for  by 
rich  and  poor  alike,  young  and  old,  beautiful  or  deformed. 
It  is  for  this  reason  that  the  disease  came  to  be  called 
Morbus  Regius,  or  King's  Evil,  a  name  which  it  holds  to 
the  present  day,  and  many  people  know  it  by  no 
other.  It  is  not  quite  certain  at  what  period  the 
practice  of  Touching  for  the  Evil  first  came  into  use  by 
the  Kings  of  England.  Most  writers  seem  agreed  that  the 
first  monarch  who  possessed  the  gift  of  healing  was 
Edward    the  Confessor^  although  but  one  instance  is 

recorded 


ON  TOUCHING   FOR   THE  KING'S   EVIL,  345 

recorded  of  his  using  it,  and  that  by  a  historian  (William 
of  Malmsbury)  who  wrote  his  history  about  80  years  after 
the  king's  death.  The  story  given  by  the  writer  is  that  a 
young  woman,  with  a  painful  swelling  in  her  neck,  was 
directed,  in  a  dream,  to  apply  to  the  King  to  wash  the 
affected  part,  that  the  King  complied  wich  her  request, 
and  that  within  the  space  of  one  week  she  was  perfectly 
cured.     Dean  Stanley*  writes: — 

There  was  a  kind  of  magical  charm  in  his  thin  white  hands  and  his 
long  transparent  fingers,  which  not  unnaturally  led  to  the  belief  that 
there  resided  in  them  a  healing  power  of  stroking  away  the  diseases 
of  his  subjects. 

This  belief  survived  his  death,  and  we  are  further  told 
(p.  132,  Op.  Cit.)  that  beneath  his  shrine 

the  arches  underneath  were  ready  for  the  patients,  who  came  to 
ensconce  themselves  there  for  the  sake  of  receiving  from  the  sacred 
corpse  within  the  deliverance  from  the  *  King's  Evil  *  which  the 
living  sovereign  was  believed  to  communicate  by  his  touch. 

So  far  as  I  can  find,  there  is  no  mention  in  contemporary 
chronicles  that  the  power  of  healing  was  possessed  by 
Edward  the  Confessor,  and  it  is  not  mentioned  among 
his  other  gifts  in  the  Bull  of  Canonization  of  Pope 
Alexander  III.  about  100  years  after  his  death.  Shake- 
speare, however,  describes  him  as  fully  exercising  the 
power.  The  description  is  probably  based  on  what 
occurred  in  Shakespeare's  own  day,  as  he  speaks  of  the 
king  using  prayers  and  giving  gold,  which  was  probably 
not  in  circulation  before  the  time  of  Edward  III.  The 
account  will  be  found  in  Macbeth,  Act  IV.  Scene  III. 

Malcolm  (a  fugitive  from  his  own  kingdom  after  the 
murder  of  his  father,  and  residing  at  the  court  of  Edward 
the  Confessor)  enquires  of  the  doctor : 


*  Historical  Memorials  of  Westminster  Abbey,  2nd  Ed.  p.  13. 

"  Comes 


346  ON   TOUCHING   FOR   THE   KING's   BVlL. 

**  Comes  the  king  forth,  I  pray  you  ? 

Doctor  :  Ay,  sir ;  there  are  a  crew  of  wretched  souls 
That  stay  his  cure ;  their  malady  convinces 
The  great  assay  of  art ;  but  at  his  touch- 
Such  sanctity  hath  heaven  given  his  hand — 
They  presently  amend. 

Malcolm  :  I  thank  you.  Doctor.     (Exit  Doctor). 

Maid  :  What's  the  disease  he  means  ? 

Malcolm  :  Tis  called  the  Evil 

A  most  miraculous  work  in  this  good  king  ; 
Which  often,  since  my  here  remain  in  England, 
I  have  seen  him  do.     How  he  solicits  heaven 
Himself  best  knows:  but  strangely  visited  people 
All  swoln  and  ulcerous,  pitiful  to  the  eye, 
The  mere  despair  of  surgery,  he  cures. 
Hanging  a  golden  stamp  about  their  necks 
Put  on  with  holy  prayers :  and  *tis  spoken 
To  the  succeeding  royalty  he  leaves 
The  healing  benediction.'* 

There  is  no  record  of  the  immediate  successors  of  the 
Confessor  exercising  this  miraculous  gift  of  healing. 
William  the  Conqueror  was  probably  too  much  occupied, 
as  one  historian  *  remarks,  with  killing  those  who  were 
well,  and  the  uproarious  sons  of  the  Conqueror 

affected  no  share  in  the  sacred  mesmerism  of  their  saintly  prede- 
cessor. They  manipulated  the  sword,  the  lance,  and  the  wine  cup — 
occasionally  knocked  healthy  people  at  head,  but  carefully  eschewed 
the  company  of  the  sick. 

Their  scholarly  brother,  Henry,  described  as  the  Ulysses 
of  the  Norman  dynasty,  married  a  saint's  niece  and  a 
saint's  daughter,  who  brought  with  her  something  like  a 
title  to  the  throne.  Saintly  Queen  Maude,  or  Matilda 
the  Atheling,  used  her  best  endeavours  to  ameliorate  the 
"  new  poor  laws  **    of  the  roystering  Norman  usurpers, 


*  Miss  Strickland's  Queens  of  England,  vol.  xi,  p.  105. 

and 


ON   TOUCHING  FOR  THE  KINQ*S    EVIL.  347 

and  chronicles  speak  of  the  washing  and  healing  the 
wounds  and  sores  of  the  poor  by  her,  but  we  can  trace  no 
imposition  of  hands.  Soon  after  this  however  the  practice 
seems  to  have  been  notorious,  and  mention  is  made  of  it  by 
Petrus  Blesensis,  Archdeacon  of  Bath  and  afterwards  of 
London,  chaplain  to  Henry  II.  about  1180.  About  a 
century  later,  in  the  time  of  Edward  I.,  the  healing  power 
of  the  king  was  fully  recognised  and  was  frequently 
exercised  both  in  public  and  in  private.  This  king  is  said 
to  have  healed  182  persons.  As  the  name-child  of  his 
Saxon  ancestor  he  affected  a  good  deal  of  St.  Edward's 
piety,  and  the  reconciliation  between  the  Plantagenet 
kings  and  the  poor  commonalty  was  unquestionably 
s^trengthened  by  the  honours  paid  to  their  beloved  saint. 
From  this  time  onward  the  power  was  claimed  by  succes- 
sive monarchs,  and  formed  an  important  part  of  their 
duties.  The  kings  of  England  from  the  time  of  Edward 
I.  to  Edward  III.  kept  an  alchymist,  Raymond  Lully,  who 
made  gold  for  them  at  the  Tower.  This  fact  is  handed 
down  to  us  in  the  Chaillot  MSS.  where  we  are  told  that 
Raymond  the  alchymist's  Tower  gold  was  the  purest 
angel  gold,  and  the  coins  were  called  angels  because  the 
reverse  side  was  impressed  with  the  figure  of  an  angel. 
On  account  of  its  superior  purity  it  was  used  as  the 
healing  gold,  each  person  touched  receiving  one  coin  from 
the  royal  hands  during  the  ceremony.  In  the  time  of 
Henry  VIII.  all  royal  offices  were  carefully  observed,  and 
in  addition  to  his  observance  of  the  healing  by  touch  he 
insisted  on  his  numerous  queens  performing  a  religious 
office  of  blessing  cramp-rings,  some  of  his  antiquaries 
having  discovered  that  this  privilege  had  been  enjoyed  by 
Queen  Edith,  Consort  of  Edward  the  Confessor.  The 
royal  ceremonies  of  healing  by  touch  and  consecration  of 
cramp-rings  were  duly  recognised  by  the  Tudor  Queens, 
Mary  and  Elizabeth.  It  is  said  that  for  a  time  Queen 
Elizabeth  discontinued  the  practice,  but  there  are  many 

instances 


•348  ON    TOUCHING   FOR   THE   KING*S   EVIL. 

instances  on  record  of  her  having  exercised  the  supposed 
power.  Although  Cromwell  claimed  and  exercised  many 
of  the  royal  functions  he  never  attempted  this.  During 
the  rising  in  the  West  of  England  the  Duke  of  Monmouth, 
claiming  to  be  the  rightful  king,  touched  several  persons, 
and  among  the  accusations  made  against  him  on  his  trial 
at  Edinburgh  for  high  treason  we  find  that  he  was 
charged  with  having  "  touched  children  of  the  King's 
Evil."  Two  witnesses  prove  this  as  having  been  done  at 
Taunton.  *  On  the  accession  of  William  III.  the  healings 
ceased  for  a  time,  the  king  being  persuaded,  as  Rapin 
says  (History  of  England,  vol.  iv.,)  that  the  sick  would 
not  suffer  by  the  omission.  Macaulay  says  of  him  he  had 
too  much  sense  to  be  duped  and  too  much  honesty  to  be^r 
a  part  in  what  he  knew  to  be  an  imposture.  "  It  is  a 
silly  superstition,"  he  exclaimed,  when  he  heard  that  at 
the  close  of  Lent  his  palace  was  besieged  by  a  crowd  of 
the  sick,  "  Give  the  poor  creatures  some  money  and  send 
them  away."  On  one  solitary  occasion  he  was  importuned 
into  laying  his  hand  upon  a  patient  and  he  said,  *^  God 
give  you  better  health  and  more  sense."  The  last  English 
monarch  to  touch  was  Queen  Anne,  in  whose  reign  the 
ritual  of  the  Royal  Healing  Service  was  first  added  to  the 
Book  of  Common  Prayer,  just  after  the  Thanksgiving  for 
her  accession.  Her  adoption  of  the  practice  gave  great 
offence  to  the  Jacobites,  and  it  is  said  she  was  urged 
thereto  by  the  success  of  her  brother's  healing  establish- 
ment at  St.  Germains,  where  vast  numbers  of  diseased 
persons  went  to  seek  the  touch  of  the  disinherited  heir  to 
the  throne.  His  success  was  much  greater  than  hers,  and 
has  been  described  as  marvellous,  but  we  must  not  forget 
that  his  patients  had  the  advantage  of  a  sea  voyage, 
change  of  air,  and  change  of  food.     Among  the  latest,  if 


•  Howell's  State  Trials,  vol.  xi. 

not 


ON   TOUCHING   FOR  THE   KINO'S    EVIL.  349 

not  the  last,  for  whom  the  royal  touch  was  used  may  be 
mentioned  the  celebrated  Dr.  Johnson,  and  in  Boswell's 
Life  of  Johnson  (London,  1824,  vol.  i,  pp.  17-18,)  we  find 
a  full  account  of  the  case. 

Young  Johnson  had  the  misfortune  to  be  much  affected  with  the 
scrofula,  or  King's  Evil,  which  disfigured  a  countenance  naturally 
well  formed,  and  hurt  his  visual  nerves  so  much  that  he  did  not  see 
at  all  with  one  of  his  eyes,  though  its  appearance  was  little  different 
from  that  of  the  other.  His  mother,  yielding  to  the  superstitious 
notion  which,  it  is  wonderful  to  think,  prevailed  so  long  in  this  country, 
as  to  the  virtue  of  the  royal  touch, — a  notion  which  our  kings 
encouraged,  and  a  man  of  such  enquiry  and  such  judgment  as  Carte 
could  give  credit, — carried  him  to  London,  where  he  was  actually 
touched  by  Queen  Anne.  Mrs.  Johnson,  indeed,  as  Mr.  Hector  in- 
formed me,  asked  the  advice  of  the  celebrated  Sir  John  Floyer,  then  a 
physician  at  Lichfield.  Johnson  used  to  talk  of  this  very  frankly,  and 
Mrs.  Piozzi  has  preserved  his  very  picturesque  description  of  the 
scene  as  it  remained  upon  his  fancy.  Being  asked  if  he  could  remember 
Queen  Anne, — *  he  had '  (he  said)  *a  confused  but  somehow  a  sort  of 
solemn  recollection  of  a  lady  in  diamonds  and  a  long  black  hood.* 

This  touch,  however,  was  without  any  effect.  On  the  same 
day  200  persons  were  presented  at  the  Healing  Service. 
Soon  after  the  accession  of  George  L  an  English  gentleman 
applied  to  the  king  on  behalf  of  his  son,  and  was  referred 
to  the  Pretender.  The  gentleman  acted  upon  the  hint, 
took  his  son  to  the  Continent,  got  him  touched,  and  the 
lad  got  well.  By  this  means  the  King  lost  a  good  subject 
and  the  Pretender  gained  a  new  adherent.*  We  are 
further  told  that  the  Pretender  used  to  exercise  his  gift 
in  the  Paris  hospitals  and  his  son,  Charles  Edward,  once 
touched  a  child  in  Edinburgh  in  1745.  He  was  unwilling 
at  first  to  listen  to  the  entreaties  of  the  mother,  but  at  last 
he  allowed  the  child  to  be  brought  to  him.  A  circle  was 
formed  by  his  attendants,  the  child   was  introduced,  a 


•  Chambers'  History  of  the  Rebellion,  1S27,  vol.  i,  p.  183. 

clergyman 


350  ON   TOUCHING  FOR   TtflE   KINO'S   EVIL. 

clergyman  offered  up  an  appropriate  prayer,  the  Prince 

approached  the  kneeling  girl  and  on  touching  the  diseased 
parts  pronounced  with  great  solemnity  the  words,  "I 
touch,  God  heal."  In  twenty-one  days  the  child  was 
completely  healed. 

The  numbers  touched  in  some  reigns  were  enormous, 
and  afford  a  good  idea  of  the  prevalence  of  the  disease.  In 
some  years  many  thousands  of  persons  received  the  royal 
touch.  In  the  time  of  Charles  II.  a  register  of  cases  was 
kept  by  the  Serjeant  of  the  Chapel  Royal,  and  afterwards 
by  the  Keeper  of  the  Closet.  Upon  the  Restoration  public 
healings  were  held  three  times  a  week  till  September, 
1664,  when  the  Court  upon  the  approach  of  the  plague 
removed  from  London.  They  were  resumed  however  in 
1667,  and  it  appears  from  this  register  that  the  total 
number  touched  by  Charles  11.  amounted  to  90,798.  The 
greatest  number  touched  in  one  year  was  in  1682  when 
8,447  were  registered.  The  cost  in  money  alone  which 
these  healings  caused  must  have  been  considerable.  In 
the  time  of  Henry  VIII.  the  angel,  the  name  given  to  the 
coin  which  each  person  received,  was  of  the  value  of  seven 
shillings  and  sixpence.  In  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth  it 
was  ten  shillings.  In  1663  the  annual  charge  for  touch 
pieces  was  at  least  £3,000.  The  substitution  of  silver 
touch  pieces  by  James  II.  rendered  the  ceremony  less 
expensive.  The  Rev.  James  Wilson  has  called  my  atten- 
tion to  some  Mint  papers  published  from  the  MSS.  of  Sir 
Reginald  Graham  by  the  Historical  MSS.  Commission:  6th 
Report,  part  I.,  p.  333,  and  dealing  with  the  period  1664- 
1677.  Details  are  given  of  a  project  for  increasing  the 
revenue  by  debasing  the  metal  from  which  "  Healing 
Medals"  were  made. 

Besides  the  number  of  them  spent  one  year  with  another  being 
about  5,600,  which  amounts  unto  but  ;£'2,5oo,  there  would  not  be 
9aved  by  such  alteration  more  than  about  ;^i,ooo  yearly. 

There 


TOUCH-PIECES,  STRUCK  FOR  DISTRIBUTION  AT  THE  HEALINGS. 


ChATles  II.    (Gold.) 


(Odd.) 


(8a«tr.) 


James    II. 


Anne.    (Gold.) 


The  Pretender,  as  James  III. 
.       (BUtct.) 


The  Cardinal  of  York,  aa  Henry  IX. 


From  the  Originals  in  the  possession  of  Edward  Hawkins.  Esq..  F.8.A. 
Beprodueed  by  permUtion  from  the  ArehcBohgical  Journal^  VoL  X. 


\ 


ON   TOUCHING   FOR   THE   KING  S  EVIL.  35I 

There  is  another  entry  in  the  same  MSS. : 

1675  March  20.  ;f92  4  8  for  200  Healing  Pieces  weighing  22  oz. 
II  dwt.  18  gr. 

It  appears  that 

the  former  gold  made  for  healing  was  a  lo/-  piece  of  current  money 
made  of  fine  gold,  which,  after  his  Majesy's  raising  the  value  of  the 
gold  coins,  became  worth  11/6. 

In  the  time  of  Henry  VII.  the  angel  noble  was  the 
smallest  gold  coin  in  circulation,  and  it  was  in  this  rei^n 
the  ritual  service  was  first  instituted.  The  touch  piece  had 
on  one  side  the  angel  Michael  overcoming  the  dragon  and 
on  the  other  a  ship  on  the  waves.  The  coins  of  the  period 
generally  bore  some  religious  inscription,  and  the  angel 

had  PER  CRUCEM  TUAM,  SALVA  NOS,  CHRISTUS  REDEMPTOR. 

Queen  Mary's  and  Queen  Elizabeth's  angels  bore  a  domino 

FACTUM    EST    ISTUD,    ET    EST    MIRABILE,      The    angels    of 

James  I.  and  Charles  I.  are  smaller.  James  I.  have  a 
DOMINO  FACTUM  EST  ISTUD.  Charles  I.  have  amor  populi 
PRESIDIUM  REGIS.  During  his  troubles  he  had  not 
always  gold  to  bestow  and  he  substituted  silver,  and  indeed 
often  touched  without  giving  anything.  Duiing  the  resi- 
dence of  Charles  II.  abroad  the  patients  who  came  to  be 
touched  brought  their  own  gold.  After  the  Restoration 
the  touch  pieces  were  of  less  pure  gold.  They  bear  round 
the  angel  a  still  shorter  legend,  soli  dbo  gloria,  which  is 
continued  on  the  touch  pieces  of  succeeding  reigns.  There 
are  none  of  William  III.  or  Queen  Mary.  The  Pretender 
as  James  III.  had  two,  both  of  silver,  one  of  better  work- 
manship and  probably  Italian.  Those  of  Charles  Edward 
are  very  rare.  Several  touch  tokens  were  exhibited  in  the 
Stuart  Exhibition,  one  being  a  copper  one,  eight-tenths  of 
an  inch  in  diameter.  Obv :  An  open  hand  issuing  from 
the  clouds  touching  one  of  a  group  of  four  bearded  heads. 

HE 


352  ON   TOUCHING   FOR   THE   KING  S    EVIL. 

HE  TOUCHED  THEM.  Rev :  Crown,  beneath  it  rose  and 
thistle  entwined,  and  they  were  healed.  The  medal 
is  not  perforated.  I  am  doubtful  if  this  kind  of  token  was 
used  at  the  healing  services.  See  Notes  and  Queries^  7th 
S.  vii,  '89,  p.  84.  Recently  I  visited  the  coin  department 
in  the  British  Museum  and  examined  the  Touch  pieces. 
They  have  one  of  Charles  II.  in  gold,  of  James  II.  one  in 
gold  and  one  in  silver,  one  of  James  III.  in  gold,  and  one 
of  Anne  in  gold,  said  to  have  been  the  one  which  belonged 
to  Dr.  Johnson.  In  the  collection  of  Mr.  Hawkins, 
F.S.A.,  there  is  one  of  the  Cardinal  of  York  as  Henry  IX., 
but  it  is  doubtful  if  he  ever  exercised  or  even  claimed  the 
power  of  healin;;.  Through  the  courtesy  of  the  Council 
of  the  Royal  Archaeological  Institute  I  have  been  per- 
mitted to  reproduce  the  illustration  of  the  touch  tokens 
in  this  gentleman's  possession  which  appeared  in  vol.  x. 
of  the  Archaeological  Journal.  I  am  not  aware  of  the 
existence  of  any  touch  pieces  in  Cumberland  or  Westmor- 
land, but  I  think  it  probable  that  some  may  exist  in 
private  collections.  With  the  aid  of  the  illustration  and 
of  the  full  description  of  the  pieces  given  above  I  am  in 
hopes  that  hitherto  unrecognised  tokens  may  be  identified, 
and  if  such  should  be  the  case,  I  hope  that  they  may  find 
a  resting  place  in  Tullie  House,  Carlisle,  where  I  am  sure 
they  would  find  a  welcome  from  its  honorary  curator, 
Chancellor  Ferguson.  There  are  several  cases  of  local 
interest  in  which  the  royal  touch  has  been  obtained  for 
residents  in  Cumberland  or  Westmorland,  and  this  makes 
me  think  it  possible  that  some  unrecognised  tokens  may 
exist  in  private  collections.  Among  the  lists  of  collections 
for  briefs  in  the  Registers  of  Crosthwaite  Church,  near 
Kendal,  Mr.  Wilson,  our  invaluable  and  energetic  secre- 
tary, informs  me  that  the  following  entries  occur. 

1629,  14  Feby.  Given  to  John  Rig  of  Staveley  who  hath  the 
King's  Evil  to  go  vp  to  be  cured  thereof  i/-. 

Given 


f 


ON    TOUCHING   FOR   THE   KING*S   EVIL.  353 

Given  to  Nathaniel  Glover  of  Kirkland  towards  ye  carryin^^  vp  of 
two  children  to  London  q^  Eod.  die. 

II  April  1629.  Given  to  Geo.  Sigswick  towards  the  carrying  vp  of 
his  two  sonnes   iii^   5^. 

In  the  Calendar  of  State  Papers  (Domestic)  of  Charles  II. 
there  is  an  entry  at  p.  447  to  which  my  attention  was 
called  by  the  Rev.  James  Wilson,  of  Dalston.  It  is  as 
follows  : 

Sep.  6,  1667. 

Cockcrmouth.  83.  John  Lamplugh,  George  Lamplugh,  rector  of 
Lamplugh,  George  Williamson  and  Pickering  Hewer,  to  William- 
son. Desire  him  to  procure  His  Majesty's  touch  to  John  Dixon, 
a  neighbour  and  parishioner,  who  is  troubled  with  the  Evil. 

Sir  Joseph  Williamson  was  Secretary  of  State,  and  a 
native  of  Bridekirk,  near  Cockermouth.  In  Hutchinson's 
History  of  Cumberland  (vol.  ii,  p.  244,)  there  is  a  short 
notice  of  his  life.  We  are  told  that  he  was  particularly 
attentive  and  friendly  to  his  countrymen,  and  we  can 
readily  imagine  that  he  would  lend  a  willing  ear  to  the 
petition  of  the  rector  and  two  justices  of  a  parish  near  to 
that  from  which  he  had  himself  sprung. 

There  is  a  notice  in  the  Grasmere  parish  register  refer- 
ring to  the  subject.  My  attention  was  called  to  it  by  Mr. 
George  Browne,  of  Troutbeck,  Windermere,  and  through 
the  kindness  of  the  present  rector,  the  Rev.  W.  Jennings, 
I  am  able  to  give  it  as  follows  : 

Wee  the  Rector  &  Churchwardens  of  the  Parish  of  Grasmeere  in  the 
County  of  Westmorland  do  hereby  certify  that  David  Harrison  of  the 
s<*  Parish  aged  about  [fourteen  years,  is  afflicted  as  wee  are  credibly 
informed  with  the  disease  comonly  the  King's  Evill ;  &  (to  the  best 
of  o^  knowledge)  hath  not  heretofore  been  touched  by  His  Majesty 
for  y*  sd  Decease. 

In  Testimony  whereof  wee  have  hereunto  set  o^  hands  &  seals  the 
ifourth  day  of  ffeb :  Ano  Doi  1684. 

Henry  ffleming,  Rector. 

John  Benson,  )      ^. 

Jo».  Mallinson,       j     Churchwardens. 
Registered  by  John  Brathwaite,  Curate. 

There 


354  <>N  TOUCHING   FOR  THE  KING's  EVIL, 

There  is  a  memorandum  on  a  fly-leaf  of  the  Penrith  parish 
registers  in  the  handwriting  of  the  Rev.  John  Child,  vicar, 
as  follows : 


Memorandum  that  I  certified  for  Isaac  Threlkeld  to  get  the  King's 
touch  under  my  hand  and  seal  the  25  Aprill  Anno  Regis  Jacobi 
Secundi  Tertio,  Anno  que  Domt  1687. 

Mr.  Whitehead,  whose  knowledge  of  parish  registers  no 
one  in  this  Society  can  doubt,  and  to  whom  I  am  indebted 
for  the  above  extract,  informs  me  that  it  is  the  only  entry 
of  its  kind  in  a  Cumberland  parish  register  known  to  him. 
Mr.  Child  was  vicar  of  Penrith  from  1670  to  1694,  and 
Mr.  Watson  in  his  paper  on  "Notabilities  of  Old  Penrith" 
in  the  Transactions  of  the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland 
Association  for  the  advancement  of  Literature  and  Science, 
No.  xvi,  p.  67,  tells  us  that  Mr.  Child  greatly  improved 
the  form  of  registration,  and  that  he  was  a  man  of /great 
exactness  and  neatness  in  the  keeping  of  the  registers.  To 
this  love  of  exactness  we  are  probably  indebted  for  the 
notice  quoted  above.  It  is  fair  to  assume  that  there  were 
other  cases  from  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  but  those 
above-mentioned  are  the  only  ones  of  which  I  can  find  any 
trace.  The  records  of  the  Corporation  of  Preston  contain 
two  votes  of  money  to  enable  persons  to  go  from  Preston 
to  be  touched  for  the  Evil.  Both  are  in  the  reign  of  James 
II.  There  are  no  traces  in  our  local  municipal  records  of 
such  payments. 

In  order  to  obtain  the  Royal  Touch  it  was  at  one  time 
necessary  to  obtain  the  intercession  of  some  of  the  king's 
nobles.  Certain  days  were  appointed  by  proclamation  for 
a  "  Public  Healing,"  and  officers  were  appointed  to  make 
selection  of  suitable  candidates.  In  course  of  time  cer- 
tificates were  needed,  signed  by  the  vicar  and  church- 
wardens of  the  parish  to  which  the  patient  belonged  that 
he  had  never  been  touched  before.  This  was  rendered  the 

more 


ON   TOUCHING  FOR   THE   KING'S  EVIL.  355 

more  necessary  as  patients  were  thought  to  apply  a  second 
time  more  for  the  sake  of  the  gold  than  with  the  hope  of 
obtaining  relief  of  their  sufferings,  and  by  a  proclamation 
ministers  and  churchwardens  were  enjoined 

to  be  very  careful  to  examine  into  the  truth  before  they  give  such 
certificates  and  also  to  keep  a  register  of  all  certificates  they  shall 
from  time  to  time  give* 

This  accounts  for  some  of  the  notices  given  from  local 
parish  registers.  The  faith  in  the  healing  power  of  the 
Royal  Touch  was  general  in  all  classes,  and  especially 
among  the  physicians  and  surgeons  of  the  day, — men  not 
very  ready  in  admitting  that  cures  may  be  effected  without 
making  use  of  the  remedies  which  they  themselves  pre- 
scribe. Gilbertus  Anglicus,  a  physician  of  the  time  of 
Henry  III.  and  Edward  I.,  alludes  to  the  exercise  of  the 
power,  and  says  scrofula  is  called  King's  Evil  because  the 
kings  have  power  to  cure  it.  John  of  Gadsden,  physician 
to  Edward  II.,  advises  recourse  to  the  Royal  Touch  in 
desperate  cases.  Dean  Tooker,  one  of  Queen  Elizabeth's 
chaplains,  testifies  that  many  wretched  sufferers  were 
restored  to  health  by  the  Queen's  touch,  aided  by  the 
prayers  of  the  whole  church.  Clowes,  surgeon  to  St. 
Bartholomew's  and  Christ's  Hospitals,  and  surgeon  to 
Queen  Elizabeth,  in  writing  of  scrofulous  ulcers,  says 

These  kinds  do  rather  presage  a  divine  and  holy  curation,  which  is 
most  admirable  to  the  world,  that  I  have  seen  and  known  performed 
and  done  by  the  sacred  and  blessed  hands  of  the  Queen's  Most  Royal 
Majesty. 

Wiseman,  chief  surgeon  to  the  army  of  Charles  I.  and 
afterwards  surgeon  to  Charles  II.  writes  : 

I  myself  have  been  a  frequent  eye  witness  of  many  hundreds  of 
cures  performed  by  his  Majesty*s  touch  alone,  without  any  assistance 
of  chirurgery,  and  not  only  from  the  several  parts  of  this  nation, 
but  also  from  Ireland,  Scotland,  Jersey  and  Qarnsey. 

Dean 


356  ON   TOUCHING  FOR  THE   KING'S   EVIL. 

Dean  Swift,  writing  in  171 1  of  a  visit  to  the  Duchess  of 
Onnondy  says : 

I  spoke  to  her  to  get  a  lad  touched  for  the  eviU  the  son  of  a  grocer 
in  Capel  St,  one  Bell — ^the  ladies  have  bought  sugar  and  plums  of 
him. 

These  quotations  are  sufficient  to  show  the  opinions  of 
eminent  physicians  and  ecclesiastics,  and  could  readily 
be  multiplied. 

There  were  both  public  and  private  Healings.  At  the 
latter  the  number  touched  was  only  small.  The  cure  of 
the  patient  did  not  always  follow  upon  the  Healing;  it 
advanced  by  degrees  and  often  required  a  considerable 
time  to  be  completed.  In  many  instances  it  failed  alto- 
gether. The  numbers  flocking  to  the  Court  rendered 
frequent  Healings  necessary,  and  the  time  and  place 
varied  with  different  monarchs.  In  1683  a  proclamation 
was  ordered  to  be  published  in  every  parish  in  the  king- 
dom enjoining  that  the  time  for  presenting  persons  for  the 
"Public  Healing"  should  be  from  the  Feast  of  AH 
Saints  till  a  week  before  Christmas,  and  after  Christmas 
till  the  first  day  in  March,  and  then  to  cease  till  Passion 
Week.  The  Healings  were  held  wherever  the  Court 
happened  to  be.  If  in  London  they  were  held  at  White- 
hall, and  we  have  record  of  them  at  Langley  by  Henry 
VIIL,  at  Kenilworth  by  Queen  Elizabeth,  at  Newmarket 
by  Charles  II.,  and  at  Bath  by  James  IL* 

The  following  extract  from  Bishop  (then  Archdeacon) 


*  In  the  London  Gazette  for  Mav  6,  1667,  there  appears  an  advertisement 
which  Mr.  Cranston,  of  the  Carlisle  Patriot  Office,  inrorms  me  is  one  of  the 
earliest  known  advertisements.  It  is  repeated  in  several  subsequent  Gazettes  and 
is  as  follows : 

AN  ADVERTISEMENT. 

We  are,  by  his  Majesty's  command,  to  give  notice  that,  by  reason  of  the  great 
heats  which  are  growing  on,  there  will  be  no  further  touching  Jor  the  evil  until 
Michaelmas  nex^  and  accordingly  all  persons  concerned  are  to  forbear  their 
addresses  till  that  time. 

Nicolson*s 


ON  TOUCHING  POR  THE  KING^S  EVIL.  357 

Nicolson's  Journal,  for  which  I  am  indebted  to  Chancellor 
Ferguson,  will  be  of  interest  as  referring  to  the  service : 

July  14,  1684. 

In  ye  morning  King's"^  musick  at  ye  bed  chamber,  as  usuall  on 

Mundays.     Touching  for  ye   Evill  in  ye  guard  chamber.}     Dr. 

Montague  held  ye  gold.    Water  brought  to  ye  King  by  the  Vice 

Chamberlain. 

It  does  not  appear  that  there  was  any  regular  form  of 
religious  service  used  before  the  lime  of  Henry  VI L  and 
the  new  ritual  introduced  by  that  monarch  was  in  Latin, 
the  rubric  being  in  English.  It  was  taken  from  two 
forms  in  use  in  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  "The 
Blessing  for  Sore  Eyes  "  and  the  "  Exorcismus  Adversus 
Spirit  us  Immundos.*'  The  Rev.  W.  Sparrow  Simpson, 
F.S.A.,  has  collected  a  series  of  services  used  "  at  the 
Healing  "  by  different  monarchs.  It  is  published  in  the 
British  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  xxvii,  1871.  In  it  a 
copy  is  given  of  the  office  used  by  Queen  Mary.  In  this 
reign  when  the  sick  were  presented  the  sore  on  the 
patient's  neck  was  crossed  with  an  angel  noble,  which 
was  then  hanged  about  the  neck  to  be  worn  (in  the  words 
of  the  rubric)  till  they  were  "  full  hoole."  The  use  of 
the  sign  of  the  Cross  in  giving  the  gold  gave  rise  to  some 
jealousies,  as  if  some  mysterious  operation  were  imputed 
to  it.  James  I.  discontinued  the  use  of  the  Cross,  but  it 
was  revived  by  James  II.  In  the  time  of  Charles  I.  the 
office  was  first  published  in  English,  and  in  the  time  of 
Queen  Anne  the  service  was  materially  shortened.  The 
following  is  a  list  of  the  services  used  **  At  the  Healing." 

In  1686  a  small  volume  was  published  which  purports 
to  contain  the  office  used  by  Henry  VII.  (See  below  James 

II.) 


•  Charia  II. 
t  At  Windsor. 

There 


358  ON   TOUCHING   FOR  THB    KING's  EVIL. 

There  is  no  copy,  written  or  printed,  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  VIII.  of  the  "  Prayers  at  the  Heahng,"  but  the 
copy  used  by  Queen  Mary  is  probably  a  copy  of  the  one 
used  by  this  monarch  as  it  does  not  modify  the  rubrics, 
and  the  word  ''  King  "  appears  in  all  the  rubrics. 

There  is  no  copy  of  the  reign  of  Edward  VI. 

The  copy  used  by  Queen  Mary  was  in  the  possession 
of  Cardinal  Manning.  On  the  fly-leaf,  in  the  handwriting 
of  Cardinal  Wiseman,  is  written 

Queen  Mary*8  Manual  for  blessing  cramp-rings  and  Touching  for 
the  Evil. 

Queen  Elizabeth's  differs  from  Queen  Mary's  in  the 
versicles  and  responses. 

Charles  I.  The  same  as  Queen  Elizabeth's,  but  with 
more  extended  rubrics. 

Charles  II.  The  service  **  At  the  Healing  "  is  con- 
tained in  a  volume  published  at  the  Hague,  MDCL. 

James  II.  In  1686  Henry  Hills,  printer  to  the  King's 
Most  Excellent  Majesty,  for  his  household  and  chappel, 
published  two  volumes. 

The  Ceremonies  for  the  Healing  of  them  that  be  diseased  with  the 
King's  Evil,  used  in  the  time  of  King  Henry  VII.  Published  by  His 
Majesty's  command. 

Four  copies  of  this  are  known,  one  being  in  the  British 
Museum  and  another  in  the  Lambeth  Palace  Library. 

The  second  volume  contains  the  same  office,  but  in  it 
the  rubrics  are  still  in  English,  the  Prayers  and  Gospels 
in  Latin.  There  are  two  copies  in  the  British  Museum, 
one  of  which  belonged  to  Georgt  III.  and  has  a  picture 
representing  the  ceremony. 

Queen  Anne.  The  copies  of  Queen  Anne's  ritual  are 
five  in  number : 

I.    4to.  London,  1707.    By  Charles  Bill  and  the  Executor  of  Thomas 
Newcomb  deceased.    The  office  is  immediately  after  the  acces- 
sion 


ON  TOUCHING   FOR  THE   KING's   EVIL.  359 

sion  service.     Lathbury  says  the  service  first  appeared  in  1709, 
but  this  is  two  years  earlier. 

2.  4to.  London,  1708.     Bound  up  at  the  end  of  a  Bible  printed  in 

1708  by  Charles  Bill  and  the  Executor  of  Thomas  Newcomb 
deceas*d, 

3.  4to.  London,  1709.  Printed  by  Charles  Bill  and  the  Executor  of 
Thomas  Newcomb,  deceased,  Printers  to  the  Queen's  Most 
Excellent  Majesty.  This  volume  is  illustrated.  (British  Museum). 

4.  8vo.  London,  1709.  With  the  same  imprint,  and  also  in  British 
Museum.  Another  copy  is  said  to  be  annexed  to  the  Prayer 
Book  printed  at  Oxford  University  Press  in  17 12. 

5.  8vo.  London,  1713.     Liturgia  seu  Liber  precum  Communium. 

George  I.  In  four  editions  of  the  Prayer  Book  published 
in  the  reign  of  George  I.  the  office  is  found  : 

1.  Folio.  Oxford,  17 15.  Printed  by  John  Baskett,  printer  to  the 
King's  Most  Excellent  Majesty  and  to  the  University. 

2.  4to.   Oxford,  1721.    With  the  same  imprint. 

3.  Folio.    Oxford,  1721.     Printed  by  John   Baskett,  printer  to  the 

University. 

4.  8vo.    London,  1727.     Liturgia  seu  Liber  precum  Communium. 

5.  A  reprint  of  the  English  version  is  in  the  appendix  to  the  edition 
of  L'Estrange's  Alliance  of  Divine  Offices. 

George  11.  In  a  Latin  Prayer  Book  published  in  1744 
the  "  Forma  Strumosos  Attrectandi  "  appears. 

No  one  has  been  able  to  discover  any  authority  for  in- 
cluding the  ojffice  in  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer.  There 
are  some  local  copies  in  existence,  and  some  time  ago 
Canon  Matthews  lent  me  one  bearing  the  date  of  1709, 
similar  to  the  one  in  the  British  Museum. 

A  short  description  of  the  service,  as  used  by  Charles 
II.,  will  probably  be  of  interest.  The  certificates  were 
first  of  all  examined  by  the  surgeon  and  countersigned  by 
him.  The  Clerk  of  the  Closet,  generally  one  of  the 
bishops,  had  charge  of  the  gold  distributed  at  the  Healings. 
Under  him  was  a  Closet  Keeper,  who  kept  the  register. 
He  received  the  gold  from  the  Exchequer  and  attended 

.  the 


360  ON  TOUCHING  FOR  THE  RING^S  EVIL- 

the  Healings  with  the  gold  ready  strung  on  his  arm,  and 
presented  it  to  the  Clerk  of  the  Closet.  On  the  day 
appointed,  usually  a  Sunday  or  some  other  festival,  the 
time  generally  after  morning  prayer,  the  sick  people  are 
placed  in  order  by  the  chief  officer  of  the  Yeomen  of  the 
Guard.  The  King  enters  and  is  surrounded  by  his  nobles 
and  many  other  spectators.  One  of  his  chaplains  then 
begins  to  read  the  Gospel,  taken  from  St.  Mark,  xvi,  14, 
the  Gospel  for  Ascension  Day.  At  the  i8th  v. :  "  They 
shall  lay  their  hands  on  the  sick  and  they  shall  recover," 
the  surgeons  in  waiting,  after  making  their  obeisances, 
bring  up  the  sick  in  order.  The  chief  surgeon  delivers 
them  one  by  one  on  their  knees  to  the  King,  and  as 
Evelyn,  a  spectator  of  the  proceedings  on  one  occasion, 
says  : 

The  king  strokes  their  faces,  or  cheeks  with  both  his  hands  at  once. 
Another  surgeon  then  takes  charge  of  the  patients  to  be  brought  up 
afterwards  to  receive  the  gold.  The  words  of  the  18  v.  are  repeated 
by  the  chaplain  between  every  healing,  till  all  the  sick  are  touched, 
which  being  done  the  Gospel  is  continued  to  the  end  of  the  chapter. 
The  second  Gospel  is  then  begun  and  is  taken  from  St.  John,  I.  i. 
After  the  eighth  verse,  the  surgeons,  making  their  obeisance  as  before, 
bring  up  the  sick  in  their  order,  the  Clerk  of  the  Closet  then  on  his 
knees  delivers  to  the  King  the  gold  strung  on  white  silk  ribbon  and 
the  King  puts  it  about  their  necks  as  the  chaplain  reads  the  9th 
v :  **  That  was  the  true  light,  which  lighteth  every  man  which  cometh 
into  the  world,**  which  he  repeats  as  each  one  receives  his  gold.  The 
Gospel  is  then  continued,  ending  with  the  14th  verse.  This  being 
finished,  the  chaplain,  with  the  rest  of  the  people  on  their  knees  pro- 
nounce the  following  prayers : 

Vers.  Lord,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Resp.  Lord,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Vers,  Christ,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Resp.  Christ,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Vers.  Lord,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Resp.  Lord,  have  mercy  upon  us. 

Then  the  Chaplain  reads  the  Lord's  Prayer,  after  which  these 
versicles,  the  responses  being  made  by  those  who  come  to  be 
healed.  Vers. 


ON   TOUCHING   FOR  THE   KING'S   EVIL.  361 

Vers.  O  Lord,  save  thy  servants. 

Resp.  Which  put  their  trust  in  thee. 

Vers.  Send  help  unto  them  from  above. 

Resp.  And  Evermore  mightily  defend  them. 

Vers.  Help  us,  O  God,  our  Saviour. 

Resp.  And  for  the  Glory  of  thy  Name  deliver  us  and  be 

merciful  to  us  sinners  for  thy  Name's  sake. 

Vers.  O  Lord  hear  our  Prayers. 

Resp.  And  let  our  cry  come  unto  thee. 

The  Chaplain  then  reads  the  following  prayer :  "  O  Almighty  God, 
who  are  the  giver  of  all  health,  and  the  aid  of  them  that  seek  to  Thee 
for  succour,  we  call  upon  Thee  for  thy  help  and  goodness,  mercifully 
to  be  showed  to  these  thy  servants,  that  they  being  healed  of  their 
infirmities,  may  give  thanks  to  Thee  in  thy  Holy- Church,  through 
Jesus  Christ  Our  Lord.    Amen.'* 

The  "Gratia  Domini"  concludes  the  service.  After  the  service, 
the  Lord  Chamberlain  and  two  other  nobles,  having  brought  up  the 
linen,  with  a  basin  and  ewer  to  wash  the  King's  hands,  he  takes 
leave  of  the  people  and  they  joyfully  and  thankfully  every  one  return 
home,  praising  God  and  their  good  King. 

The  Kings  of  France  also  claimed  the  right  to  dispense 
the  gift  of  healing.  Laurentius,  first  physician  to  Henry 
IV.,  who  is  indignant  at  the  attempt  to  derive  its  origin 
from  Edward  the  Confessor,  asserts  the  power  to  have 
commenced  with  Clovis  L,  the  first  Christian  king,  and 
other  writers  also  declare  that  this  monarch  exercised  the 
power  by  gift  from  heaven.  Fuller,  in  his  Church  History, 
1-227,  says : 

The  Kings  of  France  share  also  with  those  of  England  in  this 
miraculous  cure. 

In  a  MSS.  in  the  Cambridge  University  Library  is  this 
memorandum : 

The  Kings  of  England  and  France  by  a  peculiar  guift  cure  the 
King's  Evil  by  touching  them  with  their  handes  and  so  doth  the 
seventh  sonne. 

There 


362  ON   TOUCHING    FOR   THE    KING'S   EVIL. 

There  is  some  evidence  to  show  that  the  practice  of  the 
touch  was  in  use  in  the  time  of  Philip  I.  of  France,  and  it 
continued  until  1776.  On  his  coronation  in  1775  Louis 
XVI.  touched  2,400  individuals.  He  touched  each  one  by 
making  a  cross  on  the  face  and  saying  ''  Le  roi  te  touche, 
Dieu  te  guerisse/'  the  King  touches  thee,  may  God  cure 
thee.* 

In  such  widely  separated  districts  as  Cornwall  and  the 
North-West  Highlands  of  Scotland  the  belief  still  lingers 
that  the  touch  of  the  seventh  son  can  cure  scrofula.  Sir 
Arthur  Mitchell,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  Scottish 
Society  of  Antiquaries  in  i860,  says  he  has  seen  more 
than  one  poor  idiot  with  strumous  complications,  for 
whom  this  magic  touch  had  been  obtained.  A  Lewis 
gentleman  to  whom  he  referred  says  it  is  customary  in 
Lewis  for  the  seventh  son  to  give  the  patient  a  sixpenny 
piece  with  a  hole  in  it,  through  which  a  string  is  passed. 
This  the  patient  wears  constantly  round  his  neck.  In  the 
event  of  its  being  removed  or  lost  the  malady  breaks  out 
again.  Adults  have  been  known  to  resort  to  a  seventh  son 
of  not  more  than  two  years  of  age.  A  person  caught  hold 
of  the  bairn's  wrist  and  applied  his  little  hand  to  the 
patient's  sore.  Sir  Arthur  Mitchell  considers  that  the 
custom  probably  owes  its  origin  to  the  story  of  the  seven 
sons  of  Sceva,  the  Jew  (Acts,  xix,  13).  It  is  true  that  all 
the  seven  sons  claimed  the  power  of  casting  out  evil 
spirits,  and  possibly  this  claim  may  have  rested  upon  the 


*  The  King^  of  Eng-land,  France,  Jerusalem  and  Sicily  were  sacred  at 
their  coronations,  and  so  were  possessed  of  a  clerical  character.  See  The 
Sacring  of  the  English  Kings,  by  J.  Wickham  Legg,  F.S.A.,  Archaologieal 
Journal,  vol.  51,  p.  2c)-32.  Notwithstanding-  the  clerical  character  of  the  King 
of  Eng^Iand  in  the  middle  ages,  yet  no  priest-like  functions  seem  to  have  been 
assigned  to  him  :  no  ministering  either  of  God's  Word  or  of  the  Sacraments. 
The  nearest  approach  to  such  functions  seems  to  have  been  the  touching  for  the 
king's  evil,  and  the  blessing  of  cramp  rings  on  Good  Friday.  See  W.  Maskell, 
Monumenta  Ritualia  Ecclesia  Anglicana,  London,  1847,  vol.  iii,  pp.  310-340 : 
cited  in  Archaeological  Journal,  ut  supra.  One  would  thus  expect  to  nnd  all 
these  four  kings  touching  for  the  king's  evil.  At  a  later  time  by  special  papal 
dispensation  the  King  of  Scotland  was  also  sacred. — Editor. 

fact 


ON   TOUCHING   FOR   THE   KING'S    EVIL,  363 

fact  that  there  were  seven,  which  is  the  chief  mystical 
number  in  the  East.  It  is  easy  to  understand  that  the 
gift  which  the  seven  claimed  eventually  came  to  be 
regarded  as  the  possession  of  the  seventh  alone.  The 
gift  does  not  appear  until  the  seventh  is  born.  He  brings 
it.  It  seems  likely  then  that  with  an  ignorant  people  they 
would  soon  acknowledge  that  it  belongs  only  to  him. 

In  conclusion  I  beg  to  express  my  obligations  to  Chan- 
cellor Ferguson  and  other  members  of  the  Society  for 
valuable  help  in  connection  with  this  paper.  I  am  also 
indebted  for  many  references  to  an  interesting  paper  in 
vol.  X.  of  the  Archaeological  Journal,  by  Mr.  Hussey,  of 
Oxford.  The  subject  has  not  hitherto  come  under  the 
notice  of  the  Society,  and  I  hope  what  I  have  written 
may  be  of  some  service. 


(364) 


Art.  XXVI I. — The  Victims  of  the  Tudor  Disestablisment  in 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  during  the  reigns  of  Edward 
VI.  and  Mary.     By  the  Rev.  James  Wilson,  M.A. 

Communicated  at  the  Isle  of  Man,  September  24,  1894. 

THE  religious  persons  ejected  from  the  monasteries  were 
in  no  envious  circumstances  when  the  youthful  son  of 
the  Royal  exterminator  ascended  his  father's  throne.  There 
was  some  show  of  commiseration*  for  them  in  the  matter 
of  pensions,  but  however  ample  these  eleemosynary  grants 
were  supposed  to  be,  the  yearly  instalments  were  not 
regularly  paid  and  the  unhappy  monks  were  forced  to  beg 
or  else  to  undertake  manual  labour.  The  country  swarmed 
with  wandering  monks  and  friars  who  were  suspected  of 
preaching  treason  among  the  people  and  persuading  them 
that  things  should  never  be  well  settled  till  they  were 
restored  U>  their  houses  again.  They  flocked  up  to  London 
to  demand  their  pensions  in  person  and  while  there  they 
became  such  a  nuisance  that  a  proclamation  t  was  issued 
ordering  all  pensionaries  to  remain  in  their  usual  places  of 
abode  and  to  send  up  certificates  to  the  Court  of  Augmen- 
tations when  justice  would  be  impartially  dealt  out  to 
them.  The  proclamation  was  followed  by  an  Act  of  Par- 
liament (i  Edward  VI.  cap.  3)  which  added  humiliation  to 
their  other  misfortunes.  The  statute  against  vagabonds, 
in   which   the   provisions  t   against   clerics  convicted  of 


*  See  the  instructions  issued  by  Henry  VIII.  to  the  Commissioners  for  West- 
morland as  given  in^  the  Appendix :  also  the  Injunctions  for  a  ^  Visitation  of 
Chauntries,  as  given  in  Burnet  {Collection  of  Records,  vol.  ii,  pt.  ii,  pp.  312-15). 
t  Collier's  Ecclesiastical  History,  vol.  v,  225  (Lathbury's  tLdition)  and  also 
Burnet's  Histori/  of  the  Rtformation,  vol.  ii,  83  (Clarendon  Press,  1816). 

X  Though  this  Act  was  repealed  two  years  later,  it  may  be  convenient  to  recall 
some  of  its  provisions  a^inst  the  clergy — 

(6)  No  clerk  convict  shall  make  ois  purgation,  but  shall  be  a  slave  for  one 
year  to  him  who  will  become  bound  with  two  sureties,  in  twenty  pound 
to  the  ordinary,  to  the  King's  use,  to  take  him  into  service :  and  he  shall 
be  used  in  sAl  respects,  as  is  aforesaid  like  to  a  vagabond. 

vagrancy 


THE  TUDOR  DISESTABLISHMENT.  365 

vagrancy  are  severe  and  cruel  in  the  extreme,  was  levelled 
against  them.  It  is  little  wonder  that  these  poor  priests 
should  come  in  for  such  hardships  as  the  sermons  of  the 
Gospellers  were  full  of  angry  denunciations  of  their  whole 
tribe  and  of  the  system  which-  they  had  formerly  upheld. 

Not  only  were  the  disestablished  monks  in  a  sorry 
plight,  but  it  would  seem  that  the  ecclesiastical  machinery 
of  the  realm  was  dislocated  and  religion  itself  in  a  state  of 
general  discredit  at  the  opening  of  this  reign.  The  bishops 
were  made  by  a  new  Act  (i  Edward  VI.  c.  2)  the  creatures 
of  the  king  and  the  ecclesiastical  courts  were  so  recon- 
structed as  to  minimize  their  moral  authority  in  the  eyes 
of  the  clergy.  The  public  contumely  which  was  the  lot  of 
the  monks  soon  extended  to  the  parochial  clergy.  In  the 
streets  of  London  the  licence  was  so  great  and  the  treat- 
ment of  the  clergy  was  so  outrageous  that  the  king  in 
council  was  forced  to  issue  a  proclamation  *  to  reform  the 
disorder,  forbidding 

serving  men  and  other  young  and  light  persons  and  apprentices 
to  use  such  insolency  and  evil  demeanour  towards  priests  or  those 
that  go  in  scholar's  gowns  like  priests,  as  revelling,  f  tossing  of  them, 
taking  violently  their  caps  and  tippets  from  them  or  otherwise  to  use 
them  than  as. becomes  the  king's  most  loving  subjects  one  to  do 
towards  another. 

Ecclesiastical  matters  were  in  this  condition  when  the 
advisers  of  the  young  king  proceeded  to  lay  hands  on  the 


(7)  A  clerk  attainted  or  convict,  which  by  the  law  cannot  make  his  pur^tion, 
may  by  the  ordinary  be  delivered  to  any  man  who  will  become  lx)und 
with  two  sufficient  sureties  to  keep  him  as  his  slave  five  years :  and  then 
he  shall  be  used  in  all  respects  as  is  aforesaid  for  a  vagabond,  saving  for 
burning  in  the  breast. 

(8)  It  shallbe  lawful  to  every  person  to  whom  any  shall  be  adjudged  a  slave 
to  put  a  ring  of  iron  about  his  neck,  arm  or  leg  (Pickering's  Statutes  at 
Large,  vol.  v,  246). 

It  was  thous^ht  a  hardship,  says  Collier,  that  the  monks,  who  had  a  creditable 
education,  were  bred  to  learning  and  many  of  them  persons  of  condition,  should 
be  tied  to  labour,  and  come  under  the  penalties  of  common  servants  and  be 
treated  no  better  than  the  lowest  of  the  people  {Ecclesiastical  History,  v,  225), 

*f  The  proclamation  is  printed  at  length  m  Collier  (v,  230). 

f  Revihng. 

lands 


366  THE    TUDOR    DISESTABLISHMENT. 

lahds  and  endowments  of  the  chantries,  free  chapels, 
collegiate  churches,  and  guilds  throughout  the  kingdom. 
The  revenues  of  many  of  these  institutions  had  been 
granted  to  Henry,  his  father  (37  Hen  :  VHI.  cap.  4), 
but  the  spoliation  was  not  complete  when  that  monarch 
died.  In  the  Act  of  Edward  (r  Edward  VI.  cap.  14)  which 
annexed  their  lands,  goods  and  chattels  to  the  Crown, 
there  is  a  repetition  of  the  ecclesiastical  policy  in  vogue 
during  the  late  reign.  It  begins  with  a  copious  flow  of 
piety  in  the  preamble,  continues  with  an  enumeration  of 
the  spoils,  and  concludes  with  their  confiscation.  The  out- 
come of  this  legislation  added  an  important  contingent  to 
the  multitude  of  the  pensioners.  It  is  a  mistake*  to 
suppose  that  the  deprived  priests  were  not  considered  in 
the  provisions  of  the  Act  for  the  dissolution  of  the  chan- 
tries. The  commissioners,  appointed  to  administer  the 
Act,  were  authorized  to  assign  a  sum  not  exceeding  the 
original  income  of  the  several  establishments  for  the  main- 
tenance of  the  ejected  persons,  and  they  were  required  to 
promise  on  oath  that  they  will  "  execute  their  commis- 
sions beneficially  towards  the  deans,  masters,  wardens, 
provosts  and  other  incumbents  and  ministers  aforesaid, 
and  towards  the  poor  people,  concerning  the  ^aid  assign- 
ments" (i  Edward  VI.  cap.  14).  Opinions  differ  whether 
or  not  the  commissioners  fulfilled  the  intention  of  the 
Act. 

Complaints  from  the  deprived  priests  for  the  non- 
payment of  iheir  pensions  were  the  order  of  the  day. 
Local  paymasters  were  appointed  in  the  several  counties, 
and  a  general  survey  was  made  with  a  view  to  test 
claims  and  reform  abuses.  Upon  this  new  policy  Strype 
observes — 


*  The  well-known  Roman  Catholic  writer.  Dr.  Dodd,  dropped  into  this  error, 
from  which  he  has  been  rescued  by  the  Rev.  M.  A.  Tierney,  F.S.A.,  his  able 
editor  {Church  History,  vol.  ii,  12-15}. 

In 


THE   TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT.  367 

In  September  (1547)  appeared  another  point  of  the  honesty  of  the 
king's  policy,  in  taking  care  of  the  payment  of  his  father's  debts  : 
unless  some  may  rather  look  upon  it  as  a  device  to  come  to  the 
knowledge  of  what  pensioners  were  alive  and  what  dead.  The  i8th 
of  the  said  month  the  king  issued  a  proclamation  to  be  published  in 
every  county  about  the  payment  of  pensions,  annuities,  and  corrodies 
granted  by  his  father  or  by  some  abbots  or  priors  :  that  whereas  be- 
fore they  were  used  to  be  paid  by  the  Receivers  of  the  Court  of 
Augmentations,  the  pensioners  were  henceforth  to  receive  them 
j'carly  at  the  hand  of  the  treasurer  of  the  said  Court,  or  of  his  depu- 
ties. And  this  order  to  take  effect  at  Michaelmas  next.  And  it  was 
appointed,  for  the  ease  of  the  pensionaries  and  others,  of  what  house 
or  houses  soever  they  were,  to  receive  their  pensions  within  the 
shire,  where  they  dwelt,  at  the  hand  of  the  said  treasurer  or  his 
deputies.  It  was  also  commanded,  that  all  having  these  pensions, 
annuities  and  corrodies,  should  appear  on  such  a  day  and  place 
before  the  said  treasurer's  deputies,  who  were  sent  down  to  take 
notice  of  their  patents  and  grants,  which  they  were  to  bring  with 
them  and  to  exhibit :  to  the  intent  the  said  treasurer  might  be  the 
better  ascertained  of  their  states  and  of  the  sums  of  money  he  was  to 
appoint  to  his  said  deputies  for  the  contentation  of  their  said  pen- 
sions. And  if  any  appeared  not  in  person,  to  send  a  certificate  in 
writing  under  the  hands  of  two  justices  of  the  peace,  or  one  justice 
and  one  gentleman,  declaring  the  same  to  be  living  and  in  la'vful 
state  to  receive  his  or  their  pensions."^' 

The  same  writer  confesses  t  that  those  who  were  appointed 
to  pay  these  poor  men  were  suspected  of  dealing  hardly 
with  them  by  making  delays,  or  requiring  bribes  and 
deductions  out  of  the  pensions,  or  fees  for  writing  receipts. 
This  abuse  was  in  some  measure  ameliorated  by  the  local 
administration  of  the  pensions  and  the  pressure  of  a  pro- 
clamation commanding  an  audit  to  test  the  fairness  of  the 
payments. 

It  may  be  imagined  that  any  reformation  in  the  method 
of  dealing  with  those  pensioners  would  take  some  time 
before  it  reached  our  north-western  counties.     And  such 


•  Strype's  Ecclesiastical  Memorials,  vol.  ii,  58,  folio,  1721. 
t  It' id,  vol.  ii,  118. 


we 


368  THE  TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT. 

we  find  to  be  the  case.  I  have  searched  in  the  Public 
Record  Office  for  the  documents  connected  with  these 
pensions  for  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  but  for  the 
reign  of  Edward  I  have  met  with  only  partial  success.  ♦ 
Whatever  documents  I  have  found  relate  to  Westmorland 
alone.  The  description  of  them  I  take  from  the  official 
catalogue  of  "  Exchequer,  Queen's  Remembrancer's  Mis- 
cellanea, Suppression  Papers,"  vol.  i,  where  I  find  the 
following  abstract — 

Commission  issued  from  the  Court  of  Augmenta- 
tions appointing  Thomas  Sandforth,  Alen  Bel- 
lyngham  and  Richard  Washyngton  to  enquire  in 
Co :  Westmorland  as  to  late  religious  persons 
holding  pensions,  corrodies,  &c.  i  September 
A.  O.  6  Edward  VI.     Fragment  of  great  Seal  of  Aug- 

6  Edward  VI.  mentations  (Mem.  Parchment). 

835  Annexed.  I.     Schedules  of  pensions,  corrodies 

59  and  salaries  of  Schoolmasters  in  Co  :  Westmor- 

land paid  by  Thomas  Newneham,  Knt,  Receiver 
there  in  the  year  5  Edward  VI.  paper  book,  4 
mems.  II.  Certificate  of  above  Commissioners 
returned  i  January  6  Edward  VI.  (Mem.  Parch- 
ment). 

These  three  documents  are  rolled  together  and  tied  with 
the  inevitable  piece  of  red  tape.  As  ecclesiatical  docu- 
ments they  are  of  the  utmost  importance  as  giving  not 
only  the  names  of  the  pensioners  and  the  amount  of  the 
gratuities  but  also  the  report  of  the  Commissioners.  From 
an  attentive  study  of  the  first  schedule  and  from  its  com- 
parison with  the  second,  or  certificate,  the  nature  and 
intention  of  the  Edwardian  policy  is  very  apparent.  These 
documents  are  given  in  full. 


•  It  is  only  fair  to  say  that  my  search  was  neither  very  carerul  nor  very  exten- 
sive. I'he  date  of  these  documents,  1552,  is  the  same  as  the  survey  of  church 
g'oods  in  the  parish  churches.  This  valuable  inventory  for  the  County  of  Cum- 
berland has  been  carefully  transcribed  by  my  friend,  the  Rev.  H.  Whitehead,  and 
printed  in  these  Transactions,  vol.  viii,  186-204. 

Commission. 


THE  TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT.  369 

Commission. 

Edwarde  the  Sixt  by  the  grace  of  god  King  of  Englande  ffraunce  and 
Irelande  defendo^  of  the  faith  and  of  the  Churjhe  of  Englande  and 
also  of  Irelande  in  erthe  the  supreme  heade  To  our  trustie  and  wel- 
beloved  Thomas  Sandforthe  Alen  Hellyngham  Esquiers  and  Richard 
Washington  gentleman  sende  greatyng  Know  ye  that  for  the  good 
opinion  we  have  reposed  in  yo'  wisdomes  and  dexterities  wee  have 
ordeyned  named  constituted  and  appoynted  you  to  be  our  Commis- 
sioners gevying  to  yow  or  two  of  yow  full  power  and  aucthoritie  to 
assemble  yo'  selfs  in  such  and  so  many  places  in  our  Countie  of 
Westmerlande  as  to  yo'  discrecions  shalbe  thought  convenient  and 
to  enquyre  as  well  by  thothes  of  honest  and  lawfull  psonsof  our  said 
Countie  as  by  all  other  wayes  and  meanys  semyng  to  yo'  discrecions 
convenient  for  the  tryall  of  the  truthe  in  these  matters  folowing,  ffirst 
ye  shall  enquire  how  many  of  the  late  Abbotts  Pryours  Abbesses 
Pryoresses  Monks  Channons  ffryers  nonnys  Incumbents  and  other 
mynisters  of  evy  Abbey  Pryory  hospitall  howse  of  ffryers  Colledge 
Chauntries  ffrechappells  guylds  or  fraternities  and  stipendary  prests 
or  evy  other  having  rent  chardge  annuytie  or  pencon  going  out  or 
charged  of  any  Abbey  Pryory  hospitall  howse  of  ffryers  Colledge 
Chauntrie  ffrechappell  guylde  or  ffratemitie  or  out  of  any  their  pos- 
sessions for  terme  of  lyfe  mencoed  in  a  Sedule  or  booke  hereunto 
annexed  be  or  shalbe  at  the  tyme  of  your  Session  deade  and  what 
tyme  and  where  every  of  them  died  Also  how  many  of  the  said  psons 
named  in  the  said  sedule  be  unpaide  of  their  annuyties  or  pencions 
and  for  how  long  tyme  and  for  what  occasion  they  be  so  long  unpaid 
Also  ye  shall  enquyre  how  many  of  them  have  solde  graunted  and 
assigned  over  their  annuyties  and  pencons  to  whom  when  and  for 
what  somes  of  mony  the  same  sales  graunts  and  essignements  over 
were  made  And  further  wee  gyve  yow  full  power  and  aucthoritie  by 
these  presentes  to  calle  before  yow  at  such  tymes  and  places  as  ye 
shall  appoynt  w^Wn  our  said  Countie  as  well  all  and  every  the  psons 
in  the  said  Sedule  mencoed  as  all  and  every  other  pson  and  psons 
whom  yow  shall  thincke  convenient  and  to  examyne  them  and  evy 
of  them  of  the  premisses  aswell  by  their  corporal  othes  and  sight  of 
their  patents  or  other\%ise  by  your  discrecions  and  herein  we  woU 
and  comaunde  yow  and  every  of  yow  to  endevo""  yo'  selfs  w*  all  dili- 
gence for  the  spedye  and  pfecte  accomplesshement  of  the  premisses 
and  that  ye  or  two  of  yow  shall  certifie  us  of  your  doings  and  pro- 
cedyngs  herein  distinctly  and  playnely  into  our  Court  of  Thaugmen- 
tacons  and  revenues  of  our  Crowne  by  wrytyng  in  pchment  subscribed 
w*  yo>"  hendes  and  seallcd  w*  your  seallys  or  w'  the  seallys  of  two  of 
yow  at  the  least  ymmedyatly  together  w<  this  Comission  straytly 

chargyng 


370 


THE  TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT. 


chargyng  and  comaiindyng  aswell  the  Sherif  of  our  said  Countie  as 
all  other  our  officers  and  mynisters  in  the  same  Countie  to  be  atten- 
daunt  aydyng  and  assistyng  to  yow  in  thexecucion  of  the  premisses 
as  they  tender  our  pleasure  and  will  answere  to  the  contrary  In  wii- 
nes  wherof  we  have  caused  these  our  Ires  to  be  made  patent  and 
sealled  w'  the  great  scale  of  our  said  Court  of  Thaugmentacons  and 
revenues  of  our  Crowne  the  first  day  of  Septembre  in  the'syxt  yere 
of  our  reigne 


Schedule  of  Pensions. 


Com.        \  Ricus  huchenson  Auditor     j  liber  penc.  Annuitat.&  Corod. 
Westm'd  r Thomas Newenhm  Mil. Recede  Anno  quinto  Rz  Edwardi 


Comitatus    )  Sequnt'  pencoes  Annuitates  &  Corod.  cum  Salar.  ludima- 

Westmlond  )  gror.   infra  com.  Westmlond  pdict.  in  compo.  Thome 

Newnehm  militis  Receptoris  dni  Regis  ibm  regni  regis 

Edwardi    Sexti   quinto    allocat.  p*ut   in   eodem   comp. 

plenius  apparet 


Shappe 
nup.  Mon. 


'Ricus  Baggote  p.  annu'  xl'*  ") 

Martinus  Makerethe  ad  c*  p.  annu*  x^ 

p.  duobus  annis 
Johnes  Dawson  ad  c"  p.  ann.  xi»  p.  duo- 
bus  annis 
Robtus  Laylond  p.  annum  viH 
Hugo  Watson  p.  annu'  vii« 
Johnes  Adyson  p.  annu'  vi'» 
Johnes  Bell  p.  annu*  cvis  viij^ 
Edwardus  Michell  p.  annu'  vil« 
Georgius  Ellerson  p.  annu*  iiijH 
Anthonius  Johnson  p.  annu*  iiij" 
Johnes  Roode  p.  annu'  iiijl* 
Ricus  Mell  p.  annu*  c» 
Radus  Watson  ad  iiiji»  p.  annu'  xx^* 

p.  quingz  annis  finit.  ad  ffest 
Michis  hoc  anno  x**  E.  vi'»  ac 
pz  acquiet  inde 
Edmundus  Carter  p.  annu'  vii^ 


'cxxxij^*  xjs  viij** 


Adam 


THE  TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT. 


371 


Terr.  &  Poss. 
ptinen.  dnis 


mil 


^Adam  Sheparde  p.  annu*  Ixvj*  viij*      \ 

Robtus  Bryse  p.  annu'  Ixiiij*  iiij* 

Johnes  Gamett  p.  ann  liiij'  vij* 

Alanus  Sheparde 
nup  Cantar.  J      ^^  ^.jj      ^^^^,  ^„       ^^^  ^^^^ 

&  al.  consi-    _,.        v>     ,  .      , 

Ricus  Becke  p.  annu  xx* 

Robtus  Hogeson  p.  annu'  iiijl>  xiij'  iiij* 

Willus  Moneforthe  p.  ann  vj" 


xx*»  xviijs  xi* 


Stai.  omi.  penconu' 

in  dco.  com.  Westmlond 

dco.  anno  quinto 


.cliij^»  x«  vij** 


Annuitates  sive  Stipend. 


Shappe  nup. 
Monasterum 


'Georgius  Blenkensoppe  p.  annu'  xxvj» 

viij* 
Robtus  Wallez  als  Welles  ad  xv*  iiij* 
p.  ann  xxx*  viij^  p.  duobus  annis  finit. 
•    in  Clo.  huius  compi 
Michael  Crakenthroppe  p.  annu'  iiij^> 
Alexander  Whittyngton  p.  annu'  xh 
Ambrosius  Midelton  p.  ann  xl" 
^Edmundus  Carter  p.  annu'  iiiji» 


•xiiijii  xvij^  iiij** 


Sm.  omi.  Annuitat. 
in  dco  com.  Westmlond 
dco  Annox*<>  Rz  Ed 


iili 


.XUIJ"   XVl"   lllj 


;»■  iitid 


Corrodia  siue  stipendia  ludimagroFum 


Terr.  &  Tcnta  in 
Stikney  Hondilbie 
Somercotes  Skidbroke 
in  com.  lincoln  nup. 
ptinen.  libere  Scheie 
gramatice  in  Kendalle 
in  dco.  com.  Westmlond 


Adam  Sheperde  magister 
^schole    gramatice    p, 
Stephani  Wilson 


annu'    x^i   modo 


Terr 


372 


THE  TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT. 


Terr.  &  tenta 
ptinen.  nup.  Cant,  de 
Appulbie  in  dco.  Com. 
Westmland 

Terr.  &  Tcnta 
nup.  expectan.  ad 

magri  schole 

gramatice  in  Burgh 
in  Com.  Westmland 


Edwardus  Gibson  magister     [ex*  vi\}^ 
schole  gramatice  p.  ann.  ) 


Johes  Becke  magister  schole 
gramatice  p.  annu* 


vijM  xi»  iiij*' 


Sm.  omi.  Stipend,  ludi 
Magror.  in  Com.  Westmland  | 


Ixxiij"  i'}* 


Report  op  Commissioners. 
Quarto  Die  Januarij  Anno  Regni  Regis  Bdwardi  Sexti  VI^ 

The  Certificate  of  us  Thomas  Sandforthe  Aleyn  Bellingham  Esquyers 
and  Rychard  Washington  Gentleman  made  the  day  and  yere  above- 
sayd  by  virtue  of  oure  Sov*aigne  lordes  Comission  to  us  directed  and 
and  hereto  annexed  to  enquere  what  penconers  named  in  a  Sedule  to 
the  said  Comissioners  lykewise  annexed  be  dead  and  of  other  articles 
and  thinges  conteyned  in  the  said  Comissione 

The  persons  named  in  the  said  Sedule  beinge  dead  at  this  present 

John  Dawson  a  Channon  of  Shappe  dyed  at  Graystocke  the  thryd 
day  of  Octobre  Anno  Regni  Regis  nunc  (?)  sexto  and 
had  for  his  pencon  hereby  c^ 


John  Garnet  late  Chauntre  prest  dyed  at  Kendall  the  xxvij 
day  of  Julye  Anno  R  R  tercio  and  had  for 
his  pencon  yearely 


liiij*  vljd 


Richard  Becke  late  Chauntre  prest  dyed  at  Kendall  the' 
xOi  day  of  £february  Anno  R  R  quarto  and 
had  for  his  penson  yearely 


xxs 


Sm :  of  the  pensonsj   -.mj 
determined        i 


xiiijs 


vij* 


Aleyn 


THE  TUDOR   DISeSTABLISHMBNT.  373 

Aleyn  Shepherd  late  Chauntre  prest  in  the  pishe  charche  of  Kendall 
haythe  shewed  to  us  his  patent  for  vi^'  by  yere  and  deposythe  that 
the  fyrst  yere  he  payd  by  the  Kinges  Ma***  Receyvo's  there  and  ev* 
sence  he  haithe  been  payd  by  the  Receyvo*  of  the  Right  honourable 
the  lord  Marques  of  Northampton  And  deposythe  further  that  he  the 
said  Aleyn  Shepherd  receyved  the  pofytte  of  the  lande  certefyed  by 
the  Comissioners  of  Chaunteres  to  the  Courte  of  Augmentacons  by 
the  space  of  xx  yeres  next  afore  the  same  Certificat  and  that  next 
affore  hym  one  Syr  henrye  godmonde  receyved  the  same  as  chauntre 
prest  there  by  the  space  of  xviij  yeres  and  afore  him  was  chauntre 
prest  there  one  Syr  Stephyn  Johnson  durynge  his  lyf  and  afore  him 
one  Cowper  all  w*'*^  receyved  the  pofytte  of  the  lands  certefyed  in 
the  Certlficat  of  Chaunterys  beinge  Chauntrye  prests  there  and  the 
said  S'  Aleyn  hathe  subscribed  a  bill  indented  oi  the  same 

Thes  persons  whose  names  followithe  dwellinge  in  other  Shiers 
hathe  made  defaut 
Bdmound  Carter 
Willm  Mouneforthe 

Alexander  Whittington  M^  that  none  of  the  late  brethryn  of  Shappe 
knowith  the  same  Whittington  nor  we  can 
get  no  knowlege  of  any  such  man 
}A^  that  all  the  other  persons  named  in  the  said  Sedule  or 
booke  annexed  to  the  said  Comissione  other  than  above- 
named  be  on  lyve  and  hathe  shewed  to  us  theyr  patents 
and  ar  satisfied  and  payd  thejrr  pencons  In  Witneswherof 
we  the  said  Comissioners  to  thes  presentes  have  subscribed 
o''  names  and  sette  o^"  Sealls  the  day  and  yere  abovesaid 

Thorns  Sandfforttd 

Alan  Bellinghm  Rye  Weyssyngton 

Some  other  time  it  may  be  convenient  to  follow  the 
history  of  the  property  of  these  religious  houses  and  to 
find  out  what  became  of  it  and  to  whom  it  was  sold.  It 
is  very  instructive  to  go  no  further  than  to  run  one's  eyes 
over  the  pages  of  the  Book  of  Sales  of  Edward  VI.  and  to 
learn  how  the  quasi-pious  intention *of  the  legislature  with 
regard  to  the  disposal  of  this  property  for  religious  pur- 
poses "^^  had  come  almost  to  nothing. 

*  As  an  example  of  this  sort  of  thing  one  instance  may  be  given  from  the 
Register  of  Thomas  Gooderick,  Bishop  of  Ely  and  Lord  Chancellor,  found  by 
Collier  among  the  Harleian  manuscripts  and  printed  in  his  History  (vol.  1x^296). 

It  is  as  fellows- 
Whatever 


374  THE  TUDOR  DISESTAPLISHMBNT. 

Whatever  may  be  said  against  the  ecclesiastical  policy 
of  Queen  Mary,  there  is  no  question  but  that  she  did  her 
utmost  to  repair  the  breaches  made  in  the  walls  of  the 
English  church  by  her  father  and  brother.  Her  endea- 
vours to  restore  the  church  lands  and  to  reconstitute  the 
monastic  houses  are  well  known.  When  she  was  unable 
to  prevail  on  the  nobles  and  gentry  to  fall  in  with  her 
plans,  the  Queen's  piety  prompted  her  to  set  them  a  good 
example.  A  statute  was  passed  (2  and  3  Philip  and  Mary, 
cap.  4)  restoring  the  church's  patrimony  as  far  as  the 
Crown  was  concerned.  The  payment  of  tenths  and  first 
fruits  by  the  clergy  was  abolished  and  all  rectories,  bene- 
fices, glebe  lands,  tithes  and  pensions  vested  in  the  Crown 
since  the  twentieth  year  of  Henry  VHI.  were  returned  to 
the  church  for  definite  ecclesiastical  purposes.  The 
administration  of  these  revenues  was  left  to  the  discre- 
tion of  Cardinal  Pole.  In  this  Act  there  were  many 
provisos,  and  amongst  them  one  of  great  importance  to 
the  ejected  priests  and  monks.  This  proviso  was  a  clause 
exonerating  the  King  and  Queen  and  their  successors  from 
the  payment  of  pensions  and  annuities,  to  which  were 
added  corrodies  and  fees,  which  for  the  future  were  to  be 
paid  out  of  the  first  fruits  and  tenths  without  any  burden 
upon  the  Crown. 

The  Archbishop  set  to  work  to  bring  church  matters 
into  line  with  this  new  policy.  The  prospects  of  the 
religious  pensioners  began  to  look  brighter  and  their 
affairs  were  not  only  leniently  but  benevolently  adminis- 


Nov.  I,  1552.  A  patent  fj^ranted  to  license  the  lord  bishop  of  Carlisle  to  sell 
to  the  lord  Clinton,  lord  admiral  of  England,  "Socam  sive  dominium 
suum  de  Horn-Castle  cum  omnibus  pertinentiis  in  Com.  Lincoln,  in 
villis,  campis,  sive  parochiis  de  Horn-Castle,  Overcompton,  Nether- 
compton,  Ashby,  Marin?,  Wilesby,  Haltham,  Conisby,  Boughton, 
Fimbleby,  Moreby,  Meckham,  et  Innerby  in  Com.  predict,"  to  have 
the  same  to  him  and  his  heirs  "  tenend.  de  domino  rege,"  &c.  There 
was  likewise  a  license  granted  to  the  dean  and  chapter  to  confirm  the 
said  conveyance.  And  for  all  these  lordships  the  purchaser  was  only  to 
pay  the  yearly  rent  of  twenty-eight  pounds  to  the  bishop. 

tered 


THE   TUDOR    DISESTABLISHMENT.  375 

tered.  A  survey  of  the  whole  kingdom  was  undertaken 
and  the  results  entered  in  two  very  bulky  parchment 
folios,  one  of  which  was  lodged  in  the  Court  of  Exchequer 
on  the  Queen's  behalf  and  the  other  with  the  Cardinal. 
The  folio  belonging  to  the  Crown  I  have  examined  in  the 
Public  Record  Office,  where  it  is  now  kept  under  the 
official  title  of  "  Q.  R.  Miscellaneous  Books,  vol.  xxxii." 
All  persons  having  claims  against  the  Crown  for  fees, 
corrodies  or  pensions  are  set  out  in  seventy-seven 
schedules,  for  the  most  part  under  counties,  with  the 
amount  due  annually  opposite  each  name.  These 
schedules  are  of  great  interest  to  the  ecclesiastical  his- 
torian as  giving  an  exhaustive  list  of  all  the  survivors  of 
the  dissolved  religious  establishments.  The  survey  is 
prefaced  with  an  indenture  which  of  itself  is  enough  to 
explain  the  whole  proceedings.  As  I  have  never  seen 
this  instrument  in  print,  nor  indeed  its  existence  acknow- 
ledged, I  need  not  hesitate  to  produce  it  without 
abridgement. 

Q.  R.  Miscell.  Books.  Vol.  32. 

THIS  INDENTURE  Made  the  xxiiij'»>  daie  of  Februarie  in  the 
Seconde  and  thirde  yeres  of  the  reignes  of  our  soueraigne  Lorde  and 
Ladle  Philipp  and  Marie  by  the  grace  of  god  Kinge  and  Quene  of 
Englande  Fraunce  Naples  Jerusalem  and  Irelande  Defendors  of  the 
Faithe  Princes  of  Spaine  and  Cycile  Archdukes  of  Austria  Dukes  of 
Millayne  Burgundye  and  Braband  Counties  of  Haspurge  Flaunders 
and  Tirole  BETWENE  our  saide  Soueraigne  Lorde  and  Ladie  the 
Kinge  and  Quenes  Maiesties  on  thone  ptie  And  the  moste  Reuerend 
father  in  god  Reignolde  Poole  Cardinal!  and  Legate  de  Latere  of  the 
popes  Holynes  and  of  the  See  Apostolique  specialie  sent  vnto  ther 
Maiesties  and  to  their  Kingdomes  and  Domiyons  on  the  other  ptery 
WHERE  at  the  Parlyament  begon  and  Holden  at  Westmynster  the 
xxj**  daie  of  Octobre  in  the  saide  seconde  and  thirde  yeres  of  the 
reigne  of  our  saide  soueraigne  Lorde  and  Ladie  And  there  kepte  and 
contynewed  vntill  the  dissolucone  of  the  same  beinge  the  ix***  daie  of 
Decembre  then  next  ensuinge  one  acte  of  perliament  was  made  in- 
tytled  an  acte  for  the  extinguyshment  of  the  tirste  fruites  and  touching 

ordre 


376  THE  TUDOR  DISBSTABLISHMBNT. 

ordre  and  disposicon  of  the  teothes  of  spirituall  aod  BccUastical 
pronicions  and  of  Rectories  and  Personagies  impropriate  remayningc 
in  the  Quenes  handes  it  is  emongest  other  thinges  Provided  and 
Enacted  THAT  WHERE  the  Kinge  and  Quenes  Maiesties  stand 
charged  for  the  payment  of  sundrie  rentes  Pencones  Annuities  Cor- 
rodies  Pees  and  othre  yerelie  payraentes  seuerallye  graunted  aswell 
by  diuers  and  sundrie  late  Abbotes  Priours  Masters  of  Colledgies 
Masters  of  Hospitalles  Chauntrey  prests  and  other  eccHasticall  and 
spuall  persones  before  the  dissolucone  of  theire  houses  to  dyuerse  and 
sundrie  Persones  seueralh'e  or  jointlye  for  terme  of  lief  Ijrves  or  yeres 
as  also  by  hir  Highnes  Father  Kinge  Henrie  theight  and  by  hir 
Highnes  Brothre  Kinge  Edwarde  the  Sixte  and  by  hir  Maiestie  or  by 
any  of  them  to  diuers  and  sundrie  Religeous  Persones  and  other 
seuerallie  or  jointlie  for  terme  of  lyefe  lyves  or  yeres  the  names  of  all 
whiche  personnes  together  w^  ther  seuerall  yerelie  rentes  pencones 
Annuyties  Corrodies  fees  and  yerelie  paymentes  and  Proffites  shulde 
be  speciallie  and  pticlerlie  set  furthe  and  conteined  in  a  certeyne  boke 
Indented  wherof  thone  Counterpaine  to  be  signed  by  our  said  Soue- 
raigne  Ladie  the  Quene  And  thother  w^  the  signe  Manuell  of  the 
saide  most  Reuerende  Father  in  god  Reignold  Poole  Cardynall  to 
thintent  our  saide  soueraigne  Lorde  and  Ladie  the  Kinge  and  Quenes 
ma**"  theire  heires  and  successores  shuld  be  from  the  Feaste  of 
sainte  Michaell  tharchangell  laste  paste  and  at  all  tymes  from  thens- 
forthe  clerlie  exonerated  acquited  discharged  or  saued  Harmelez  of 
and  from  the  payment  of  the  saide  rentes  pencones  annuyties  Corro- 
dies Fees  and  yerelie  paymentes  afToresaide  Our  saide  Soueraigne 
Lorde  and  Ladie  the  Kinge  and  Quenes  ma**"*  were  pleasid  and  con- 
tented that  it  was  Enacted  AND  THERFORE  yt  was  and  is  enacted 
by  Aucthoritie  of  the  saide  pliament  that  suche  and  so  manic  of  the 
clergie  of  this  Realme  as  the  saide  Lorde  Legates  grace  sholde  and 
shall  from  tyme  to  tyme  name  and  appoynte  and  the  successors  of 
them  and  of  euerie  of  them  (if  it  shall  so  please  the  saide  Lorde 
Legates  grace  to  name  appointe  and  assigne  them)  shuld  from  the 
saide  Feste  of  S^  Michaell  tharchangell  laste  paste  Before  the  makinge 
of  the  saide  Acte  and  so  from  thensforthe  from  tyme  to  tyme  vntill 
the  saide  Rectories  psonagies  and  Benyfices  impropriate  and  othre 
the  spuall  proffites  specified  in  the  saide  Acte  shulde  be  othrewyse 
ordred  vsed  and  ymploied  by  thassignement  of  the  saide  Lorde 
Legates  grace  as  in  the  saide  acte  is  expressed  and  declared  Haue 
take  pceyve  and  receive  aswell  all  and  singler  the  perpetuall  pencones 
annuall  rentes  or  tenthes  and  euerie  of  them  mencioned  in  the  saide 
Acte  at  suche  daies  and  tyme  and  by  all  suche  waies  and  meanes  as 
the  same  is  lymited  and  appoynted  to  be  paide  either  by  seuerall 

Ires 


THE  TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT.  377 

Ires  patente  or  by  the  statute  made  in  the  xxvi*^  yerc  of  the  saide 

Kinge  Henrie  theight  or  by  eny  other  estatute  made  for  and  Con- 

cerninge  the  true  payment  of  the  saide  tenthesoranyof  them  as  also 

all  and  singler  thissues  Reuenues  proffites  and  Comodities  of  and  in  all 

and  singler  the  saide  Rectories  psonage  and  Benyfices  ympropryate 

glebe  landes  tithes  oblacons  Pencones  Porcones  and  othre  Proffittes 

and  Emolumentes  Eccliasticall  and  spuall  aforssaide  mencyoned  in 

the  saide  acte  And  of  the  Reuersion  and  reuersions  therof  when  they 

shall  Falle  by  all  suche  waies  remedies  and  means  for  the  levyeng 

and  Recovery  of  the  Rentes  and  Proffites  of  the  saide  Premysses  as 

our  saide  Soueraigne  Lorde  and  Ladie  hir  highnes  heires  and  suc- 

cessores  shulde  or  might  have  donne  if  the  saide  premysses  had  still 

contynued  in  their  Maiesties  handes  and  possession  to  this  vse  entent 

and  purpose  followinge  THAT  IS  TO  SAIE  that  suche  and  asmanye 

of  the  clergie  of  this  realme  and  theire  successores  as  the  saide  most 

Reuerend  fathre  the  Lorde  Legate  grace  shulde  name  and  appoynte 

as  ys  afforesaide  shuld  therw^  satisfie  content  and  paye  or  cause  to 

be  satisfied  contented  and  paide  to  all  and  everie  the  saide  Religeous 

persones  and  to  others  to  be  named  w^in  the  saide  boke  indented 

w(^  at  this  tyme  haue  or  ought  to  haue  eny  Pencone  Corrodie  annui- 

tie  yerelie  rent  pffytt  or  Fee  for  terme  of  liefe  lyves  or  yeres  as  is 

afforesaide  All  and  singler  their  saide  pencones  corrodies  annuyties 

rente  or  fees  at  suche  daies  and  tymes  as  is  Lymitted  and  appoynted 

by  seuerall  Ires  patente  or  othre  writinges  or  grauntes  to  them  made 

and  in  soche  manner  and  fourme  as  our  saide  soueraigne  Lorde  and 

Ladie  the  Kinge  and  Quenes  highnesses  hir  heires  and  successours 

shulde  or  ought  to  haue  paide  the  same  if  the  saide  Acte  had  never 

bynne  had  ne  made  any  thinge  mencioned  in  the  saide  acte  to  the 

contrarie  not  w^standinge  And  that  they  sholde  exonerate  Acquite 

Discharge  or  saue  Harmelez  the  saide  Kinge  and  Quenes  Maiesties 

and  theires  and  successours  of  the  Quenes  highnes  Kinges  of  this 

Realme  of  and  for  the  payment  of  all  and  singler  the  saide  Pencones 

Annuyties  Corrodies   and  fees  and  sholde  be  further  bounde  for 

thassurance  therof  as  shold  be  devised  by  theire  ma^i^  w^  thassent 

of  the  saide   Lord   Legate  Any  thinge  before  in  the  saide  Acte 

mencioned  to  the  contrarie  notw^^^standinge  as  by  the  saide  acte 

more  playnelie  apperithe  BE  YT  WYTNESSED  by  thes  presente 

that  accordinge  to  the  purport  tenor  effecte  and  playne  meaninge  of 

the  saide  estatute  aswell  the  names  of  the  psones  afforesaide  to 

whome  any  suche  rente  pencon  annuytie  corrodie  Fee  or  othre  yerelie 

payment  as  is  before  specified  haiie  bynne  heretofore  graunted  joyntlie 

or  seuerallie  for  terme  of  lyfe  lyves  or  yeres  as  is  afforesaide  as  also 

the  saide  yerelie  Rentes  Peocoos  Annuyties  Corrodies  Fees  and 

yerelie 


378  THE  TUDOR  DISESTABLISHMENT. 

yerelie  paymentes  so  graunted  w^  the  w^  and  with  the  payment 
wherof  all  suche  of  the  clergie  as  shalbe  appoynted  for  the  coilecion 
of  the  saide  tenthes  and  othre  the  Premysses  shalbe  onerated  and 
charged  accordinge  to  the  tenor  fourme  and  effecte  of  the  saide 
statute  are  speciallie  and  pticulerlie  set  furthe  and  conteyned  in  this 
I  boke  indented  wherof  thone  pte  Remaininge  w^  the  saide  Lorde  Car- 

I  dinall  his  grace  is  signed  by  our  saide  Soueraigne  Ladie  the  Quene 

I  and  thother  pte  remayninge  w*  hir  highnes  is  signed  w*  the  signe 

'  nianuell  of  the  saide  Lorde  Cardinall  his  grace  accordinge  to  the 

fourme  of  the  saide  estatute  AND  FORASMUCH E  as  it  is  ordeyned 
I  by  the  saide  estatute  that  the  saide  yerelie  Rentes  pencones  annuy- 

'  ties  corrodies  Pees  and  yerelie  paymentes  graunted  to  the  persones 

named  in  this  booke  indented  sholde  be  paide  to  the  same  persones 
I  at  suche  daies  and  tymes  as  is  Lymitted  and  appoynted  by  seuerall 

Ires  patente  or  othre  Writinges  or  grauntes  therof  to  the  saide  per- 
sones made  and  in  manner  and  fourme  as  o'  saide  soueraigne  Lorde 
and  Ladie  the  Kinge  and  Quenes  Highness  hir  heires  and  Successours 
sholde  or  ought  to  haue  paied  the  same  yf  the  saide  acte  had  never 
byn  had  or  made  And  for  that  dyuerse  of  the  saide  grauntes  be  made 
to  dyuerse  of  the  saide  persones  vpon  condycone  or  by  this  clause 
quam  diu  se  bene  gesserit  or  w^  this  Clause  Quousque  sibi  de  com- 
petenti  Beneficio  provisum  sit  or  wt  suche  like  in  effecte  or  eny  othre 
by  reson  of  w®  clauses  or  condicones  dyuerse  of  the  saide  grauntes  be 
determied  and  ought  no  longer  to  haue  contynuance  therfore  to 
thintent  the  truthe  maie  be  serched  out  and  knowen  concerninge  the 
performinge  and  not  pformynge  of  the  saide  Condicion  and  plaine 
meaninge  of  the  saide  clauses  and  of  all  other  acte  and  actes  thinge 
and  thinges  wherbye  or  for  the  w**  the  saide  grauntes  or  any  of  them 
be  or  oughte  to  be  determyned  OUR  SAIDE  SOUEREIGNE  Lorde 
the  Kinge  and  Lady  the  Quenes .  Ma^«s  and  the  saide  Lorde  Car- 
dinall his  grace  be  pleased  To  prouyde  and  geve  aucthoritie  con- 
cerninge an  ordre  to  be  taken  of  and  for  the  payment  from  hensforthe 
of  the  saide  Rentes  annuities  Pencones  Corrodies  Fees  and  somes  of 
monye  in  manner  and  fourme  FoUowinge  THAT  IS  TO  SAYE  our 
saide  soueraigne  lorde  the  Kinge  and  Ladie  the  Quene  and  the  saide 
Lorde  Cardinall  his  grace  and  everie  of  them  by  theis  presente  do 
give  and  graunte  full  powre  and  aucthoritie  to  the  Lorde  Chauncelor 
of  Englande  or  to  the  keper  of  the  greate  seale  for  the  time  beinge 
and  to  the  Lorde  Tresorer  and  Lorde  previe  seale  and  to  the  chefe 
Justice  of  Englande  And  to  the  chefe  Justice  of  the  Comen  plees  for 
the  tyme  beinge  and  to  three  of  them  wherof  the  saide  lorde  chaun- 
celor or  lorde  Keper  of  the  grete  seale  for  the  time  beinge  to  be  one 
to  calle  before  them  iiij*^  or  iij  of  them  wherof  the  saide  Lorde  Chaun- 

celer 


THE  TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT.  379 

celer  or  lorde  Keper  of  the  grete  scale  for  the  tyrae  beinge  to  be  one 
any  of  the  pties  to  whome  any  of  the  saide  grauntes  be  graunted  or 
made  as  is  aSbresaide  and  all  persones  that  canne  depose  concern- 
inge  the  same  or  any  thinge  touchinge  the  same  And  in  the  presens 
or  absens  of  the  saide  persones  by  the  Othes  of  Witnesses  as  is  affor&- 
saide  and  by  all  other  circurostaunce  as  shall  seme  mete  or  conueny- 
ent  to  the  saide  Commyssioners  iiij  or  three  of  them  wherof  the  saide 
lorde  Chauncelor  or  Keper  of  the  greate  Seale  to  be  one  to  examyne 
and  considre  the  validitie  and  invaliditie  of  the  saide  grauntes  and 
of  everie  of  them  AND  YF  IT  SHALL  SEME  or  Appere  to  the 
saide  Comyssioners  or  to  three  of  them  wherof  the  saide  Lorde 
Chauncelor  or  Keper  of  the  greate  Seale  to  be  one  That  eny  of  the 
saide  grauntes  so  considered  and  examyned  for  any  the  causes  afifore- 
saide  or  for  any  other  good  and  Juste  cause  or  Consideracon  be  or 
ought  to  be  dyminisshed  determyned  or  from  thensforthe  no  longer 
paide  orcontynewed  THAT  THEN  thervpon  the  saide  Comyssioners 
or  three  of  them  wherof  the  saide  Lorde  Chauncelor  or  Keper  of  the 
greate  seale  to  be  one  to  geve  Judgment  or  take  ordre  therin  as  shall 
seame  to  theire  wisdomes  moste  agreinge  to  lawe  Equitie  and  Con- 
siens  and  that  aftre  suche  ordre  or  Judgmente  geven  euerie  of  the 
saide  rentes  pencones  annuylies  corodies  Fees  and  annuall  paimentes 
wherof  such  Judgement  or  ordre  shalbe  so  geuen  or  taken  accordinge 
to  lawe  equitie  and  consyence  as  is  afforesaide  shall  haue  continu- 
aunce  and  be  paide  or  not  paied  in  no  othre  manner  or  fourme  then 
accordinge  to  the  tenor  and  efTecte  of  suche  Judgement  or  ordre  so  as 
is  afforesaide  to  be  geven  or  taken  AND  IT  IS  FURTHER  Prouided 
and  agreed  by  our  saide  soueraigne  lorde  the  Kinge  and  Ladie  the 
Quene  and  the  saide  Lorde  Cardinall  his  grace  that  everie  suche 
Judgement  or  ordre  geven  or  taken  as  is  afforesaide  be  entred  vpon 
the  backe  of  the  writinge  or  Ires  patente  of  euerie  suche  graunte 
wherof  suche  Judgement  or  ordre  shalbe  so  geven  or  taken  as  is 
afforesaide  AND  ALSO  that  theise  Ires  J  and  G  be  written  in  the 
counterpayne  of  this  booke  indented  remayninge  w^  the  saide  Lorde 
Cardynall  his  grace  over  the  name  of  him  againste  whome  suche 
ordre  shalbe  had  as  is  afforesaide  And  that  done  then  the  Ires  patente 
or  other  writinges  of  everie  suche  graunte  whervpon  suche  iudge- 
ment  or  ordre  shalbe  so  geven  or  taken  to  be  deliuered  to  the  ptie  to 
whom  the  same  was  firste  graunted  or  to  his  Lawful!  deputie  or 
assigne  yf  the  saide  ptie  or  his  Lawfull  deputie  or  assigne  shall 
reqsirc  it  IN  WYTNES  of  all  the  prcmysses  To  thone  pte  of  this 
booke  Indented  remayninge  w^  the  saide  Lorde  Cardinall  his  grace 
our  saide  soueraigne  ladie  the  Quene  hath  sett  hir  highnes  signet 
And  to  thothre  ptie  remaininge  w^  our  saide  soueraigne  Ladie  the 

Quene 


380  THE   TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT. 

Qiiene  the  saide  Lorde  cardinall  his  grace  haue  putte  his  signe 
manuail  the  daie  and  yere  firste  abovewritten  And  in  further  Witnes 
and  Corroboracone  of  the  assent  and  aucthoritie  geven  in  the  pre- 
mysses  by  our  saide  soueraigne  borde  the  Kinge  and  Ladie  the  Quene 
our  saide  soueraigne  Lorde  the  Kinge  and  Ladie  the  Quene  haue 
caused  the  saide  Counterpaine  of  this  booke  indented  remayninge  w^** 
the  saide  Lorde  cardinal!  his  grace  to  be  sealed  w^  the  greate  Scale 
of  Bnglande  And  to  the  other  pte  of  the  saide  boke  Indented  remay- 
ninge w^^  our  saide  soueraigne  lorde  and  Ladie  the  Kinge  and  tbe 
Quenes  Ma^i^^  in  the  courte  of  Thexchequier  the  saide  lorde  Car- 
denalles  grace  hathe  iikewize  put  his  scale  the  daie  and  yeres  firste 
abouewriten 


Reg  :  Car*«  polus.  leg  : 
Winchester 


Edward  Gryppyn 
William  Cordell 


Specificantur  et  continent^  in  septuaginta  septem  sedulis  indentat. 
sequen.  tarn  nomina  et  cognomina  diuersar.  personar.  qm  cor.  separa- 
lia  feoda  an<^  corrodia  et  penciones  eisdm  pro  termino  vitae  vel 
annor.  concessa  nuper  in  Curijs  Scij  et  Ducatus  Lancastrie  de 
Thesauro  Regio  solut.  ac  imposter.  per  cierum  vigore  cuiusdm  Actus 
Parliamenti  exonerand.  et  soluend.  videlt  a  festo  sancti  Michis  Archi. 
annis  regnor.  Philippi  et  Maris  del  gratia  Regis  et  Reginse  Angliae 
firancise  Neapolis  Jerlm.  et  Hibnise  fidei  Defensor  PHncipum  His- 
paniar  et  Ciciliae  Archiducum  Austriae  Ducum  Mediolanise  Burgun- 
diae  Brabantiae  Comitum  Hasburgise  Flandris  et  Tirolis  secundo  et 
Tercio  prout  in  separalibz  Comitatibz  subsequentibz  perticulariter 
apparet 

Reg  :  Car1*s  polus  leg  : 

Q.  R.  Miscellaneous  Books,  vol,  32,  ffol.  71. 

Com.  Westmerland 

Anntes    Georgij  Blenkynsoppe  p.  ann.  xxvjs  viijd 

Robti  Walles  p.  ann.  xvs  iiijd 

Michis  Crakenthorpe  p.  ann.  iiijU 

Alexandri  Whittingtone  p.  ann.  xU 

Shapp                        Ambrosij  Middletone  p.  ann.  xU 

nup.  Mon.                    Edi  Carter  p.  ann.  iiijli 

Rici 


THE  TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT. 


381 


Pcnc. 


Rici  Baggfot  nup,  Abbus.  p.  ann. 

xlli 

Martini  Mackarethe  p.  ann. 

0 

Johnis  Dawsonne  p.  ann. 

Cs 

Hug^onis  Watsonne  p.  ann. 

vJH 

Robti  Bailonde  p.  ann. 

yjii 

Johnis  Adisonne  p.  ann. 

vjii 

Johnis  Bell  p.  ann. 

cvis  viijd 

Edwardi  Michacll  p.  ann. 

vjH 

Georg-ij  Ellersonne  p.  ann. 

iiijH 

Anthonij  Johnsonne  p.  ann. 

iiijU 

Johnis  Rods  p.  ann. 

iiijii 

Rici  Mell  p.  ann. 

c« 

Radi  Watsonne  p.  ann. 

iiijii 

Edinundi  Oirter  p.  ann. 

vjli 

Adami  Sheperd  nup.  incumben. 

Cant.  bte.  Marie  in  Kendall  p.  ann. 

Robti  Birse  nup.  incumben. 
Cant :  CoUeg :  Cant.  sci.  Anthonij  in 

fraternit.  et        Penc.     Kirkebye  Kendale  p.  ann. 
al.  hmoi.  Johnis  Garnett  nup  incumben. 

in  Com.  predic.  Cant.  sci.  Xpofer  in  ecclia  de 

Kirkebie  Kendale 

Alani  Sheperd  nup.  incumben. 

Cant,  ad  Altar.  Tho.  Beckett  in 

Kendall  p.  ann. 


jlxvjs 


viijd 


Ixiiijs  iiijd 


fliiij*  vijd 


»jii 


injs 


Robti  Dogesonne  nup.  incumben.         )  ....       „, 

Cant,  de  Kirkebye  londesdale  p.  ann.  j  '"^^'  ''"J'  "'i^ 

Galfri  Bainebrigge  nup.  incumben.     \ 

Cant.  Sci.  Leonard!  voc.  le  Spitle        I  jiyij 

in  Kirkebye  londesdale  p.  ann.  ] 

Willmi  Mounteforthe  nup.  incumben.  ) 

Cantrie  sive  libe  capelle  de  howe  p.  a.  J  ^'** 

Sm.omi  Soluc. 

in  pdco.  Comitat.        -du  xis  vijd 

Westmerland  p.  an.  j 


see.  bege 
nup.  Mon. 

Armethawit 
nup.  Monaster. 


ifeod. 


Penc. 


Comitat.  Cumbr. 
I)ni  Whartone  senl  general  omn. 
poss.  nup.  mon.  pred.  ex  concess. 
nup.  abbis  ibm.  p.  ann. 
Anne  Dartwentwater  nup. 
P'oris 


Galfride  Chambres  p.  ann. 
Anntes  Mbrgarete  Standley  p.  ann. 


xxvjs  viijd 
[■liijs  iiijd 


xxv]^  viijd 
xs 
Holme 


38a 


THE  TODOR   DISBSTABLISHMBNT. 


Holme  Coltrm 

nup.  Monaster. 

Anthonij  Richerdsoone  p.  ann. 

cs 

Johnis  I  dell  p.  ann. 

iiijli 

Pcnc. 

Wtllmi  Symondsonne  p.  ann. 

c» 

Robti  Cement  p.  ann. 

Is 

Johnis  Allanbye  p.  ann. 

c» 

Johnis  Wyse  p.  ann. 

Ixvjt  viijd 

Thome  Browne  p.  ann. 

iiijli  ziijs  iiijd 

Rrci  Patensonne  p.  ann. 

Ixvjt  viijd 

Nichi  Pyg^iey  p.  ann. 

iiijli 

Thome  Yrebye  p.  ann. 

xU 

Rid  Adamesonne  p.  ann. 

xl. 

Willmi  Moreton  p.  ann. 

xls 

Robti  Bankes  p.  ann. 

lxvj«  viijd 

iiijli  xiijs  iiijd 

Rici  Waite  p.  ann. 

cs 

Robti  Harysone  p.  ann. 

vjli 

Oliveri  Skelton  p.  ann. 

xxvjs  viijd 

Jacobi  Salkelde  p.  ann. 

Ixvjs  viijd 

Carlill 

Thome  Atkynsonne  p.  ann. 

xxs 

nup.  Monaster. 

Rowlandi  Marke  p.  ann. 

xxs 

Anntes  Hugfonis  Sewell  p.  ann. 

xxvjs  viijd 

Alexandri  Whittingtone  p.  ann. 

xls 

Rici  Bcnsonep.  ann. 

cs 

Willmi  Thomlynsonne  p.  ann. 

cyjs  viijd 

Penc. 

Rici  Jackesonne  p.  ann. 

cyj«  viijd 

Wetherall 

Anntes  Edwardi  Walls  p.  ann. 

xls 

nup.  Monaster. 

Penc. 

Radi  Hartley  p.  ann. 

xijli 

Calder 

Corod. 

Lawrencij  Stanley  p.  ann. 

Ixs 

nup.  Mon. 

Rowlandi  Thirkelde  mas^  nup. 

1 
jxvijli  xs 

Colleg.  de  Kyrke  oswalde  p.  ann. 

Cant^Colleg. 

Robti  Thompsonne  nup.  incumben. 

Cs 

fraternit.  et 

Penc. 

in  eodem  Collegio  p.  ann. 

al  hmoi. 

Johnis  Blcnkerne  alterius  incumben. 

in  Com.  pred. 

in  dco.  Collegio  p.  ann. 

r 

Robti  Dune  nup.  incumben.  Cant.  see.  \ .... 
Crucis  infra  ecclia.  Cath..CarlieIl        j  *"J^^ 


Cant:  CoUeg :  Hugonis  Baker  nup.  incumben.  Cant, 

fraternit.  sci.  Albani  infra  Eccliam  pd.  p.  ann. 

et  al.  hmoi  Rici  Jackesonne  nup.  incumben.        \ 

in  Com.  predco.  Cant.  see.  Katherine  in  ecclia  pd.  p.    llxvj 


Ixvjs  viijd 


viijd 


WiUi 


-xls 


THE  TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT.  383 

Willi  Mires  nup.  incumben.  Cant.  sci.  1  . 
Rochi  in  ecdia  predca.  p.  ann.  [     * 

Nichi  Goldsmithe  nup.  incumben.       ^ . 
Cant.  bte.  Marie  in  ecclia  pd.  p.  ann.  j  ^* 

Thome  Ellerton  nuper  confratris         ) 

ibmp.ann.  j  "'J'' 

Thome  Bewley  nup.  incumben.  Cant.  ] 

bte.  Marie  infra  ecclia.  poch.  de  Ednell ) 

Gawini  Brathwaite  nup.  incumben.     \ 

Cant.  bte.  Marie  Magdalene  in  |cs 

Crossethwaite  ' 

Bernard!  Hastie  nup.  incumben.        \ 

Cant.  bte.  Marie  in  ecclia.  poch.  de     .  vjH 

Hoton  p.  ann.  J 

Willi  Markendale  nup.  incumben.      \ 

Cant.  sci.  Leonard!  in  Bromefelde      .  iiijH 

p.  ann.  ) 

Georg  Lancaster  nup.  incumben.  libe 

capell.  voc.  Saint  Ieon*ds  hospitall  in 

poch.  de  Wigdon 

VVillmi  Blackett  nup.  presbiter. 

celebran.  in  ecclia  deSalkelde  magna  \ 

p.  ann. 

Johnis  Thraughton  nup.  incumben.    \ 

Cantie  in  ecclia.  poch.  de  Egremound  .  Ixvjs  viijd 

p.  a.  f 

Willmi  Lampleyl'nup.  incumben. 

Cantie  infira  Cast,  de  Cockermouth      -  vjli 

p.  ann. 

Pcivalli  Whartone  nup.  incumben.      1 

libe  capell.  infra  Cast,  de  Penrith         i  vju 

p.  ann.  J 

Willmi  Hutchinsonne  nup.  incumben. 

Cant,  infra  Cast,  de  Penrith  p.  ann. 

Willmi  Browne  nup.  incumben.  ]  .— 

Cant,  infra  poch.  de  Wigdon  p.  ann.  1 

Willmi  Lathome  alter,  incumben.       )  ^, 
ibm.  p.  ann.  ) 

Willmi  Haire  alterius  incumben. 
ibm.  p.  ann. 

Robert!  Redshawe  alterius  incumben.  ) 
in  dco.  Collegio  p.  ann.  f 


a  I  xls 


1- 


Sm.  Omi.  Soluc. 
in  pdco  Comitat. 
Cumbr  p.  annu. 


ccxixli  vjs  viijd 


The 


384  THE   TUDOR    DISESTABLISHMENT. 

The  eiforts  of  Queen  Mary  were  not  confined  altogether 
in  doing  justice  to  the  disestablished  monks  and  priests, 
but  took  a  wider  range  for  the  relief  of  the  whole  church. 
The  estates  of  the  bishops  vested  in  the  Crown  were 
restored.  The  warrant  for  the  restoration  of  the  confis- 
cated lands  of  the  See  of  Carlisle  to  Bishop  Oglethorpe 
had  received  the  Royal  sanction  and  was  despatched  to 
its  destination.  Owing  to  the  Queen's  death,  however,  it 
was  never  put  in  force.  After  some  search  in  the  Registry 
of  the  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  the  instrument  cannot  now  be 
found,  but  hopes  are  entertained  that  it  has  been  placed 
somewhere  in  the  Registry  for  greater  security  and  the 
location  forgotten.  It  was  seen  by  Dr.  Brigstocke 
Sheppard  in  1881  and  reported  upon  thus  for  the  His- 
torical Manuscripts  Commission  : — 

Restitution  of  Church  Estates.  A  deed  endorsed  :  '*  A  grant  to 
Bishop  Oglethorp  of  certain  benefices  by  King  Phillip  and  Queene 
Mary  **  is  the  instrument  by  which  the  Queen,  for  the  disburdening 
of  her  conscience,  restores  to  the  See  of  Carlisle,  as  she  did  to  the 
other  Sees  of  her  kingdom,  such  of  the  church  estates  in  the  diocese 
as  were  vested  in  the  Crown :  having  been  confiscated  in  the  20th 
year  of  Henry  VIII.  This,  of  course,  does  not  point  to  a  restoration 
of  the  Abbey  lands  which  had  passed  into  the  hands  of  subjects,  but 
to  the  Queen's  renunciation  of  her  claim  to  first  fruits  and  tenths, 
and  to  all  rectories,  benefices  impropriate,  glebe  lands,  tithes, 
oblations,  and  pensions  which  were  still  vested  in  the  Crown. 
These  estates  were  conveyed  to  Bp.  Oglethorp  in  order  that  the 
profits  of  them  might  be  applied  to  the  augmentation  of  the  livings 
to  which  they  formerly  belonged,  for  the  increasing  of  poor  cures,  for 
furnishing  preachers,  and  in  exhibitions  to  poor  scholars.  The  re- 
grant  was  made  in  the  first  place  by  statute  (2  and  3  Phil,  and  Mary, 
cap.  4,)  to  Cardinal  Pole,  who  acted  as  representative  of  the  Bishops 
of  England.  The  payment  of  a  sum  of  money,  and  the  uneasiness 
of  the  Royal  conscience  are  stated  as  the  consideration  for  the  grant. 

Nos,  igitur,  cupientes  de  hac  cura  nos  penitus  exonerare,  et 
in  consideratione  summe  vij  millium  librarum  quam  dictus 
Reverendissimus  in  Xpo.  Dns.  Cardinalis  Polus,  unacum 
consensu  reliquorum  Prelatorum,  &c.,  sua  sponte,  gratissiroe, 

non 


THE   TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT.  385 

non  rogatus,  sed  ex  mera  et  spontanea  sua  voluntate,  nobis 

obtulit ad  supportationem  grandissimorum 

onerum  per  nos  in  defensione  regni  nostri  sustentatorum  &c. 

The  present  instrument  is  dated  14th  Nov.  5  and  6  Phil,  and  Maty. 
An  attached  memorandum  certifies  the  fees  paid  to  the  Chancery  for 
this  concession : 


The  greate  Scale 

viijs    ixd 

Waying  and  enrolment 

xlvjs    viijd 

Wax,  lace,  and  execution 

iij8    ivd 

Velame  skyns  and  grete  lettres 

xs 

By  the  **  grete  lettres  *'  above  mentioned  are  meant  the  capital 
initial  letter  which  includes  portraits  of  the  king  and  queen  em- 
bowered, with  lions  and  unicorns,  in  Tudor  roses  (Ninth  Report, 
Appendix,  part  i,  pp.  177-8). 

In  three  days  after  the  issue  of  this  warrant  the  Queen 
and  Pole  were  dead  and  Elizabeth/  having  jibbed  the 
sails  and  eased  the  helm  of  the  English  church,  steered 
in  another  direction.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  Queen  Mary's 
instrument  of  restitution  may  be  soon  recovered  and  pre- 
served in  our  Registry  as  a  memento  of  her  gracious 
dealings  with  the  diocese  of  Carlisle. 


APPENDIX. 

How  many  copies  of  these  original  instruments  are  now  in  existence 
I  do  not  know.  Burnet  had  seen  one  of  them  which  he  has  printed 
tx  MSS.  Nob.  D.  G.  Pierpoint  (Collection  of  Records,  vol.  i,  pt.  2,  pp. 
242-246),  but  for  what  county  he  does  not  say.  The  following  copy 
for  Westmorland  is  of  undoubted  interest. 

835 

O.  R.  SUPPRESSION  PAPERS.  

61 

Instructions  for  Survey  of  Religious  Houses  in  Westmorland. 
28  Hen.  VIII.  (Vellum  6  pp.) 

INSTRUCCIONS 


386 


THE   TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT. 

INSTRUCCIONS  FOR  THE  KYNGES  Comysaoncrs  for  A 
newe  Survey  and  an  Inventorie  to  be  made  of  all  the  demeane 
lands  Goods  and  Catalls  apptenynsf  toany  House  of  Relygion 
of  Monkes Chanons  and  Nunes  within  their  Comyssion  accor- 
dynjf  to  the  Articles  hereafter  Folowyn^  The  nomber  of  the 
wiche  Housez  in  enie  Countie  lymyttyd  in  their  Comyssion 
ben  Annexed  to  the  same  Coroission. 


HENRY  R. 
Comitat.)  FIRST  AFTER  dyuysion  made  one  Auditor  one  Ptider  Receyvor  A 
VVestm.  I  Gierke  of  the  Register  of  the  last  Vysitacon  with  iii  other  discrete 
Psons  to  be  named  by  the  Kyng  in  eury  Countie  where  eny  suche 
Housez  ben  after  their  Repare  to  any  such  House  shall  declare  to  the 
Gounor  &  Relygious  psones  of  the  same  the  statute  of  dissolucon  their 
Comyssion  &  the  Cause  &  ppose  ot  their  Repare  for  that  tyme. 

ITM  that  after  this  Declaracon  made  the  seyd  Comys^oners  shall  swere 
the  Gounor  of  the  Housez  or  suche  other  of  the  officers  of  the  same 
Housez  or  other  as  they  shall  thynke  can  best  declare  the  State  & 
Plite  of  the  same  to  make  declaracon  &  Aunswer  to  the  Articlez 
hervnder  Written. 

ITM  of  what  Order  Rule  or  Rely^on  the  same  House  is  &  whether 
it  be'a  Cell  or  not  And  if  it  be  A  Cell  then  the  ComysMoners  to  delyuer 
to  the  gounor  of  the  House  a  pvye  Seale  And  also  enioyne  him  in  the 
Kyngs  name  vnder  A  grete  payn  to  appire  without  delaye  before  the 
Chauncellor  of  the  Augmentacon  of  the  Revenues  of  the  Kyngs 
Crowne  &  the  Counsell  of  the  same  And  in  the  meane  tyme  not  to 
medle  with  the  same  Cells  till  the  Kyngs  pleasure  be  ferther  knowen. 

ITM  what  nombr  of  psons  of  Relygion  ben  in  the  same  &  the  Conu- 
sacon  of  their  lyves  &  howmany  of  they m  ben  Priestes&howmany  of 
theym  will  go  to  other  Housez  of  that  Kelygion  or  howmany  will  take 
Capacyties  &  howmany  seniants  or  hynds  the  same  House  Kepith 
comenly  or  what  other  psonez  hath  their  lyvyng  in  the  same  House. 

ITM  to  survey  the  quantytie  or  vahie  of  the  leed  &  Bells  of  the  same 
House  as  ncre  as  they  can  with  tlie  Rvene  Decay  State  &  Plytc  of 
the  same. 

ITM  incontynently  to  call  for  the  Couent  Seale  with  all  Wrytynges 
Charters  Evydencesand  Mynuments  concnyng  eny  of  the  possessions 
to  be  delyued  to  theym  &  to  put  theym  in  suer  kepyng  &  to  make  A 
iuste  Inuentorye  bitwext  theym  &  the  gounor  or  other  hedde  officers  by 
Indenture  of  the  Ornaments  Plate  Juells  Catalls  redymoney  Stuff  of 
Household  Corne  aswell  seued  as  not  seued  Stok  &  Store  in  the  fer- 
mours  hands  &  the  value  therof  as  nere  as  they  can  Which  were 
appteynyng  to  the  same  Housez  the  First  Day  of  Merche  last  &  what 
Dettes  the  House  dothe  owe  &  to  what  pson  &  what  Dettes  ben  owyng 

to  theym  &  by  Whome. 

ITM 


THE   TUDOR   DISESTABLISHMENT.  387 

ITM  after  to  cause  the  Couent  or  comen  Seale  the  Pbte  &  Joelles  & 
redyraoney  to  be  putt  in  sauff  Kepyng  &  the  Residue  of  the  pticlers 
especified  in  the  Inuentory  to  be  left  in  the  kepyng  of  the  gounor  or 
some  other  hedde  officer  without  Wastyngror  Consumpconof  thesame 
onles  it  be  for  necessarye  expense^  of  the  house. 

ITM  that  they  comaunde  the.gounor  or  other  Receyvor  of  the  same 
House  to  receyve  no  rent  of  their  Fermors  vntill  they  knowe  ferther 
of  the  Kyngs  pleasure  excepte  suche  rentes  as  muste  nedes  be  hadde 
for  the  necessarye  Fyndyng  or  sustenance  or  for  payment  of  their 
s'unts  Wages. 

ITM  to  survey  discretely  the  demeanes  of  the  same  House  that  is  to 
sey  suche  as  ben  not  comenly  vsed  to  be  letton  oute  &  to  certifie  the 
clere  yerly  value  therof. 

ITM  to  examyn  the  true  clere  yerly  value  of  all  the  fermes  of  the 
same  House  deductyng  therof  Rents  resoluts  pencons  &  porcons 
payd  out  of  the  same  synods  &  proxis  Bailliffs  Receyvois  Stywards 
&  Audytors  Fees  &  the  names  of  theym  to  Whome  they  ben  due  & 
none  other. 

ITM  What  leasez  hath  ben  made  to  eny  Fermor  of  the  Fermes 
pteynyng  to  ye  same  House  &  what  Rents  is  reseued  &  to  Whom  & 
for  howmany  yeres  And  a  copy  of  the  Indenture  if  they  can  gett  it  or 
els  the  Counterpane^ 

ITM  to  serche  &  enquyre  what  Wodes  Parkes  Forests  Comons  or  other 
pflBtt  belongyng  to  eny  of  the  possessions  of  the  same  Houses  ye 
nombr  of  y«  Acrez  &  value  as  nere  as  they  can. 

ITM  what  Bargayns  graunts  Sales  gifts  Alyenacons  leases  of  eny 
lands  ten'ts  &  woods  &  oflfics  hath  ben  made  by  eny  of  the  seyd 
gounors  of  eny  of  the  seyd  Housez  within  one  yere  next  bifore  the 
iiijth  Day  of  February  last  past  &  of  what  thyng  &  to  what  value  & 
to  Whom  &  for  what  estate. 

ITM  if  their  be  eny  House  of  eny  of  the  Religious  aforeseyd  dis- 
solued  or  omytted  &  not  certyfied  in  the  Eschequyer  then  the  seyd 
Comyssioners  to  survey  the  same  &  to  make  ctificate  accordyngly. 

ITM  that  they  stray tly  comaunde  euy  gounor  of  euy  House 
lymytted  to  their  Comyssion  to  sowe  &  till  their  grounde  as  they 
haue  done  bifore  till  the  Kyngs  pleasure  be  ferther  knowen. 

ITM  euy  of  the  seyd  Comyssioners  havyng  in  charge  to  survey  more 
then  one  shire  within  the  lymytt  of  their  Comyssion  ymmedyatly  after 
that  they  haue  pvsed  one  Shire  pcell  of  their  Charge  in  Forme  afore- 
seyd shall  sende  to  the  ChaunccUor  of  the  Courte  of  the  Augmentacon 
of  the  Reuenues  of  the  Kyngs  Crowne  A  brief  ctificate  of  all  their 
Comptes  accordyng  the  Instruccons  aforeseyd  what  they  haue  done  in 

ye 


38B  TRB  TUDOK  DI8B8TABUSHMBMT. 

f •  p«y«es  k  \m  ^nj  CoaotM  to  avrfoy^d  thca  lo  poe4«  fertlMr  to 
Anpther  Counkie  &  ms  they  passe  the  seyd  Coaoties  to  make  lyke 
certificate  &  so  forth  till  their  lymyttes  be  serueyed  &  ther  to  remayn 
till  th^  knowe  ferthcr  of  the  Kyogs  pleasure. 

I TM  if  the  seyd  Comysstoners  haue  but  one  Countie  in  Charipe  thea  to 
certifie  the  seyd  Chauncdlor  in  forme  aibwseyd  &  ther  to  remayn  till 
they  kooere  ferther  of  the  Kyogs  pleasure, 

ITM  if  ther  be  eny  House  gyuea  by  the  Kynge  to  any  psoo  in  eny  of 
the  seyd  seuall  lymytts  of  the  seyd  Comyssion  the  names  Wherof 
shalbe  declared  to  the  seyd  G>my8sioners  then  the  seyd  Comyssioners 
imraedyatly  shall  take  the  Couent  seale  finom  the  Gounor  &  take  an 
Inuentorye  indented  of  the  leed  Bells  detts  Catalls  plate  Juells 
ornaments  stok  St  store  to  the  Kyngs  vse  &  to  make  sale  of  y®  goods 
Catalls  &  other  Implements  plate  &  Juells  only  excepted. 

ITM  the  Comysswners  in  euy  sucbe  House  to  sende  suche  of  the 
Relygious  psons  that  Will  remayn  in  ye  same  Relygion  to  some  other 
grete  House  of  that  relygion  by  their  discreoons  with  a  Ire  to  the 
gounor  for  the  Receipt  of  theym  &  ye  resydue  of  tbeym  that  will  go 
to  ye  World  to  send  theym  to  my  lord  of  Canteibury  &  the  lord 
Chauacellor  of  Engfonde  for  their  capacyties  wt  ye  be  of  ye  same 
Gwiyssioners. 

ITM  the  seyd  Comyssioners  to  geue  to  the  seyd  psons  that  will  haue 
Capacyties  some  reasonable  Rewarde  accordyng  to  the  Distaunce  of 
the  place  by  their  Diacrecyons  to  be  appoynted. 

ITM  the  seyd  Comysskmers  to  comauode  the  gounor  to  resorte  to  the 
Chauncellor  of  the  Augmentacon  for  His  yerly  Stypende  or  pencon. 
ITM  if  there  be  eny  House  dissolued  or  gyven  Tp  to  the  Kynge  by 
their  Dede  then  the  Comyssioners  shall  order  theym  selffes  therin  in 
euy  poynte  &  prpose  as  of  the  Houses  gyuen  by  the  Kynge  to  eny 
other  person  in  Forme  aforeseyd 

ITM  if  it  happen  to  the  seyd  Comyssioners  that  eny  of  the  seyd  houses 
within  their  ImyyttsbeoftheorderoftheGilbdynsthat  then  theyshall 
no  ferther  pcede  but  enioyne  the  gounor  of  the  same  Houses  that 
they  with  all  Celeritie  do  appire  bifore  ye  Chauncellor  &  Counsell  of 
ye  Courte  of  Augmentacon  at  Westmer  where  they  shall  knowe 
ferther  of  the  Kyngs  pleasure. 

(Remaining  leaves  blank,  but  cover  endorsed)— 

ROKESBY: 

A  Comission  &  instruccons 
for  ye  Survey  of  Religious 
Houses  in  the  Nosth, 


f 


11^1:11:5  AT^LD  -PARKS.— BEADS. 


Plati  11. 


TUMULUS  AT  OLp  PARKS.— INCENSE  CUP, 


(389) 


Art.  XXVIII.— 0»  a  Tumulus  at  Old  Parks,  Kirkoswald: 
with  some  Remarks  on  One  at  Aspatria,  and  also  on  Cup, 
Ring,  and  other  Rock  Markings  in  Cumberland  and  West^ 
morland.  By  the  Presidenti  Chancbllor  Fbrou80N, 
F.S.A. 

Communicated  at  Lake  Side,  Windermere,  June  13th,  1894. 

AN  the  2ist  of  September,  1892,  •  I  exhibited  to  this 
Society  at  Seascale,  by  the  kindness  of  Mr.  W. 
Potter  of  Old  Parks,  Kirkoswald,  a  small  vessel  of  coarse 
earthenware  of  the  kind  known  as  "  incense  cups,"  (see 
Plate  II.)  which  had  been  found  in  a  large  mound  of 
stones  close  to  Mr.  Potter's  farm  in  a  field  called,  signifi- 
cantly, "  Low  Field," — a  name  which  was  taken  by  the 
few  who  knew  it  to  refer  to  the  position  of  the  field  itself, 
and  not  to  any  mound  or  burial  place  in  it  t :  the  mound, 
indeed,  was  by  many  supposed  to  be  a  mere  clearance 
heap,  and  as  such  it  was  sold  to  the  County  Council  of 
Cumberland  for  road  metal.  In  course  of  removing  the 
stones,  the  incense  cup  exhibited  at  Seascale  was  found, 
and  shortly  afterwards  was  brought  to  my  notice  by  Mr. 
Potter.  In  consequence  of  this  I  visited  the  mound  in 
1892  in  company  with  the  Rev.  H.  A.  Macpherson  and 
Mr.  Potter :  about  30  cartloads  of  stones  had  then  been 
removed  from  the  extreme  circumference  of  the  mound  on 
the  north  side :  during  the  removal,  the  incense  cup 
already  mentioned  as  having  been  exhibited  at  Seascale 
was  found ;  also  some  fragments  of  a  large  urn,  and  some 
bits  of  calcined  bone.    On  the  occasion  of  this  visit,  we 


•  These  Transactions,  vol.  xii,  p.  275. 
t  Hlaw,  Mdw,  what  covers,  a  grave, 
gently  risings  a  low.— Bosworth's  Anglo-Saxon  Dictionary, 


t  Hlaw,  hiduj,  what  covers,  a  grave,  heap,  a  small  hill.    A  tract  of  ground 
■  's  AngUhSaxon  Dictionary. 

dug 


390  TUMULUS  {^T  KIRKOSWALD. 

dug  into  the  centre  of  the  mound,  where  some  large  slabs 
of  stone  were  lying  about,  and  partially  exposed  a  large 
earthfast  stone,  which  we  took  to  be  part  of  a  ruined  cist.  * 
On  it  we  observed  a  curious  artificial  mark  or  grooving. 
Near  it  we  found  two  or  three  vertebra  and  a  fragment  of 
a  skull,  none  of  which  were  human.  We  found  also  a  very 
little  charcoal,  and  some  stones  that  had  been  subject  to 
the  action  of  fire. 

At  the  time  of  our  visit  in  1892  the  work  of  leading  away 
the  stones  had  been  suspended,  and  it  was  not  resumed 
until  after  a  very  considerable  interval.  Towards  the  end 
of  la^t  year  Mr.  Potter  informed  me  that  a  second  incense 
oup  (see  Plate  III.)  had  been  found,  with  twelve  small 
beads  inside  t  of  it  (see  Plate  I.)  and  also  urged  me  to  pay 
another  visit  to  the  place :  this  I  was  very  eager  to  do, 
though  prevented  by  various  circumstances,  until  July  of 
the  present  year  [1894],  when  I  went,  accompanied  by 
Mr.  Potter,  and  by  the  Rev.  Canon  Thornley,  the  vicar  of 
Kirkoswald.  At  a  much  earlier  period,  I  had,  however, 
sent  out  a  photographer,  whose  pictures  are  reproduced 
with  this  paper.     (Plates  I.  to  VIII.) 

Between  my  first  and  second  visit  about  600  cartloads 
of  stones  had  been  removed,  and  the  site  was  virtually 
cleared,  though  a  considerable  heap  was  still  remaining 


•  Transactions,  vol,  xii,  p.  276/ where  I  erroneously  stated  we  had  found  a 
ruined  cist :  it  will  be  seen  we  were  in  error. 

t  The  question  has  been  asked  me  by  a  distinguished  antiquary  "Is  the  finding 
of  those  beads  in  the  incense  cup  strictly  authenticated?"  I  wrote  to  Mr.  Potter. 
The  following  is  his  reply : 

The  Parks*  Kirkoswald, 

October  15th,  1894. 
Dear  Mr.  Ferguson, — 

There  is  no  doubt  whatever  about  the  12  beads  being  found  inside  the 
larger  incense  cup.  I  found  the  cup  myself,  and  it  was  never  out  of  my  sight, 
and  scarcely  out  of  my  hands  until  1  took  it  home.  It  was  my  intention  to  send 
it  on  to  you  with  its  contents  undisturbed,  but  Mrs.  Potter,  with  the  curiosity  of 
the  sex,  got  to  poking  in  it  with  a  hairpin  and  discovered  some  of  the  beads, 
and  I  then  emptied  it  out  and  found  the  remainder. 

Very  truly  yours, 

Wm,  Potter. 

on 


Plate  111. 


TUMULUS  AT  OLD  PARKS.-INCENSE  CUP, 


< 
a. 


>     -«    #  J      • 


TUMULUS  AT   KIRKOSWALD.  39I 

on  the  west  side,  awaiting  removal  *  The  stones,  it  may 
here  be  remarked,  were  mainly  of  a  local  sandstone. 

The  cleared  site  was  roughly  oval  with  a  longer  diameter 
of  80  feet,  and  a  shorter  of  63  feet,  t  the  longer  diameter 
running  east  and  west.  It  may  be  well  to  mention  that 
before  the  mound  was  touched,  its  height  was  about  four 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  adjacent  ground,  and  that  it 
was  somewhat  depressed  in  the  centre.  Mr.  Potter  is  of 
opinion  that  the  mound  had  in  modern  times  been  used 
as  a  clearance  heap,  which  might  account  for  the  irregular 
outline.  A  large  tree  which  grew  a  little  within  the  cir- 
cumference of  the  mound  on  the  south  side  had  been  cut 
down  and  uprooted  during  the  clearance. 

Running  in  a  straight  line  from  north  to  south  across 
the  centre  of  the  cleared  area  are  five  slabs  of  rough  stone, 
set  in  the  natural  surface  of  the  ground,  but  not  very  deep, 
forming  a  row  14  feet  9  inches  long  measured  on  the 
ground.  (See  Plates  IV.  and  V.)  The  following  are 
their  dimensions,  taking  the  most  northerly  stone  to  be 
No.  I ; 


Length  along 

the  ground. 

Height 

Thickness. 

No.  I. 

ift.  8in. 

ift.  lin. 

4in. 

No.  2. 

2ft.  6in. 

ift.  sin. 

6in. 

No.  3. 

2ft.  7in. 

2ft. 

Sin. 

No.  4. 

3ft.  2in. 

ift.  gin. 

7in. 

No.  5. 

3ft.  lin. 

ift.  loin. 

sin. 

The  height  given  for  No.  s  >s  taken  at  its  middle,  but  its 
southern  corner  stands  2  feet  4  inches  above  the  ground, 
and  it  was  this  stone  that  on  our  visit,  in  1892,  we  took 
to  be  part  of  a  ruined  cist. 


'  *  Nothing  like  such  a  heap  as  is  shown  in  the  photographs,  much  carting 
having  been  done  between  the  photographer's  visit  and  mine. 

t  At  Seascale  I  stated  it  to  be  roughly  circular  with  diameter  of  ^^  feet :  the 
more  recent  measurements  were  made  with  a  tape. 

Of 


39^  tUWULlTS  AT  KIRKOSWAID. 

Of  these  stones  Nos.  3  and  5  have  artificial  grooves  and 
markings  on  their  east  sides  (see  Plates  VI.  and  VIIL), 
and  No.  3  on  its  west  side  (see  Plate  VII.) :  these  mark- 
ings continue  into  the  ground,  and  show  that  they  were 
upon  the  stones  before  the  stones  were  set  in  their  present 
positions.  But  the  freshness  of  the  pick  or  chisel  marks 
in  the  grooves  proves  that  these  stones  cannot  have  been 
long  exposed  to  weather. 

This  row  of  stones,  thus,  divides  the  area  of  the  mound 
or  tumulus,  roughly,  into  two  halves,  semi-circles,  or 
rather  semi-ovals 

In  the  western  half  of  the  area  no  less  than  thirty-two 
deposits  of  burnt  bones  were  discovered  :  they  were  in 
holes  scooped  out  of  the  natural  surface  of  the  ground, 
and  in  some  cases  were  accompanied  by  fragments  of 
broken  urns,  and  also  by  stones  showing  traces  of  fire. 
The  first  incense  cup  already  mentioned  (see  Plate  II.) 
was  found  near  the  north  end  of  the  line  dividing  the  two 
semi-circles  or  ovals  (the  continuation  of  the  line  of  five 
earthfast  stones).  A  second  and  much  superior  incense 
cup  (see  Plate  III.)  was  found  a  little  westward  of  the 
first,  and  in  it  were  twelve  small  beads  (see  Plate  I.) 
which  Mr.  J.  G.  Goodchild,  F.G.S,,  F,Z.S.,  pronounces  to 
be  made  of  cannel  coal.  Near  to  where  the  second  incense 
cup  was  found,  a  flat  stone  covered  one  of  the  thirty-two 
interments,  a  protection  that  was  not  accorded  to  others 
of  them.  These  interments  were  dotted  about  the  area  of 
the  semi-oval,  but  mainly  towards  the  circumference. 
Under  the  roots  of  the  tree,  stated  to  have  been  growing 
on  the  south  side  of  the  mound,  a  large  burial  am  was 
found,  full  of  burnt  bones.  It  is  much  distorted  by  pres- 
sure, but  was  got  out  perfect  or  nearly  so :  it  stands  i  foot 
i|  inches  high,  with  a  diameter  of  five  inches  at  the 
bottom,  and  of  i  foot  i  inch  by  11^  inches  at  the  mouth, 
which  has  been  distorted  into  an  oval.  The  ornamenta- 
tion on  it  is  rude  and  much  worn.    Fragments  of  similar 

urns 


»   *»     W         V      «  • 


H 
< 


O 

z 


< 
Ou 


< 

t 


.-  #   • 


•   •    •  •   '» 
•  •     •  •-•  * 


•  •••-•*•  r    •  • • 

••••••••••••••      •  •••  *    . 


o 
Z 

o 
(A 

V 


(3 

c 

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en 

2 
o 

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c/) 

D 


TUMULUS  AT  KIRKOSWALD,  393 

isrnt  were  found  among  the  bones  in  some  of  the  inter- 
ments, and  also  fragments  of  urns  of  smaller  and  thinner 
paste,  being  probably  of  the  class  known  as  drinking  cups. 

The  eastern  half  of  the  area  contained  no  interments, 
but  two  large  excavations  had  been  made  into  the  original 
soil :  both  ran  east  and  west,  and  much  resembled  modern 
graves.  The  larger  was  8  feet  3  inches  long  by  4  feet 
9  inches  wide  and  4  feet  3  inches  deep :  the  other  was 
smaller,  about  the  dimensions  of  an  ordinary  grave  of  the 
present  day,  but  had  been  filled  up  before  my  visit,  partly 
by  the  workmen,  but  mostly  by  a  violent  thunderstorm. 
Both,  when  first  discovered,  were  filled  up  with  cobble 
stones,  and  in  a  corner  of  the  larger,  under  a  flagstone, 
were  some  burnt  bones  and  ashes. 

It  would  seem  that  the  excavations  in  the  eastern  half 
of  the  mound  must  have  contained  burials  by  inhumation 
in  an  extended  position,  the  bodies  lying  east  and  west, 
and  having  long  ago  wholly  disappeared  ;  while  the  bones 
and  ashes  found  there  under  a  flagstone  must  have  been 
a  secondary  interment  of  later  date.  These  two  burials  by 
inhumation,  four  feet  deep  below  the  original  surface,  must 
have  been  the  original  interments  over  which  the  tumulus 
or  low  was  raised :  the  question  arises,  what  is  the  date  of 
the  thirty-two  interments  by  cremation  in  the  western 
half  of  the  mound,  and  what  is  the  meaning  of  the  wall 
of  separation,  and  of  the  mysterious  grooves  and  marks 
cut  on  the  east  side  of  two  of  the  stones,  and  on  the  west 
side  of  one  of  them  ?  One  can  hardly  imagine  the  inter- 
ments after  cremation  to  have  been  simultaneous  with  the 
two  by  inhumation,  unless  there  had  been  a  wholesale 
slaughter  of  slaves  and  dependents  at  the  time  of  the  in- 
humation. It  would  be  more  probable  that  they  were 
made  subsequently  and  at  different  times.  Dr.  Thurnam 
(Archaeologia,  vol.  xliii,  pp.  328-331,)  gives  instances  of 
central  primary  interments  by  inhumation  with  secondary 
interments  after  cremation  lying  on  or  towards  the  cir- 
cumference 


394  TUXfULUS  AT   KIRKOSWALD. 

cumference  of  the  barrows]  towards  the  south  side,  while 
the  north  is  vacant,  bat  in  the  instance  before  us  they  lie 
towards  the  west,  and  the  east  is  vacant.  Many  instances 
of  burial  by  inhumation,  and  of  burial  after  cremation  in 
the  same  tumulus  are  given  in  Greenwell  and  Rolleston's 
British  Barrows.  No  pottery  except  what  has  been  men- 
tioned :  no  personal  lelics,  except  the  twelve  rude  beads 
of  cannel  coal  were  found  to  our  knowledge,  but  there 
might  have  been.  The  removal  of  the  tumulus  occupied, 
intermittently,  over  two  years,  and  was  effected  at  such 
chance  times  as  the  work  of  a  large  farm  and  the  weather 
left  men  and  horses  otherwise  free.  Hence  continuous 
scientific  supervision  was  impossible :  but  archaeologists 
are  much  indebted  to  Mr.  Potter  for  the  care  he  took  to 
record,  secure,  and  preserve  everything. 

A  granite  monolith  stands  in  the  next  field  io6  yards 
due  west  from  the  circumference  of  the  tumulus :  it  stands 
4  feet  7  inches  high,  and  is  13  feet  in  circumference  at 
the  ground  level :  we  did  not  detect  any  artificial  markings 
upon  it. 

Not  very  far  distant  on  the  estate  of  Messrs.  Rowley 
in  a  field  called  Grazing  Land,  is  another  large  tumulus 
of  stones  :  standing  on  it,  one  can  trace  a  stone  circle  or 
fence  within  its  circumference*  It  would  probably 
repay  investigation,  but  such  would  be  a  very  expensive 
piece  of  work. 

The  occurrence  of  cup,  ring,  and  groove  marked  stones 
is  not  without  precedent  in  Cumberland  and  Westmorland. 
Indeed  the  first  discovery  of  them  was  made  at  Aspatria 
in  Cumberland  in  the  month  of  June,  1789,  and  is  re- 
ported by  Major  Hayman  Rooke  in  a  letter  dated  17th 
December  in  that  year,  and  read  before  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of    London,   February,   4th,   1790.  t      The 

*  Ste  Greenwell  and  Rollestpn,  British  Barrows,  pp.  7-8. 
t  Archaologia,  vol.  x,  pp.  105,  \i\,  113.    See  also  Hutchinson's  History  qf 
Cumberland,  vol.  ii.  pp.  287-288,  n. 

following 


TUMULUS  AT  KIRKOSWALD.  395 

following  is  Major  Rooke*s  account  of  the  circumstances 
of  the  find,  which,  be  it  observed,  is  not  from  personal 
observation,  but  from  information  supplied  to  him  by  Mr. 
Rigg>  the  proprietor  of  the  land  on  which  stood  the  barrow 
or  tumtdus,  during  whose  opening  the  discovery  was  made. 
The  Major  had  an  inspection  of  the  objects  found  and 
sketched  them. 

About  two  hundred  yards  north  of  the  village,  and  just  behind  his 
house  (Mr.  Rigg's)  is  a  rising  ground  called  Beacon  Hill,  on  the  sum- 
mit of  which  the  barrow  was  placed,  commanding  an  extensive  view 
every  way,  and  of  course  a  very  proper  situation  for  a  beacon,  which 
was  probably  erected  on  the  barrow.  In  levelling  this  (the  base  of 
which  I  found  to  have  been  90  feet  in  circumference)  they  removed 
six  feet  of  earth  to  the  natural  soil,  and  about  three  feet  below  they 
found  a  vault  formed  with  two  large  cobble  stones  at  each  side,  and 
one  at  each  side  (sic).  In  it  was  the  skeleton  of  a  man  which 
measured  seven  feet  from  the  head  to  the  ankle  bone;  the  feet 
were  decayed  and  rotted  off.  The  bones  at  first  appeared  perfect, 
but  when  exposed  to  the  air  became  very  brittle.  On  the  left  side 
near  the  shoulder  was  a  broad  sword  near  five  feet  in  length  :  the 
guard  was  elegantly  ornamented  with  silver  flowers.  On  the  right 
side  lay  a  dirk  or  dagger,  one  foot  six  inches  and  a  quarter  in  length, 
the  handle  appeared  to  have  been  studded  with  gold.  Near  the 
dagger  was  found  part  of  a  gold  fibula  or  buckle,  and  an  ornament 
for  the  end  of  a  belt,  a  piece  of  which  adhered  to  it  when  first  taken 
up.  .  .  .  Several  pieces  of  a  shield  were  picked  up,  but  I  did  not 
see  parts  sufficient  to  make  out  the  shape.  There  were  also  part  of 
a  battle  axe,  .  .  a  bit  shaped  like  a  modern  snafHe,  part  of  a  spur. 
These  were  very  much  corroded  with  rust.  H  and  I  *  are  the  two 
large  cobble  stones,  which  incbsed  the  west  side  of  the  kistvaen.  H 
is  two  feet  eight  inches  in  length  ;  I  is  three  feet  in  length,  and  one 
foot  eight  inches  high.  On  these  stones  are  various  emblematic 
figures  in  rude  sculpture,  though  some  of  the  circles  are  exactly 
formed,  and  the  rims  and  crosses  within  them  are  cut  in  relief,  \ 


•  These  letters  refer  to  the  plate  of  illustrations  given  in  the  Arcfueologia, 
and  reproduced  in  Hutchinson's  History  of  Cumberland.  We  have  omitted 
the  other  references  as  immaterial  to  the  subject  of  this  paper. 

t  These  last  ten  words  have  been  a  stumblinjf  block  to  Sir  James  Y.  Simpson  {On 
Ancient  Sculpturines  of  Cups  and  Concentric  Rings,  &c.,  p.  120,  n..  Appendix 
Proceedings,  S.A.S.,  ist  series  vol  vi.,)  and  to  Dr.  M.  W.  Taylor,   F.S.A., 

We 


396  TUMULUS   AT  KIRKOSWALD. 

We  reproduce,  from  Pergusson's  Rude  Stone  MonupnentSf 
one  of  the  two  side  stones,  so  that  their  similarity  to 
the  stones  at  Old  Parks  is  at  once  seen.  Major  Rooke 
takes  the  circles  upon  the  Aspatria  stones  to  be  em- 
blems of  eternity,  and  from  the  circles  and  crosses  he 
concludes  the  interment  to  be  that  of  a  person  of  rank 


SIDE   STONE,   ASPATRIA  CIST. 


after  the  year  A.D.  596,  when  Augustine  the  monk  brought 
Christianity  to  Britain.  We  need  not  linger  to  argue 
the  question  with  the  Major's  shade  ;  his  theory  will 
hardly  find  a  supporter  at  the  present  day.  *      The  relics, 


(these  Transactions,  vol.  vi,  p.  112,)  who  incline  to  consider  the  Aspatria 
stones  as  apocryphal,  or  at  any  rate  of  a  different  class  to  such  as  were  found  at 
Old  Parks.  But  Sir  James  says  the  Aspatria  find  was  "casually  described"  by 
the  Major,  and  I  think  the  Major  has  b^en  rather  more  casual  than  usual,  and 
that  these  last  words  are  an  error  either  of  observatbn  or  of  memory.  Under 
this  belief,  we  have  no  hesitation  in  puttinjif  the  Aspatria  stones  into  the  same 
class  as  the  Old  Park  ones.  Mr.  James  Fergusson  in  his  Rude  Stone  Monuments, 
p.  157,  reproduces  Rooke's  sketch  of  one  of  the  side  stones :  he  has  no  doubt 
that  it  belongs  to  the  class  under  discussion,  and  asserts  from  it  that  the 
class  may  be  of  the  Viking;  A^e.  There  is  a  rude  flower-like  figure  on  one  of 
these  stones:  a  similar  figure  is  to  be  seen  on  a  stone  in  County  Meath.^  See 
Proc:  S.A.S.,  3rd  series,  vol.  iii,  fig:  27,  and  p.  309.  By  kind  permission  of 
John  Murray,  50,  Albemarle  Street,  through  Mr.  A.  H.  Hallam  Murray,  we 
reproduce  Fer^usson's  illustration  of  one  of  the  Aspatria  cobbles.^ 

♦The  compiler  of  Hutchinson's  History  of  Cumberland,  vol.  ii,  p.  288,  n  , 
goes  one  beyond  the  Major,  and  asserts  tne  marks  on  the  Aspatria  stones 
to  be  "magical  numbers  and  figures,  the  work  of  ignorant  sorcerers  and  wicked 
wretches,"  who  inserted  these  things  in  the  graves  of  bye-gone  races  in  order 
to  secure  the  obedience  of  the  evil  spirits  that  dwelt  therein.    He  classifies  the 

Other 


Vl.wv.  l\. 


I. UNO  S\KC 


Plate  X. 


THE  MAUGHANBY  STONE. 


TUMULUS  AT  KtRKOSWALD.  397 

Other  than  the  cobble  stones,  found  at  Aspatria,  are  such 
as  one  would  expect  to  find  in  a  Northman's  grave,  and 
probably  mark  the  interment  as  a  result  of  the  settlement 
of  Cumberland  by  the  Northmen,  * 

The  next  recorded  discovery  of  these  cup  and  ring  and 
other  rock  markings  in  Cumberland  was  made  by  Sir  J. 
Gardner  Wilkinson  in  1835  on  the  well-known  monolith 
Long  Meg,  where  he  found  a  concentric  circle  with  four 
rings  around  a  cupped  centre,  t  At  a  later  date  Sir  J.  Y. 
Simpson  and  Dr.  Taylor  visited  Long  Meg  and  found  not 
one,  but  several  concentric  circles  carved  thereon.  J  The 
stone  circle  so  well  known  as  "  Long  Meg  and  her 
daughters  "  is  situate  in  the  parish  of  Addingham,  which 
is  immediately  to  the  south  of  Kirkoswald :  Long  Meg, 
as  the  crow  flies,  can  only  be  distant  from  the  Old  Parks 
tumtdus  about  a  mile  and  a  half.  § 

About  the  same  time  that  Sir  James  Simpson  discovered 
the  circles  on  Long  Meg,  the  Rev.  Canon  Simpson,  for- 
merly president  of  this  Society,  found  some  ring  cuttings 
on  two  boulders  forming  part  of  a  circle  of  eleven  stones 
around  a  cist,  situated  a  few  hundred  yards  to  the  east 
of  Long  Meg.  || 


Aspatria  stones  with  two  brass  plates  found  in  a  tumulus  at  Gilling  in  York- 
shire ;  on  one  side  of  each  these  brass  plates  is  a  nia^c  square,  and  on  the 
other  a  curse  on  some  people  named  Philip,  of  the  date,  by  the  handwriting,  of 
James  I. 

•  Ferguson's  Northmen  in  Cumberland  and  ff- estmorland.  See  also  Sir  J.  Y. 
Simpson  and  Dr.  Taylor  cited  ul  ante. 

t  British  Archaeological  Journal,  vo).  xvi,  pp.  loi-i  18,  with  illustration. 

i  On  Ancient  Sculpturings,  fife,  ut  ante,  pp.  17-18,  with  illustration.  These 
Transactions,  vol.  vi,  p.  111. 

§  For  an  account  of  Long  Meg  and  her  daughters,"  with  survey  by  Mr.  C. 
W.  Dymond,  F.S.A.,  see  these  Transactions,  vol.  v,  p.  40;  British  Archao- 
logical  Journal,  vol.  xxxiv,  pp.  z^-jfi.  Long  Meg  is  sometimes  stated  to  be  in 
the  parish  of  Great  Salkeld,  an  error  which  arises  from  its  being  near  to  Little 
Salkeld,  in  the  Parish  of  Addingham. 

II  Proc:  S.A.,  2nd  series,  vol.  iii,  pp.  211-213.  Also  On  Ancient  Sculpturing, 
tsc,  ut  ante,  pp.  18-19.  "^^  cairn  is  in  a  field  called  Whins,  in  the  township  of 
Maughanby,  in  the  parish  of  Addingham,  and  is  often  spoken  of  as  at  Maugh- 
anby.  By  the  kind  permission  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  we 
reproduce,  from  Sir  James  Simpson's  paper,  the  illustrations  of  Long  Meg  and 
of  tb«  Maughanby  Stone,  showing  the  markings. 

Ring 


398  TUMULUS  AT  KIRROSWALD. 

Ring  cuttings  have  been  observed  on  two  of  the  stones 
at  Shap,  one  of  which  is  a  stone  in  a  field  called  Asper's 
Field,  and  the  other  is  the  "  Goggleby  Stone  "  :  these  are 
recorded  by  Sir  James  Simpson  *  One,  a  cup,  was  found 
by  Dr.  Taylor  on  a  stone  at  Hugill,  near  Staveley,  t 

The  most  remarkable  cup-marked  stone  ever  discovered 
in  Cumberland  or  Westmorland  was  found  in  188 1  by  Dr. 
Taylor  at  Redlands,  in  the  township  of  Stainton,  in  Cum- 
berland, about  two  miles  from  Penrith.  It  is  a  large  slab 
of  freestone,  5  feet  4  inches  in  length  by  3  feet  6  inches  in 
width  in  the  centre,  and  it  varies  from  eight  inches  to 
thirteen  inches  in  thickness.  It  is  fully  described  in  these 
Transactions  by  Dr.  Taylor,  who  gives  an  illustration.  J 
It  formed  the  cover  of  a  cist,  which  had  contained  an  in- 
terment after  cremation.  The  markings  upon  it  display 
four  types — (i).  Cup-shaped  hollows  of  various  sizes  and 
depths :  (2).  Central  hollowed  cones  surrounded  by  two 
concentric  circles,  each  bisected  by  a  radial  groove :  (3). 
Hollowed  channels  like  gutters  running  in  various  direc- 
tions :  (4).  Little  pits  or  small  pick  marks  in  the  stone. 

One  of  the  two  monoliths  known  as  the  Giant's  Grave, 
at  Lacra,  in  south-west  Cumberland,  has  on  it  a  well- 
defined  cup  mark.  §  Some  cup  and  ring  marked  stones 
were  found  at  Maryport,  in  1887,  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Bailey.  || 

We  have  thus  brought  together  all  the  known  instances 
of  cup,  ring,  and  groove  markings  in  Cumberland  and 
Westmorland.  Two  questions  arise  upon  them  :  What 
do  they  mean  ?  What  is  their  date  ?  They  are  not 
peculiar  to  these  two  counties.  "They  are,"  says  Dr. 
Anderson,  "  not  confined  to  Scotland,  or  even  to  Britain. 
They  are  found  in  Scandinavia,  in  France,  in  Germany, 


*  On  Ancient  Sculpturing,  &c.,  ut  ante,  p.  20,  plate  xvii. 

t  These  Transactions^  voTvi,  pp.  90-11 1. 

t  These  Transactions,  vol.  vi,  pp.  110-118 :  Proc:  S.A.S.,  vol.  xvi,  p.  438. 

§  These  Transactions,  vol.  i,  pp.  27S-280. 

II  These  Transactions,  vol.  ix,  pp.  435-438,  where  an  illustration  is  given. 

and 


TUMULUS  AT  KIRKOSWALD.  399 

and  Switzerland.  They  appear  on  the  Continent  in 
associations  which  refer  them  to  the  Bronze  Age  at 
least,  but  they  also  occur  in  associations  which  show  that 
the  custom  survived  to  the  late  Iron  Age,  and  even  in  a 
modified  form  to  Christian  times."  *  Sir  James  Simpson 
and  Dr.  Taylor  would  refer  their  commencement  at  least 
to  the  late  stone  age. 

As  to  what  they  are,  Dr.  Anderson  says  "  they  are  one 
of  the  enigmas  of  archaeology."     Canon  Greenwell  says : 

In  many  cases  these  markings  occur  upon  rocks,  but  they  have  been 
very  frequently  found  upon  detached  stones  of  greater  or  less  size, 
and  in  a  large  number  of  instances,  .  .  .  they  are  connected  with 
burials  af(er  cremation ;  sometimes  covering  the  deposit  of  bones, 
sometimes  placed  beneath  it,  and  sometimes  forming  the  side  or 
cover  of  a  cist  within  which  the  bones  were  deposited.  This  con- 
nection with  burial,  always  a  sacred  rite,  seems  to  bring  them  within 
the  class  of  symbolic  representations ;  in  other  words,  suggests  the 
notion  that  they  are  or  may  have  been  figures  after  a  very  rude  and 
conventional  manner,  of  some  object  embodying  an  idea  that  involved 
the  deepest  and  most  esoteric  principle  of  the  religion  held  by  these 
people.  The  tau  symbol  of  Egypt,  the  pine-cone  of  Assyria,  the 
triangular-shaped  stone  of  India,  the  cross  of  Christianity,  outward 
expressions  of  that  which  has  been  in  almost  every  religion  its  most 
sacred  belief,  may  well  have  been,  however  different  in  form,  yet  the 
same  in  essence  with  these  mysterious  pits  and  circles,  f 


APPENDIX. 

For  the  general  bibliography  of  this  subject  the  reader  should  con- 
sult "  Notes  on  some  Stones  with  Cup-markings  in  Scotland,"  by  J. 
Romilly  Allen,  F.S.A.,  Scot.,  in  Proc :  S.A.S.,  vol.  xvi,  pp.  79-143. 
Also  a  paper  by  W.  Jolly,  F.A.S.,  Scot.,  in  the  same  volume,  **  On 
Cup-marked  Stones  in  the  Neighbourhood  of  Inverness,"  pp.  300- 
401.  See  also  "The  Sculptured  Rocks  of  Northumberland,"  by 
Geo.  Tate,  Alnwick,  1865. 


•  Scotland  in  Pagan  Times.    The  Iron  Age,  p.  299. 
t  British  Barrows,  Greenwell  and  Rolleston,  p.  343, 


(400) 


Art.  XXIX. — On  some  additional  Seals  of  the  BisJtops  of 
Carlisle.    By  Mrs.  Henry  Ware. 

Communicated  at  Lake  Side^  June  13,  1894. 

QINCE  the  publication  of  my  paper  on  the  Seals  of  the 
Bishops  of  Carlisle  (see  Transactions  of  the  Cumber- 
land and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  Society,  vol.  xii,  page 
212) ;  I  have  received  a  few  additions  to  the  collection, 
four  of  which  have  been  thought  worth  engraving. 

No.  I.  Seal  of  dignity  of  Ralph  de  Irton,  1280-1292. 
This  is  a  repetition  of  the  seal  already  engraved  on  plate 
2,  fig :  6,  but  is  in  better  condition.  The  original  is  in 
the  Bodleian  Library. 

No.  2.  Counterse^  of  Ralph  de  Irton.  A  beautiful 
specimen  of  13th  century  work.  It  is  a  pointed  oval, 
li  inches  long.     Legend  : 

VIRGO   IHV   NVTX 
RADULPHO   sis   PIA   TVTRIX 

(Virgo  Jesu  nutrix 
Radulpho  sis  pia  tutrix) 

Device  :  Under  a  simple  gothic  canopy  the  Bishop  kneels 
before  a  standing  figure  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  holding  the 
Divine  child  in  her  arms.  The  field  is  plain,  but  charged 
on  one  side  with  the  sun  and  moon. 

The  original  is  amongst  the  detached  seals  in  the 
Public  Record  Office. 

No.  3  and  No.  4  are  both  seals  of  dignity  of  John  de 
Halton,  1292-1325.  No.  3  is  a  repetition  of  the  very 
imperfect  seal  already  engraved,  plate  2,  fig:  7.  The 
front   of  the   building  which  forms  the  canopy  for  the 

Bishop 


No.  2. 


No.  I. 


No.  3. 


SEALS  OF  THE   BISHOP  OF  CARLISLE.  40T 

Bishop  is  interesting,  and  probably  represents  his  cathe- 
dral, which  was  burnt  in  1292.     Legend  : 

S.  JOHIS   DEI   GRA   KAR 
LEOLENSIS   BPISCOPI. 

The  original  of  this  seal  is  in  the  Public  Record  office 
amongst  the  detached  seals,  "  A.  to  M."  series,  so  its 
date  is  not  known,  but  it  is  probably  from  the  same 
matrix  as  the  one  already  engraved,  the  date  of  which  is 

1293- 

No.  4  has  not  been  engraved  before ;  about  a  third  of 
it  is  missing,  but  what  is  left  is  in  excellent  condition. 
It  is  a  pointed  oval,  three  inches  long.  Half  the  legend 
is  wanting,  the  remainder  reads: 

RLI   OLENSIS   EPISCOPI. 

Device  :  The  Bishop  stands  under  a  canopy  supported 
upon  pillars,  the  top  of  which  has  perished,  he  is  in  the 
attitude  of  blessing,  with  the  crozier  in  the  left  hand ; 
his  vestments  are  the  same  as  in  the  former  seal,  but  the 
rationale  is  wanting.  The  field  is  plain,  but  outside  the 
canopy  on  the  dexter  side  is  the  Bishop's  name  ioh. 
The  original  is  in  the  Library  at  Durham,  attached  to  a 
deed  dated  1315.  It  is,  therefore,  later  than  the  seal 
described  above,  and  the  Bishop  must  have  had  some 
reason  for  changing  his  seal ;  as  the  rationale  was  going 
out  of  fashion  at  this  time,  it  is  possible  that  he  had  a 
new  seal  made  to  represent  him  without  that  decoration. 
I  have  also  received  the  Seal  of  John  de  Ross,  1325- 
1332,  but  it  is  too  much  damaged  to  engrave.  The  Bishop 
is  represented  in  the  attitude  of  blessing ;  Johannis  is  the 
only  legible  word  in  the  legend. 


(402) 


Art.  XXX. — Bone  Spear  or  Harpoon  Head  from  Terra  del 
P^^go,  found  on  peat  near  Crosby-on^Eden.  By  T.  H. 
Hodgson. 
Read  at  Douglas,  September  25,  1894. 
THE  bone  spear  head,  of  which  a  drawing  is  here  given 
(Plate  I.)  was  found  about  the  year  1875  by  Charles 
Bryan,  gardener  at  Newby  Grange.  He  put  it  by,  and 
only  mentioned  it  when  he  was  reminded  of  it  by  the 
excavations  of  the  Roman  wall  in  the.  summer  of  1894. 
Another  was  found  with  it  of  similar  size  and  shape,  but 
having  serrated  edges,  this  has,  unfortunately,  been  lost. 
They  were  found  in  the  flat  ground,  immediately  below 
what  is  evidently  the  bank  of  an  ancient  estuary ;  the  soil 
is  peat,  imbedded  in  which  are  numerous  trunks  of  large 
trees,  principally  oak.  They  were  lying  on  the  surface  of 
the  peat ;  it  was  a  very  dry  summer,  and  it  is  probable 
that  they  had  been  exposed  by  the  shrinkage  of  the  peat. 
The  field  is  a  very  secluded  one,  distant  from  roads  or 
houses,  and  seldom  visited,  and  it  is  difficult  to  suppose 
that  there  is  any  possibility  of  them  having  been  brought 
there  recently.  I  have  no  knowledge  of  the  field  having 
been  ploughed,  and  there  is  no  sign  that  it  has  been, 
indeed  most  of  the  flat  ground  where  the  spear  head  was 
found  would  not  bear  the  weight  of  the  horses  until  it  was 
recently  drained — much  of  it  would  not  carry  them  now.  * 


Note  by  the  Editor. — The  missing  harpoon  head  has  since 
turned  up,  and  is  depicted  in  Plate  II.  Both  of  them  were  ex- 
hibited at  Burlington  House,  before  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  on 
December  6th,  1894,  and  were  unhesitatingly  pronounced  by  Sir  A. 
\V.  Franks,  K.C.B.,  Sir  John  Evans,  K.C.B,  and  Mr.  C.  H.  Read, 
F.S.A.,  to  be  typical  specimens  of  harpoon  heads  in  use  at  the  pre- 
sent day  by  the  natives  of  Terra  del  Fuego.  How  they  came  to  be 
lying  on  a  peat  bog  in  Cumberland,  in  or  about  1&75,  is  at  present  a 
mystery. 

*  A  field  road  leads  from  the  east  angle  of  the  field  in  which  the  harpoon  leads 
to  a  point  midway  between  Newby  Grange  and  Batthouse. — Ordnance  Map  (6 
inch)  Sheet  17,  S.W. 


Plate  I. 


BONE  HARPOON  HEAD. 


--0 


■o. 


Plate  11. 


BONE  HARPOON  HEAD. 


\ 


(403) 


Art.  XXXI. — Some  Manx  Names  in  Cumbria.    By  W.  G. 
CoLLiNGWOOD,  M.A.,  with  notes  by  Mr.  EiRiKR  Mag- 

NtJSSON. 

Read  at  Douglas,  September  24th,  1894. 
TXT'E  have  often  heard,  since  the  days  of  Worsaae,  that 
our  district  owes  its  population  mainly  to  the 
Northern  Vikings,  who  infested  the  Irish  sea  in  the  9th 
and  loth  centuries.  It  has  been  thought  by  Mr.  Robert 
Ferguson,  Mr.  J.  R.  Green,  our  President,  and  other 
writers,  that  they  came  into  the  Solway  and  Morecambe 
Bay  from  headquarters  in  the  Isle  of  Man.  That  theory 
may  find  support  from  a  comparision  of  some  Manx  place- 
names  with  similar  names  in  Cumberland  and  adjacent 
parts. 

A  few  analogies  have  been  noticed  in  print.  The  Rev. 
T.  Ellwood  mentions  the  two  Fleshwicks,  from  F/«,  in 
Icelandic  *'  a  gfrassy  place,"  and  vik,  "  a  creek."  In  his 
book  on  **  The  Surnames  and  Place-names  of  the  Isle  of 
Man,"  Mr.  A.  W.  Moore  compares  : — 

I.O.M.  Piel,  with  our  Pile-of-Fouldrey. 

Scarsdale,  with  our  Scarfgap  (SftarB,  notch,  pass). 
Cammall,  with  our  Camfell  {Kambr,  comb). 
Colby,  with  our  Colby  {Kollr,  hill-top). 
Surby,  with  our  Sowerby  (Saurr,  mud). 
Kirby,  with  our  Kirkby  (Kirkjuboer). 

And  Mr.  Moore  remarks  that,  of  the  Scandinavian  ele- 
ments which  are  common  in  our  local  names  and  dialect, 
some — namely,  Haugh,  Dale,  Fell,  Garth,  Gill,  Wick, 
Way  {vagr),  Ness,  Toft  and  Thorp— are  found  in  the 
Island;  while  some — namely,  Thwaite,  Beck,  With,  Tarn 
and  Force — are  absent;  from  which  he  infers  that  the 

Isle 


404  SOME   MAN?(  NAMBS   IN   CUMBRIA. 

Isle  of  Man  is  less  purely  Norse,  and  more  Danish,  than 
Cumbria.  But  his  book,  with  its  full  account  of  Manx 
names,  gives  us  material  for  carrying  the  comparison 
further. 

There  are  three  classes  of  words  to  consider  : — ^A, 
Celtic ;  B,  Scandinavian ;  C,  mixed — the  last  class  con- 
taining some  curious  examples  of  loan-words  from  the 
Celtic  to  the  Scandinavian. 

A. — Celtic  Names. 

The  Celtic  words,  common  in  the  Isle  of  Man  where 
the  Vikings  became  Celticised,  are  rare  with  us,  where  the 
settlers  kept  their  own  tongue  until  they  became  Angli- 
cised. Carrock  and  Cark  match  the  Manx  Carrick, 
"  rocky  " ;  Glencoin,  "  narrow  valley,"  resembles  Nascoin, 
"narrow  waterfall";  Morecambe  and  Cambeck  are  like 
Glencam,  with  a  common  element — cam,  "  crooked  " ;  our 
Crummock,  though  commonly  interpreted  Crumbeck,  may 
be  the  same  with  the  Manx  and  Galloway  Crammag, 
"  cliff."  But  most  of  our  Celtic  names  are  Welsh,  since 
Cumberland  was  the  land  of  the  Cymru.  The  earlier 
Gaelic  element  was  partly  crowded  out ;  though  traces  of 
it  returned  with  the  Viking  settlers,  as  I  think  to  show. 

Before  their  age,  however,  we  have  a  few  Gaelic  impor- 
tations. For,  just  as  the  Irish  monks  preceded  the 
Vikings  in  the  Hebrides  and  in  Ireland,  so  they  did  in 
these  parts ;  no  doubt  using  the  Isle  of  Man  as  a  stepping 
stone  across  the  sea.  The  Manx  church  of  St.  Bridget, 
Kirkbride,  matches  our  Kirkbride  and  Bridekirk:  there 
is  Kirksanton  in  both  districts ;  and  perhaps  St.  Sunday's 
Beck  and  Crag  in  Westmorland  may  be  explained  by  the 
Irish  Saint  Sanctan :  for  in  Domesday  Kirksanton  is 
written  Santacherche,  and  Santon  is  Suntun,  which 
bridges  over  the  transition  from  Sanctan  to  Sunday. 

The  Manx  keeills  have  Cumbrian  analogies  in  Gilcrux 
and  Gilcarron  ;    and  perhaps  in  two  old  names,  "  Gill- 

martyne 


SOM^  lilAN^  NAKlBS  lU  CtJMBRlA.  405 

martyne  ridding  prope  Crofton  "  (temp.  John),  and  Killer- 
wick  {temp.  Ed.  III.)  near  Mousell  in  Furness,  which  I 
venture  to  suggest  may  be  the  puzzling  Chiluestreuic  of 
Domesday :  vestr  vegr  meaning  the  west  road,  the  Roman 
road  on  which  it  stands.  All  these  churches  and  cells 
are  near  the  coast,  where  such  missionaries  might  have 
settled.  St.  Patrick  himself,  to  whom  there  are  dedica- 
tions in  the  Isle  of  Man,  is  commemorated  in  Waspatrick, 
{temp.  Ed.  I.),  his  "  wath  "  over  the  Wampool ;  and,  on 
the  same  Roman  Road,  at  Askpatryk  {temp.  Ed.  III.)  per- 
haps embalming  some  otherwise  lost  tradition  of  an  ash- 
tree  under  which  he  preached ;  as  at  Patterdale  is  the 
well  where  he  is  said  to  have  baptised.  In  the  Isle  of 
Man  also  we  find  Ash-tree  and  Well  connected  in  Chibber 
Unjin,  when  the  tree  was  formerly  dressed  with  votive 
offerings.  This  custom  survives  with  us ;  a  great  oak- 
tree  overhanging  a  fountain  at  Satterthwaite  was  dressed 
with  crockery  and  coloured  rags  on  Maundy  Thursday  a 
year  ago,  and  another  at  Hawkshead  Hill. 

But  these  church-names  belong  to  an  age  before  the 
Vikings  came.  They  brought  their  own  heathen  worship, 
of  which  we  find  traces  in  both  districts.  And  this  leads 
us  to  the  second  class  of  words,  namely — 

B. — Scandinavian  Names. 
In  1134,  Bertrannus  de  London  was  one  of  12  monks, 
who,  with  their  abbot,  Gerald,  founded  Calder.  The 
Rev.  A.  G.  Loftie,  in  his  guide  to  the  Abbey,  remarks  on 
the  strangeness  to  this  exiled  Londoner  of  his  new  life  and 
surroundings  among  rough  neighbours  and  brethren,  north- 
countrymen  all.  But  again  {temp.  Ed.  III.),  William  de 
London  neglected  to  pay  his  **  thrave  "  to  St.  Nicholas' 
Hospital  at  Carlisle;  and  the  Testamenta  Karliolensia 
show  that  the  "  de  Londons  "  were  a  family  of  some  local 
importance,  without  any  suggestion  of  a  connection  with 
the  great  city.    Now,  we  all  know  places  whose  names 

are 


406  SOMB   MANX  NAMBS   IN  CUMBRIA. 

are  derived,  like  similar  names  in  Denmark,  Sweden,  and 
Iceland,  from  the  Lundr  or  sacred  grove  of  the  Northmen  : 
— Lund,  near  Whitehaven  ;  another  near  Ulverston  ;  and 
Hoff  Lund,  near  Appleby.  But  in  the  Isle  of  Man  there 
is  a  "  Little  London,"  which  Mr.  Moore  derives  from 
Lundinn,  (ace)  "  the  grove."  This  name,  which  is  found 
also  in  Lincolnshire  and  in  Longsleddale,  is  practically 
the  same  as  Lund,  and  suggests  that  we  may  look  for  the 
"  London  "  of  Friar  Bertram  not  far  from  his  first  monas- 
tic home  at  Furness,  and  for  the  "  London  "  of  farmer 
William  in  Cumberland.  The  difference  is  merely  gram- 
matical, as  the  Manx  name  seems  to  show. 

Of  this  second  class,  all  the  Manx  names  can  be 
matched  in  our  district.  Some  are  identical :  as  Ramsey, 
H